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ANNALS 

OF THE 

SOUTH AFKICAN MUSEUM 



VOLUME XIV 












6 /to 3 



/ Z 



xs 



ZJ u f > & a 



ANNALS 



SOUTH AFRICAN MUSEUM 



VOLUME XIV 







PRINTED FOR THE 

TRUSTEES OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN MUSEUM 

BY NBILL AND CO., LTD., 212 CAUSEWATSIDE, EDINBURGH. 

1915-1924. 



TRUSTEES OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN MUSEUM. 

The Right Hon. John Xavier Merriman, P.C. 

Sir Thomas Mtjir, Kt., C.M.G., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 

The Hon. John William Jagger, M.L.A., F.R.Stat.S. 



SCIENTIFIC STAFF OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN 

MUSEUM. 



Louis Albert Peringuey, D.Sc., F.Z.S., F.E.S., Director. 

Keppel Harcourt Barnard, M.A., F.L.S., F.R.S.S.Afr., Assistant Director and 

in Charge of Fish and Marine Invertebrate Collections. 
Star Garabedian, B.A., Assistant in Charge of Herbarium. 
Reginald Frederick Lawrence, B.A., Assistant in Charge of Arthropoda 

(Insects and Crustacea excluded). 
Albert John Hesse, B.Sc, Ph.D., Assistant in Charge of Insects. 
Arthur Lewis Hall, M.A., Hon. Keeper of the Geological and Mineralogical 

Collections. 
Sidney Henry Haughton, B.A., D.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.S.S.Afr., Hon. Keeper of the 

Palaeontological Collections. 



CONTENTS. 

G. Arnold. page 

A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa .... 1 



LIST OF NEW GENERIC AND SUBGENERIC NAMES 
INTRODUCED IN THIS VOLUME. 

PAGE 

Leptopone subg. n. (Formicidae, Ponerinae, Glyphopone) Arnold . . . 163 

Pseudosysphincta g. n. (Formicidae, Ponerinae) Arnold .... 161 
Zealleyella subg. n. (Formicidae, Camponotinae, Plagiolepis) Arnold . . 579 



DATE OF ISSUE OF THE PARTS 

Part 1. 11th February 1915. 
Part 2. 20th May 1916. 
Part 3. 9th August 1917. 
Part 4. 1920. 
Part 5. October 1922. 
Part 6. April 1924. 



LIST OF PLATES. 



I 



n. < 



in. -< 



iv. 4 



Cerapachys peringueyi Emery. 

Probolomyrmex filiformis Mayr. 

Platythyraea lamellosa Roger, race rhodesiana Forel. 

Platythyraea cribrinodis Gerst. 

Streblognathus aethiopicus Smth. 

Paltothyreus tarsatus F. 

Megaponera foetens F. 

M. (Hagensia) havilandi Forel. 

Ophthalmopone berth oudi Forel. 

Ophthalmopone hottentota Emery. 

Centromyrmex constanciae Arnold. 

Pachycondyla laevissima Arnold. 

Pachycondyla granosa Roger. 

Euponera caffraria Smth. 

Euponera wroughtoni Forel. 

Euponera peringueyi Emery. 

Euponera f ossigera Mayr. 

Euponera sennaarensis Mayr. 

Euponera caffraria Smth. 

Plectroctena subterranea Arnold. 

Leptogenys maxillosa Smth. 

Anochetus levaillantei Emery. 

Anochetus punctaticeps Mayr. 

Leptogenys arnoldi Forel. 

Dorylus fulvus, race badius Gerst. 

Dorylus helvolus L. 

Dorylus affinis Shuck. 

D. (Rhogmus) fimbriatus Shuck. 

Aenictus rotundatus Mayr. 

Aenictus eugeniae Emery. 

Technomyrmex arnoldinus Forel. 

Technomyrmex albipes Smth., race foreli Emery. 

Iridomyrmex humilis Mayr. 

Tapinoma voeltzkowi Forel, race rhodesiae. 

Tapinoma arnoldi Forel. 

Semonius schultzei Forel. 

vii 



List of Plates. 



V. < 



VI. *> 



VII. i 



Simopone marleyi Arnold. 

Sima natalensis Smth., race cuitensis Forel, var. bulawayana Forel. 

Sima clypeata Emery, race bransi Forel, var. equidentata Arnold. 

Melissotarsus beccarii Emery. 

Ocymyrmex weitzaeckeri Emery, var. arnoldi Forel. 

Ocymyrmex barbiger Emery. 

Leptothorax angulatus Mayr. 

Cardiocondyla emeryi Forel. 

Monomorium afrum Andre. 

Messor barbara L., race capensis Mayr., var. pseudoaegyptiaca Emery. 

Monomorium arnoldi Forel. 

Monomorium albopilosum Emery, race thales Forel. 

Monomorium emeryi Mayr. 

Pheidole crassinoda Emery, race ruspolii Emery. 

Pheidole punctulata Mayr. 

Pheidole xocensis Forel. 

Pheidole excellens Mayr, race rhodesiana Forel. 

Pheidole spinulosa Forel, race nexa Forel. 

Pheidole liengmei Forel. 

Cremastogaster tricolor Gerst. 

Cremastogaster sordidula Nyl, var. rectinota Forel. 

Cremastogaster bulawayensis Forel, var. oraclum Forel. 

Cremastogaster kneri Mayr, var. amita Forel. 

Cremastogaster neuvillei Forel, race cooperi Forel. 

Cremastogaster tricolor Gerst., var. mediorufa Forel. 

Solenopsis punctaticeps Mayr. 

Carebara vidua Smth. 

Pheidologeton perpusillum, race arnoldi Emery. 

Cremastogaster bulawayensis Forel, var. rhodesiana Forel. 

Cremastogaster peringueyi Emery. 

Atopomyrmex mocquerysi Andre, var. curvispinosa Forel. 

Tetramyrma braunsi Forel. 

Myrmicaria eumenoides Gerst. 

Myrmicaria striata Stitz. 

Myrmicaria nigra Mayr. 

Myrmicaria nigerrima Arnold. 

Triglyphothrix arnoldi Forel. 

Triglyphothrix constanciae Arnold. 

Triglyphothrix marleyi Forel. 

Tetramorium longicorne Forel. 

Tetramorium joffrei Forel. 

Tetramorium solidum, var. signata Emery. 

Tetramorium jauresi Forel. 

Tetramorium popovici Forel. 

Tetramorium setuliferum Emery. 

Tetramorium simulator Arnold. 

Tetramorium grandinode Santschi, var. Lopensis Forel. 

Tetramorium squaminode Santschi. 

Tetramorium grassi Emery. 

Tetramorium guineense Mayr, race striata Stitz. 

T. (Xiphomyrmex) fossulatum Forel. 

T. (Xiphomyrmex) humbolti, var. victorensis Forel. 



List of Plates. 



IX 



VIII. < 



IX. <l 



Tetramorium laevithorax Emery. 

Tetramorium decern Forel. 

Rhoptromyrmex transversinodis Mayr. 

Calyptomyrmex arnoldi Forel. 

Meranoplus peringueyi Emery. 

Meranoplus nanus Andre, race nanior Emery. 

Strumigenys arnoldi Forel. 

Strumigenys escherichi, race limbata Forel. 

Cataulacus baumi, race batonga Forel. 

Acantholepis longinoda Arnold. 

Acantholepis foreli Arnold. 

Acantholepis egregia Forel. 

Plagiolepis custodiens Smth. 

Plagiolepis steingroveri Forel. 

Polyrachis schistacea Gerst., race rugulosa Mayr. * 

Polyrachis arnoldi Forel. 

Polyrachis gagates Smth. 

Polyrachis militaris Fab. 

Polyrachis schluteri, race indigens Forel. 

Polyrachis spinicola Forel. 

Polyrachis revoili Andre. 

Polyrachis viscosa Smth. 

Prenolepis longicornis Labr. 

Oecophylla smaragdina Fab. 

Canrponotus troglodytes, var. rhodesiana Forel. 

Camponotus petersi Emery. 

Camponotus sericeus Fab. 

Camponotus mayri Forel. 

Camponotus braunsi Mayr. 

Camponotus fulvo-pilosus de Geer, race storeatus Forel. 

Camponotus ostiarius Forel. 

Camponotus longipes Gerst. 

Camponotus mystaceus Emery. 

Camponotus cuneiscapis Forel. 

Camponotus scalaris Forel. 

Camponotus dofleini Forel. 

Camponotus angusticeps Emery. 

Camponotus emarginatus Emery. 

Camponotus maculatus Fab. 

Camponotus maculatus Fab., race liengmei Forel, var. hansingi Forel. 

Camponotus maculatus Fab., race liengmei Forel, var. importunoides. 

Camponotus maculatus Fab., race pictiventris Mayr. 

Camponotus maculatus Fab., race traegaordhi Santschi, var. muger Forel. 

Camponotus crepusculi Arnold. 



INDEX OF GENERA AND SUBGENERA. 



Acantholepis 
Aenictus . 
Aeromyrma 
Alaopone subg. . 
Allopheidole subg. 
Anacantholepis subg. 
Aneleus 
Anochetus 
Anomma subg. . 
Anoplolepis subg. 
Aphomoniyrmex 
Atopogjnie subg. 
Atopomyrmex . 



Bothroponera subg. 
Brachyponera subg. 



Calyptomyrniex 
Caniponotus 
Cardiocondyla 
Carebara . 
Cataulacus 
Centromyrmex 
Cerapachys 
Colobopsis subg 
Cremastogaster . 



D 



Decamorium subg. 
Decracrema subg. 
Dichthadia subg. 



PAGE 

552, 554 

. 136 

171, 256 

115, 133 

. 450 
. 578 

171, 254 
. 103 
. 114 
. 593 
. 552 
. 544 

171, 190 



55 

72 



171, 360 
. 610 

172, 200 
171, 248 
171, 386 

38 

11 

. 613 

170, 482 



274, 349 
. 547 
. 114 





PAGE 


Dicroaspis 


. 171, 362 


Dinomyrmex subg. 


. 612 


Diplomorium 


171, 240 


Discothyrea 


. 159 


Dorylus 


. 113 



Glyphopone 



Iridomyrmex 



M 



Megaponera 
Melissotarsus 
Meranoplus 
Mesoponera subg. 
Messor 
Microdaceton 
Mitara subg. 
Monomorium 



Ectomomyrmex subg. 


. 53 


Epitritus . 


. 170, 384 


Euponera . 


. 63 



. 163 



145 



nys 


. 89 


ne subg. 


. 163 


orax 


. 172, 257 


ta subg. 


. 95 



. 46 
171, 188 

171, 363 
. 64 

172, 404 

170, 383 
204, 238 

171, 203 



Xll 



Index of Genera and Subgenera. 



Myrinablys subg. 
Myrmepomis subg. 
Myrmicaria 
Myrmophyma subg. 
Myrmopsamma subg. 
Myrmosaga subg. 
Myrmosericus subg. 
Myrniosphincta subg. 
Myrmotrema subg. 
Myrmoturba subg. 



Ocymyrmex 

Odontomactus . 

Oecophylla 

O j)hthalraopone . 

Orthonotoniyrmex subg 

Oxygyne subg. . 



Pachycondyla 
Pachysima subg 
- Paltothyreus 
Pheidole . 
Phyracaces 
Plagiolepis 
Platytbyrea 
Plectroctena 
Polyrachis 
Ponera 
Prenolepis 
Probolomyrmex 
Pseudosyspbincta 





PAGE 


. 613 




. 614 




171, 261 




612, 661 




612, 672 




. 613 




. 613 




. 614 




. 613 




612, 617 



172, 194 
103, 108 

. 608 
. 49 
. 613 
. 542 



53 
173, 174 

. 43 

172, 414 

11, 17 

552, 578 

22 

84 

741 

76 

605 

33 

161 



R 



Rhogmus subg. 
Rboptromyrmex 



Semonius . 

Sima 

Simopone . 

Solenopsis. 

Streblognatbus 

Strumigenys 

Sysphincta 



Tapinoma. 
Technomyrinex 
Tetramorium 
Tetramyrma 
Tetraponera subg. 
Tracbymesopus subg. 
Triglyphotbrix . 
Typblopone 



Xipbornyrmex subg. 



Zealleyella subg. 



115, 129 
172, 351 



. 157 

170, 173 

20 

171, 242 

41 

170, 372 

. 34 



. 152 
. 147 
172, 271 
172, 358 
174, 180 
74 
274, 333 
114, 125 



274, 345 



586 






ANNALS 



SOUTH AFRICAN MUSEUM 



VOLUME XIV 



PAET I. containing : — 

1. — A Monograph of the Formicidce of South Africa (Ponerinae 
Dorylinae). By George Arnold, M.Sc, A.E.C.S., F.E.S. 
Curator of the Rhodesia Museum, Buluivayo, (Plate I.) 




<$y^ an 



APR 17 



V/V 



ISSUED FEBBUABY 11th, 1915. PBICE 7s. 6d. 



PRINTED FOR THE 

TRUSTEES OP THE SOUTH AFRICAN MUSEUM 
By West, Newman & Co., London. 



ANNALS 



OP THE 



SOUTH AFRICAN MUSEUM. 

(Vol. XIV.) /^^^^ 

7 1915 

1. — A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. — By tjEORGE 
Abnold, M.Sc, A.R.C.S., F.E.S., Curator of the Bhodesia 
Museum, Bulawayo. 

Introduction. 

Up to the present time, no work has been published which deals 
with the Formicidae of South Africa in monographic form. The 
descriptions of nearly three hundred species are scattered over a 
large number of scientific journals, of which many are rare or 
otherwise difficult to obtain. The task of identifying the ants of 
this region is therefore rendered very arduous, if not altogether 
impossible, since each isolated description has to be searched for 
amongst numerous, and often very obscure publications, many of 
which are not to be found in the few scientific libraries of South 
Africa. It is therefore not to be supposed that the following 
pages contain a complete account of all the known South African 
species, since some may have escaped my notice, but it is hoped 
that they will serve as a basis of study for future workers. 

The difficulty of obtaining such publications for reference has 
been surmounted in this instance largely through the kindness of 
friends and of officials of kindred institutions. Many descriptions 
of species which I have not been able to see, have been copied for 

1 



2 Annals of the South African Museum. 

me in London by Miss M. Munro. Dr. Louis Peringuey has given 
me most generous aid in searching for references, and in lending me 
books from the library of the South African Museum, and also in 
submitting to my inspection the whole of the collections of ants 
in that institution. I have also received much valuable help from 
Dr. Hans Brauns, of Willowmore, who has lent me selections 
from his library and has collected for me many specimens which 
I could not otherwise have obtained. I am particularly indebted 
to Dr. A. Forel, who has identified nearly all the species which have 
been taken by my friends or by myself, and without whose generous 
assistance the difficulties in attempting this work could hardly have 
been overcome. Messrs. Cooper, Marley, Zealley, and Macgregor 
have also collected for me, and to them and to Father Kendal, S.J., 
of Bulawayo, who most kindly corrected translations from the 
Italian for me, I wish to tender my sincere thanks. I also wish to 
express my gratitude to the Eoyal Society of South Africa for a 
grant of £45 in aid of this work, whereby I was enabled to travel 
to Capetown and copy many references from the works in the 
library of the South African Museum, and to proceed subsequently 
to Willowmore and Durban for the purpose of collecting the ants 
of those regions. 

The title, " South African," chosen for this work is admittedly 
rather indefinite, for in the geographical distribution of the ants, 
as in the case of nearly all the Aculeate Hymenoptera, no definite 
limits, such as Sclater's original South African Eegion, or its various 
modifications, can be adopted. Our present knowledge of the ants 
of Africa is not sufficient to enable us to draw any solid deductions 
from a survey of their distribution. The Sahara, however, forms 
a fairly strong boundary, separating off the North African (i.e. 
Mediterranean) forms from those of the Ethiopian Eegion, yet 
several species pass through it by the gap of the Nile Valley ; 
there are also not a few species which occur all along the East 
Coast from Abyssinia downwards, and several species originally 
discovered in the equatorial regions of the Congo have been taken 
by myself in Southern Ehodesia. 

It is therefore with a view to reducing the work to convenient 
proportions that I have decided to limit this monograph to the 
inclusion of those species which have been found in British South 
Africa, part of Portuguese East Africa, and German South-west 
Africa, but also including some species which, although recorded 
outside these limits, may yet be expected to be found in them in the 
future. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 3 

In the following pages I have copied the original descriptions of 
those species of which I have not been able to see specimens, such 
copies being indicated by inverted commas. For the generic 
descriptions and keys to genera, I have borrowed to a large extent 
from Prof. Emery's work on the Ponerinae in the " Genera 
Insectorum," an invaluable work which is indispensable to all 
students of the family. 

Species represented in the Ehodesia Museum's collection are 



^r 



anfer/er, or 



2± 



• /^rvvarisfs. 



«£ 




/yaScre-r/6 r; or befitnct., 07* 6ac£rtfare/S , 



Fig. 1. 

EuPONERA SENNAAEENSIS, MajT. ? . 

1, 2, 3 = pro-, meso-, and rneta-notum. 

E = epinotum. 

P = Petiole. 

I, II, III, IV, V = lst-5th segments of abdomen. 

BA = base and apex of the whole gaster (abdomen). 

T5 ~ 1 ,-of the different parts and segments. 

Thorax and head shaded ; true abdominal segments unshaded. 



indicated by the initials E.M., in that of the South African Museum 
by S.A.M., and in my own collection bjr G.A. ; such initials being 
placed after the descriptions of the species. 

It is hardly necessary to give an introductory outline of the 
external anatomy of the Formicidae, since that information is easily 
obtained in various entomological textbooks.* 

But it will be necessary, for the understanding of the following 
descriptions, to give a short explanation of certain features in the 
anatomy of these insects, and of some modifications in the termin- 
ology which I have thought desirable to adopt. 

As is well known, the posterior portion of the "thorax" of the 

* A very clear and full account may be seen in Wheeler's " Ants," Columbia 
Univ. Biol. Series, 1910. 



4 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Hymenoptera is not a true thoracic segment, but is composed of an 
abdominal segment which has shifted forwards during embryonic 
development. Hence arises what at first sight appears to be a 
needlessly confusing terminology of the different parts. Since the 
posterior portion of the thorax, variously termed the propodeum, 
epinotum, middle segment, metanotum, etc., is in reality the true 1st 
abdominal segment, the 1st joint of the petiole is therefore the true 
2nd abdominal segment. For taxonomic purposes, and more partic'u- 





Fm. 2. 

Thorax of Pachycondyla Krugeri, 
Forel. s • 

pn = pronotum. 

sc = scutum of mesonotum. 

M.f = Mayrian furrows. 

ps = parapsidal furrow. 

p = parapsis. 

set = scutellum of mesonotum. 

met = metanotum. 

ep = epinotum. 

tfj = tegula. 



Fig. 3. 

Streblognathus aethiopicus. 5 . 
Seen obliquely from the side and above. 

d = dorsum "i 

s = side J- of epinotum. 

/ = face or declivity) 

n = node of petiole. 

vl = ventral lamella of petiole. 

1 = 1st abdominal segment. 

mes = mesonotum. 

pr = pronotum. 



larly in dealing with the comparative dimensions of head, thorax, 
and abdomen, the epinotum is regarded as a part of the thorax, the 
petiole (whether of one or two joints), is treated of as a distinct 
region, and the 1st segment behind the petiole is described as the 
1st abdominal segment. The latter is termed by some authors the 
post-petiole, and the segment following it is in that case called 
either the 1st abdominal segment or simply the 2nd segment. In 
this work, the segment following the petiole, whether the latter be 
of one or two joints, will always be treated as the 1st abdominal. 
A glance at Fig. 1, p. 3, will explain more clearly the terminology 
adopted. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 5 

Another important point which the reader should particularly 
note is that if we regard the epinotum as the basal segment of the 
abdomen, the thoracic and abdominal regions are contiguous at 
their bases, i.e. the metanotum on one side and the epinotum on 
the other. Hence the bases and apices of the separate segments of 
those two regions lie in opposite directions; it should therefore be 
distinctly remembered that when the base of the epinotum is referred 
to, that portion of it is indicated which adjoins the meso-metanotal 
part of the thorax. In the worker caste the metanotum is usually 



\ 




\ 




6rrV \ 




\ \ 


c fl 


am. i( | ^ 


/ ff 


fc - -f— "T i f 




b 


4--A 


\ ° 


-J - — o 


0772. 




Fig. 4. 




Head of Euponera sennaarensis. 




vim = masticatory or terminal margin 

of mandible. 
bm = basal margin of mandible. 
em = external margin of mandible. 
c = clypeus (dotted). 
fc = frontal carina. 
fs = frontal sulcus. 
E = (compound) Eye. 
o = ocellus. 
cm = occipital margin of the head. 



Fig. 5. 

Head of Opthalmopone Berthoudi. 
Showing fa = frontal area. 



small, and so completely fused with the mesonotum as not to be 
recognizable, so that the dorsal suture which separates the metanotal 
region from that of the epinotal is commonly called the meso- 
epinotal suture, although strictly speaking it should be called the 
meta-epinotal. In the male and female the metanotum is distinctly 
defined (see Figs. 1 and 2, pp. 3, 4). The epinotum is so closely 
attached to the thorax, in the worker, that its boundaries are not 
always easily distinguishable. For purposes of description it will 
be convenient to treat of it as composed of three parts, viz. the 
sides, the dorsum, and the declivity (see Fig. 3, p. 4). The 
declivity is the sloping part of the epinotum, adjoining at its apex 
the base of the petiole. The dorsum, when flat or concave, is 



6 Annals of the South Africdn Museum. 

tolerably distinct from the sides, but is confluent with them when 
it is rounded or convex. Similarly the dorsum merges into the 
declivity when the slope of the latter is very gradual. 

For the convenience of the student who wishes to consult the 
original descriptions of the Continental authors, the following 
glossary of synonyms is appended : — 

Epistome = clypeus. 

Aretes frontales = frontal carinae. 

Fosses antennaires = antennal sockets, or antennal hollows in the 
Odontomachini. 

Metanotum, in the £ =epinotum. 

Propodeum = epinotum. 

Face basale, of epinotum or metanotum = dorsum of epinotum. 

Post-petiole = first abdominal segement. 

Sillons de Mayr = convergent Y-shaped grooves on the mesonotum 
in the male, or, Mayrian furrows. 



Family FOBMICIDAE. 

The family Formicidae is divided into five sub-families, viz. 
Ponerinae, Dorylinae, Myrmicinae, Dolichoderinae, and Campono- 
tinae. Of these the first, with which we are now concerned, is the 
most primitive, and from which, it is generally agreed, the others 
have originated. 

The Ponerinae flourish chiefly in the tropical regions of the globe, 
being poorly represented in the temperate zones ; in South Africa 
they compose about 20 per cent, of the known ant fauna, a not 
inconsiderable portion. 

The phenomenon of polymorphism which is so frequently observed 
in the Dorylinae, Myrmicinae, and Camponotinae is almost entirely 
absent in this sub-family. Megaponera foetens may possibly furnish 
an exception : in this ant the individuals are of two sizes, the smaller 
form, which differs considerably in appearance from the larger, having 
been described originally as a distinct species (crassicornis, Gerst.). 
It is, however, very probable that the larger form represents an 
ergatoid female, in which case this species is exceptional in having 
not one such female as is usually the rule when they occur, but as 
many or more females as there are true workers.* 

* See note to the description of this species, p. 48. 



A Monograph of the Formiciclae of South Africa. 7 

In many species of the larger Ponerinae no winged females have 
ever been discovered, from which it may be assumed that the 
functions of the female are usurped by one or more of the workers. 
Where winged females occur, they are seldom much larger than the 
workers. 

The larvae of the Formicidae, like those of all the Aculeate 
Hymenoptera, are legless grubs. The larva has a small head and 
thirteen segments. Three of these belong to the thorax, and the 
rest to the petiole plus the abdomen. The mouth-parts of the larva 
consist of a pair of mandibles, a pair of maxillae, and an unpaired 
labium. The spinning glands, with which the larva spins its cocoon, 
open on little papillae situated on the labium. Eyes are entirely 
absent. In some species the larvae are naked, but usually are pro- 
vided with chitinous hairs which vary very considerably in their 
structure and arrangement according to the species. The hairs may 
be simple pointed setae, or plumose, furcate, serrate, or ramose. 
They prevent the larvae from lying in direct contact with the moist 
soil of the nest, and also help to hold the young ones together in 
packets, thereby enabling the nurses to transport large numbers 
from place to place with little trouble. In addition to the hairs, 
some larvae, especially of the Ponerinae, have tubercles on some or 
all of the segments. In Ponera some of the segments are provided 
with pairs of dorsal tubercles, secreting a glutinous substance which 
serves to attach the larva to the walls of the nest. 

In the Dolichoderinae, Camponotinae, and some of the Myrmicinae, 
the larvae are fed with liquid food regurgitated by the workers. In 
the Dorylinae, Ponerinae, and some of the Myrmicinae on the other 
hand, the larvae are nearly always fed with pieces of solid food, 
which in the case of the two former families is nearly almost 
invariably animal matter {Dorylus orientalis, which feeds on the 
soft bark of plants, is a notable exception). Possibly Ponera 
sennaarensis, Mayr, is also an exception to the rule : this ant preys 
unceasingly on termites, but its nest very often contains considerable 
accumulations of grass seeds, which may perhaps be used as food. 

The economic value of the Ponerinae in tropical countries can 
hardly be overestimated, for it may be safely asserted that at least 
80 per cent, of their food consists of termites, and they thereby con- 
stitute one of the chief checks to these pests of the tropics. 

Certain species are exceptional, such as Plectroctena mandibularis, 
which feeds chiefly on millipedes and beetles, and Platytliyrea 
Arnoldi, For., whose food consists entirely of small beetles, mostly 
Tenebrionidae. 



8 Annals of the South African Museum. 

The colonies are usually small in Ponerine ants, but may be very 
numerous in some species, such as Palto thy reus tarsatus, Mega- 
ponera foetens, Euponera sennaarensis, many species of Leptogenys 
and Odontomachus haematoda. 

The habit of foraging in files has been observed in several species 
of Ponerinae in different parts of the world. In our region this habit 
is displayed by Megdponera foetens, and to a slight extent by Palto- 
thyreus tarsatus. The former marches in double file, and the 
striking disparity in size between the two forms composing the 
colony has a very singular appearance. Their prey consists entirely 
of termites, and when a suitable hunting-ground containing these 
animals has been found, the columns break up and pour into every 
hole and crack which leads to the invaded galleries. The method 
then adopted is as follows : Each ant brings to the surface one or 
more termites, and then re-enters the galleries to bring up more 
victims. This is continued until each ant has retrieved about half a 
dozen termites, which, in a maimed condition, are left struggling 
feebly at the surface. The whole army reassembles again outside, 
and each marauder picks up as many termites as it can conveniently 
carry, usually 3 or 4. The columns are then re-formed and march 
home. Less order is shown by P. tarsatus, but I have often seen 
this ant carrying termites, in short single files composed of about a 
dozen workers. 

According to my experience of the Ponerinae of Ehodesia, para- 
sites and ant's-nest guests are remarkably scarce in the nests of 
these ants. I have never met with any of the larger Paussidae 
which are known or suspected to frequent their nests.* But in the 
colonies of nearly all the Ponerinae, and in a large number belonging 
to the other sub-families, a very common Thysanuran, of a slaty 
colour, is found in abundance, and also a white Isopod. I have also 
found in the nests of Platythrea cribrinodis a Cossyphodes (Arnoldi, 
Brauns) in small numbers. 

Probably all the Ponerinae are able to make stridulatory sounds, 
which in the case of the smaller species may be of so acute a pitch 
as to be imperceptible to our ears. The stridulation is produced by 
transverse striae on the under and upper surfaces respectively of the 
1st and 2nd abdominal segments. In larger species, such as 
Paltothyreus tarsatus and Megaponera foetens, the sound is plainly 
audible at a distance of several feet. 

Other bionomic notes, when available, will be appended to the 

* Cerapterus natalensis has been found in the galleries of Platythyrea cribrinodis 
in Natal. — The Editor. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 9 

descriptions of the species, but it must be admitted that we know 
very little of the life histories of the Ponerinae, and a considerable 
amount of work remains to be done before we can claim to have a 
comprehensive knowledge of their natural history. 

In the following descriptions, the length is given for each species, 
from the apex of the closed mandibles to the apex of the abdomen. 
It is also convenient to treat of the short downy hairs as distinct from 
the longer, thicker, and more rigid ones. The former kind is termed 
the pubescence, the latter the pilosity. Occasionally the one merges 
into the other, in which case the whole hairy covering is treated as 
the pilosity. 

Unless otherwise stated, the density and size of the punctures and 
other sculptural characters are understood to be visible with a lens 
magnifying from 20 to 25 diameters, or less. 

The dimensions of the head (length compared to width), and the 
shape, are given exclusive of the mandibles. 

Key to the Sub-Families of the Formicidae. Workers. 

(8). 1. Petiole one-jointed. 

(3). 2. A more or less distinct constriction between the 1st and 2nd abdominal 

segments ; 5 always with well-developed sting ; pupa always enclosed in 

a cocoon Ponerinae. 

(2). 3. No constriction between 1st and 2nd abdominal segments. 

(7). 4. Anal aperture transverse. 

(6). 5. Eyes entirely absent; clypeus very small; sting present, sometimes 

vestigial ; pupae naked or enclosed in a cocoon Dorylinae. 

(5). 6. Eyes always present ; clypeus not very small ; sting very small and 

atrophied Dolichoderinae . 

{4). 7. Anal aperture circular. Sting absent ; pupae usually enclosed in cocoons. 

Camponotinae . 
(1). 8. Petiole two-jointed ; sting present ; pupae always naked . . Myrmicinae. 

In some $ Dorylinae the petiole is almost two-jointed, but the 
absence of eyes, and the small clypeus will distinguish them from 
the Myrmicinae. 



Sub-Family PONERINAE. 

(Dalla Torre. Cat. Hymen., vol. 7, p. 13). 

Characters. 

Except in some males of the Ponerini, and in the Odontomachini, 
the 1st abdominal segment is marked off by a more or less distinct 
constriction from the 2nd segment. 



10 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Females and workers with well-developed sting. 

Females and males. The anterior wings generally have 2 closed 
cubital cells. 

Nymphs always enclosed in a cocoon. 

Emery divides the Ponerinae into three sections, based on 
characters derived from the larvae and males, but of which there are 
no corresponding characters in the female and worker. As far as 
our present knowledge enables us to judge, these divisions appear to 
be sufficiently natural, and are as follows : — 

I. Prodorylinae. Larva uniformly hirsute, without piligerous 
tubercles ; $ . Mandibles well developed ; genital armature 
retractile, sub-genital valve widely excised ; cerci absent. 

II. Proponrrinae. Larva as in I. ; $ . Mandibles well de- 
veloped ; genital armature usually non-retractile ; sub-genital valve 
entire ; cerci absent. 

III. Euponerinae. Larva with piligerous tubercles ; $ . Man- 
dibles more or less reduced ; genital armature non-retractile ;. 
sub-genital valve always entire ; cerci present. 

The first section includes the following South African genera, 
Cerapachys, Phyracaces, and Simopone. 

The second section includes Platythyrea, Sysphincta, and Probolo- 
myrmex. 

To the third section belong all the other South African Ponerinae. 

The following dichotomic tables of the tribes, based on the 
characters of the 5 and $ , is derived from Emery's work (" Gen. 
Insectorum "). Unfortunately the males of many species are still 
unknowm, and moreover, in quite a large number of species winged 
females have never been found, so that a key for these sexes (in many 
genera) cannot be provided. There is a tendency among the 
Ponerinae for the suppression of the winged ? , which is replaced 
by ergatoid females differing but little from the workers except in 
size and pilosity. 

Key to the Tribes of the Ponerinae, based on the Characters of the 

% and 2 . 

(2). 1. Claws pectinate Leptogenyini,~Fove\» 

(1). 2. Claws simple or toothed. 

(4). 3. Mandibles articulated to the middle of the anterior margin of the 

head Odontomachini, Mayr. 

(3). 4. Mandibles articulated to the anterior angles of the head. 

(6). 5. At least one ocellus in the $ ; body elongate, pygidium armed at the 

sides with several stumpy spines Cylindromyrmicini,'Ei'n.ej:j. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 11 

(5). 6. Usually no ocellus in the $ ; pygidium without spines at the sides. 
(10). 7. Insertion of the antennae not covered by the frontal carinae. 
(9). 8. Abdomen strongly reflexed ventrally, or, if not, the frontal carinae are 

fused together and to the clypeus Proceratiini, Emery. 

(8). 9. Abdomen not reflexed ventrally ; frontal carinae distinct from each 
other. Antennal sockets delimited laterally by carina. 

Cerapachyini, Forel. 
(7). 10. Insertion of the antennae at least partly covered by the frontal carinae.* 
(12). 11. Frontal carinae with a lateral lobe ; antennae inserted close together. 

Ponerini, Forel. 

(11). 12. Frontal carinae with a lateral lobe, but antennae inserted widely apart ; 

clypeus flat, and whole body covered with a very fine pruinose pubescence. 

Platythyreini, Emery. 



Section PBODOBYLLNAE, Emery. 

Tribe CEBAPACHYINI, Forel. 

Characters. 

Frontal carinae nearly vertical in all the sexes, and not covering 
the insertion of the antennae. £ without ocelli ; petiole narrowly 
articulated to the 1st abdominal segment. 

Wings with only one closed cubital cell. 

Including two South African genera, distinguished as follows :— 

1. Last antennal joint much larger than the preceding, forming a single-jointed 
club; petiole not margined .. .. .. .. .. .. Cerapachys,~E. Smith. 

2. Last antennal joint only slightly larger than the preceding, not forming a club ; 
petiole with lateral margins sharply defined Plnjracaces, Emery. 

Genus CERAPACHYS. 

Smith, Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool., ii., p. 74, 1857. 

Characters. 

£ . Head emarginate posteriorly and the posterior angles promi- 
nent. Clypeus very short and fused with frontal carinae, which are 
short and close together ; the latter do not cover the insertion of the 
antennae. The antennal socket (or more accurately, the space on 
the front of the head surrounding the socket) is limited laterally by a 
carina. Antennae with 9 to 12 joints, the terminal joint large and 
forming a club, and at least as long as the three preceding joints 
together. 

* Except in Opthalmopone, in which the insertion is almost bare. 



12 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Thorax without, or with indistinct sutures. Lateral margins of 
the petiole not sharply denned. The 1st abdominal segment sharply 
constricted off from the 2nd. The latter as long as the succeeding 
segments taken together. 

2 . Winged and resembling the worker, or apterous and ergatoid. 

$ . Antennae of 13 joints; anterior wings with only one complete 
(closed) cubital cell. 

Key to the $ % of Cerapachys. 

(4). 1. Eyes absent, small reddish yellow species. 

(3). 2. First abdominal segment wider than long, nearly as wide behind as the 2nd 
segment Wroughtoni, Forel, v. rhodesiana. 

(2). 3. 1st abdominal segment as long as wide, distinctly narrower than the 2nd 
segment Wroughtoni, Forel. 

(1). 4. Eyes present, black or brownish species. 

(6). 5. Puncturation of head, thorax, petiole, and 1st abdominal segment dense 
and very large ; posterior dorsal margin of the petiole bisinuate. 

Cooperi, Arnold. 

(5). 6. Puncturation small and not very dense ; posterior dorsal margin of petiole 
straight. 

(8). 7. Body black and very shining, sparsely punctured, pubescence and pilosity 
scanty cribrinodis, Emery, v. natalensis, Forel. 

(7). 8. Body castaneous brown, not very shining, more closely punctured, pubes- 
cence and pilosity rather abundant Peringiteyi, Emery. 

C. cribrinodis, Emery. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 13, p. 163, $ , 1899. 

" £. 3 - 7 to 4 mm. Blackish brown, shining; the front of the 
head, mandibles, antennae, tarsi, and apex of abdomen rusty red, 
last joint of antennae and tarsi ferruginous. 

Head a little longer than wide, the sides rounded, as wide in front as 
behind and widely emarginate posteriorly; the posterior angles sub- 
acute. The eyes large and flat, inserted in about the middle of the sides 
of the head : the frontal carinae fused with the clypeus, forming on 
each side a projecting lobe, itself bilobed anteriorly. The antennae 
are therefore placed farther forwards than in other species of the 
genus ; the frontal carinae are parallel in front, high and close 
together, but separated by a groove ; posteriorly they are fused 
together and abruptly terminated by a depression continuous with 
the antennal sockets. The genal carinae are raised anteriorly into 
a prominence, below which is a depression sufficiently large to 
accommodate the scape when the latter is directed forwards. 

Mandibles narrow, their apical margin very oblique, with four 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 13 

small and obtuse teeth at the base, and a larger obtuse tooth in the 
middle of the basal margin. 

Antennae 12-jointed, the scape reaches back to the posterior edge 
of the eyes. All the joints of the flagellum are broader than long, 
except the terminal joint which is as long as the four preceding 
taken together. 

The thorax is parallel-sided, depressed dorsally but not marginate 
and without trace of sutures ; the declivity of the epinotum finely 
marginate. 

Head and thorax smooth, sparsely and finely punctured, a hair 
being inserted in each puncture. The puncturation of the petiole is 
much coarser, that of the 1st abdominal segment a little smaller, the 
rest of the abdomen finely punctured. The petiole is half as wide 
again as long, truncate anteriorly and posteriorly, round above and 
not marginate; below and in front there is a large rounded projection. 

The 1st abdominal segment is as wide at its base as the posterior 
edge of the petiole, widening towards the apex ; the 2nd segment is 
longer than the petiole, but the 2nd and following segments are 
together shorter than the petiole plus the 1st segment. The legs are 
hirsute. 

Hab. Cameroons." 

The type species does not occur in our region, but I have thought 
it best to reproduce the original description which applies in the 
main to the following variety. 

Var. natalensis, Forel. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 54, p. 423, 1910. 

£ . This is a little larger than the type, and has the petiole 
sparsely punctured. 
Hob. Natal. 

C. Peringueyi, Emery. (Plate I., fig. 1, la.) 

Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital., vol. 18, p. 335, g , 1886. 

$ . 4 mm. Castaneous brown, scape, apical joint of flagellum and 
legs ferruginous. In some specimens the head and abdomen darker, 
almost piceous. Shining • thorax, petiole and 1st abdominal segment 
largely and coarsely punctured, the punctures of the petiole being 
particularly large. Head and 2nd abdominal segment with smaller 
and more abundant punctures, the remaining abdominal segments 
finely and sparsely punctured ; antennae finely and closely punctured. 
The whole body covered with rather long whitish recumbent hairs, 



14 Annals of the South African Museum. 

densest on the apical margins of the abdominal segments. Head 
longer than wide, convex above, moderately emarginate behind, 
posterior angles sub-acute, sides convex. Eyes rather large, situated 
a little in front of the middle of the sides of the head. Clypeus 
narrow and sloping inwards. Frontal carinae very narrow and 
raised, continued in front (along the margin of the clypeus), round to 
the antennal socket ; above, the carinae are angularly bent near their 
middle, then converge and end abruptly. There is a semicircular 
carina on each cheek, externally. 

Tbe scape, strongly incrassate towards the apex, hardly reaches to 
the posterior margin of the eyes : 1st to 10th joints of the flagellum 
wider than long, apical joint much longer than wide, as long as the 
6th-10th joints taken together. 

Thorax slightly narrowed in the middle, submarginate anteriorly, 
with pronounced anterior lateral angles, all the sutures obliterated, 
the sides seen from above moderately convex ; the tborax is as long 
as, or only very little longer than the petiole and 1st abdominal 
segment taken together. The declivity of the epinotum vertical and 
bounded by a feebly raised margin. Petiole wider than long, slightly 
narrower in front than behind, convex above, moderately so at the 
sides, vertically truncate in front and behind. 

First abdominal segment wider behind than in front, one-fifth 
longer than the petiole, convex above and at the sides ; the constric- 
tion between the 1st and 2nd abdominal segments deep and strong ; 
2nd segment one-quarter longer than the 1st, globose, and with the 
sides very convex. The ventral lamella of the petiole is produced 
anteriorly and is sharply truncate. 

Hab. Cape. (G.A., S.A.M., E.M. colls.) 

Var. latiuscula, Emery. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 19, 1895. 

£ . 4 mm. This differs from the type in its slightly larger size, and 
in having the petiole broader by one-quarter than it is long, the 1st 
abdominal segment is also a little broader. The puncturation is also 
slightly closer and larger. 

Hab. Makapan. 

C. Cooperi, n. sp. 

^ . 3 - 3 mm. Piceous, clypeus and anterior part of the head a little 
lighter ; mandibles, antennae, and legs yellowish red. The whole 
body, including the tibiae, femora, and antennae covered with long, 
yellowish, semi-recumbent hairs, the pilosity being more plentiful 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 15 

and longer than in Peringueyi or cribrinodis. The whole body sub- 
nitidulous, the head above, thorax, petiole, and 1st abdominal segment 
closely and coarsely punctured. The punctures on the head are 
smaller and more regular than elsewhere ; the cheeks below the eyes 
are smooth and impunctate. The puncturation of the thorax becomes 
coarser towards the posterior end. The punctures of the petiole and 
1st abdominal segment are large and deep, but strongest on the 
petiole. The declivity of the epinotum, and the anterior and 
posterior faces of the petiole are smooth and shining. The 2nd 
abdominal segment is evenly but sparsely punctured, the punctures 
being smaller than those on the head ; the margins of the remaining 
abdominal segments, the scape of the antenna and the legs sparsely 
punctured. The head is a little longer than wide, a little narrower 
in front than behind, with the sides moderately convex and the 
posterior margin straight. The eyes, situated in the middle of the 
sides of the head, are more convex than in C. Peringueyi. The 
mandibles are very finely denticulate on the masticatory margin. 
Antennae 12-jointed, the scape strongly incrassate towards the apex 
and not reaching back quite as far as the posterior margin of the 
eyes. The one-jointed club is more globose and comparatively 
larger than in our other species, and is as long as the 2-10 joints of 
the flagellum together ; the latter are twice as wide as long, and the 
1st joint is as wide as long. The angles terminating the genal 
carinae are more prominent, but otherwise the characters of the 
head are similar to those of C. Peringueyi. The thorax is flatter 
above than in that species, and much more distinctly wider behind 
than in front. The declivity of the epinotum is nearly vertical, 
strongly margined above, less strongly at the sides, the junction of 
the dorsal and lateral margins being produced into a small and 
inconspicuous angle on each side. The petiole is slightly wider 
behind than in front and moderately convex above from side to side; 
the sides are almost straight or only feebly convex, the anterior and 
posterior faces vertical, the anterior dorsal margin straight, the 
posterior margin above bisinuate so as to form a median and two 
lateral rounded angles. The first abdominal segment is nearly half 
as wide again as long, the 2nd segment as wide as long. Otherwise 
like C. Peringueyi. 

2 . 1 mm. Similar to the $ except for the usual sexual differences. 
The pro-mesonotal suture is unusually angular, so that the mesonotum 
and scutellum together, seen from above, have the outline of a lozenge. 
The mesonotum is strongly but sparsely punctured, smooth, and 
shining between the punctures. The dorsum of the epinotum is 



16 Annals of the South African Museum. 

three times as wide as long. Tegulae ferruginous, wings pale 
yellowish, the nervures and stigma a little darker. 

Umgeni, Durban. (C. B. Cooper.) The types in my collection. 
(S.A.M., E.M. coll.) 

The strong puncturation, especially of the petiole and 1st 
abdominal segment, the longer and more prominent club, and the 
bisinuate posterior dorsal margin of the petiole suffice to distinguish 
this species from all the other members of the genus in South 
Africa. 

C. Wkoughtoni, Forel. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 54, p. 422, $ , 1910. 

" $ . 2-2 - 3 mm. Mandibles smooth, punctured, narrow, and with 
terminal margin oblique. The insertion of each antenna lies in a 
depression bounded externally by a lateral carina concave inwards, 
internally by the frontal carina, and posteriorly by a transverse ridge 
which joins the lateral and frontal carinae. Head rectangular, one 
and a quarter times as long as wide, sides convex, as wide at the back 
as in front, and with a lateral raised margin on each side of the 
occiput. Eyes absent. 

Scape thick, hardly reaching the middle of the head ; 1st joint of 
the flagellum broader than long, 2nd-6th joints twice as broad as 
long, last joint slightly swollen and as long as the four preceding 
joints together. 

Dorsum of thorax sub-depressed, faintly and obtusely marginate 
and about three times as long as wide. Pronotum and epinotum of 
about equal size ; mesonotum shorter and narrower ; declivity of 
the epinotum sub-vertical, smooth, and marginate at the sides and 
above. Petiole seen from above, almost square, corners rounded, as 
long as wide. First segment of abdomen also almost square, one and 
a half times as long and as wide as the petiole, and with apical margin 
straight. The articular portions between the 1st and 2nd segments 
form a stridulatory surface. The whole body and legs smooth and 
shining, largely and clearly punctured ; of a reddish-yellow colour 
and covered with a yellowish, short and oblique pubescence." 

Hob. Natal. (E. Wroughton.) (G.A., S.A.M.) 

Var. ehodesiana, Forel. 

Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr. Beiheft, p. 112, $ , 1913. 

2-8 mm. This differs from the type in its larger size, in the shape 
of the node which is wider than long (in the type as long as wide), 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 17 

in the less developed carina above the base of the antennae, and in 
the much less distinct pro-mesonotal suture. The 1st segment of 
the abdomen is also much wider than long, whereas in the type it is 
as wide as long. The thorax is also a little shorter. 
Hab. Bulawayo. (G.A. coll.) 



Genus PHYRACACES, Emery. 
Rend. Accad. Sc. Bologna, p. 27, 1901. 

Characters. 

$ and 5 . Antennae 12-jointed, apical joint not clubbed and not 
longer than the two preceding together. Petiole, and sometimes the 
1st abdominal segment with distinctly defined lateral margins. Eyes 
in the £ large, otherwise resembling Cerapachys. 

$ . Unknown. 

This small genus, with the exception of two species from Mada- 
gascar and the two described below, is confined to the Australian 
region. 

P. Beaunsi, Emery. 
Loc. cit. 

" $ . 3 - 5 mm. Piceous ; mouth, antennae, apex of abdomen a little 
lighter, shining, with numerous fine hairs which are most abundant 
on the abdomen. Pubescence on the legs obliquely exserted, scape 
with some long hairs ; all the body finely punctured, more densely 
so on the abdomen. 

Head with rounded sides and with the occipital margin almost 
straight, or arcuate ; the eyes occupy a little less than one-half of 
the sides. The mandible, narrow at the base, gradually enlarges 
towards the masticatory margin which is obtusely dentelate on the 
buccal portion. The frontal carinae are raised and parallel, but 
dip down and converge abruptly posteriorly. The scape does not 
extend further back than the eye, is shorter than the half of the 
flagellum, and is incrassate towards its apex ; the 2nd-6th joints of 
the flagellum are wider than long, the terminal joint being longer 
than the preceding but not wider. 

Thorax short and stout ; the declivity of the epinotum marginate. 
Petiole with sharp, lateral margins, seen from above, much wider 
than long, the anterior face fairly straight, the sides arcuate, and the 

2 



18 Annals of the South African Museum. 

posterior margin deeply excavated below the lateral angles, which 
project backwards and are rounded. 

The 1st abdominal segment is wider and longer than the petiole, 
but less than the following segment, and is rounded at the 
sides. 

Hab. Willowmore, Cape Prov. (Brauns.) " 



P. Cooperi, n. sp. 

$ . 4-2-4'5 mm. Black, femora and mandibles piceous, tibiae, 
tarsi, and antennae dark ferruginous. Petiole, abdomen, and legs 
with a very sparse pale pubescence. Whole body with a scanty 
pilosity of long, whitish yellow oblique hairs, more abundant on the 
abdomen, shorter and denser on the legs. Whole body shining, 
head and thorax particularly so. The head is smooth and impunc- 
tate between the eyes and below them, rugoso-punctate between the 
frontal and genal cariuae, and above, from the posterior margin of 
the eyes to the occipital margin, coarsely and irregularly punctate. 
The thorax is punctate-striate anteriorly and posteriorly, almost 
impunctate in the middle except at the lateral margins where there 
are a few large punctures. The petiole and 1st abdominal segment 
are closely and strongly punctured, the punctures are large, and on 
the petiole somewhat elongated. The 2nd abdominal segment is 
closely and rather finely punctured, the punctures being much 
smaller and more even than those of the 1st segment ; 3rd-5th 
segments finely punctured but less densely than the 2nd 
segment. 

Head a little longer than wide, narrower in front of the eyes than 
behind them, sides moderately convex, occipital margin concave, 
posterior angles sub-acute. Eyes convex, occupying a little more 
than one-quarter of the sides of the head, and situated somewhat 
dorsally just within the anterior half of the head. Frontal carinae 
considerably raised and parallel, convergent posteriorly and meeting 
at a point at a level with the anterior margin of the eyes. Seen 
from the side, the profile of the carinae is strongly convex in its 
anterior half, then shallowly concave for a quarter of its length and 
straight along its posterior quarter. The posterior margin of the 
clypeus is raised, and meets on each side a low genal carina which 
runs forward from the inner margin of each eye, and forms with 
it a distinct angle or tooth, just above the base of the mandibles. 
A shallow crenate groove surrounds the posterior two-thirds of the 
eye, and is continued below it to the base of the mandible. Antennae 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 19 

12-jointed ; the scape extends very slightly beyond the posterior 
margin of the eyes, it is strongly incrassate towards the apex, and 
is longer than half the flagellum, or as long as the lst-9th joints 
together ; the 2nd-9th joints of the flagellum wider than long, the 
apical joint not wider than, but about as long as the two preceding 
joints taken together. Mandibles triangular, masticatory margin 
concave and without teeth. Thorax without trace of sutures, twice 
as long as wide, widest at its posterior fourth, margined above, very 
distinctly so anteriorly and posteriorly, but less so at the sides. 
Seen in profile, the dorsum of the thorax is decidedly convex longi- 
tudinally, and the sides are vertical. The declivity is almost vertical 
and strongly margined all round. The petiole is sharply margined 
above, and three-quarters as wide again as long ; the anterior face 
is vertical, the anterior dorsal margin almost straight, the sides are 
moderately convex, the posterior margin depressed, and the posterior 
lateral angles are raised and form a blunt triangular tooth on each 
side. The 1st abdominal segment is as wide as the petiole, a trifle 
wider than long, the sides parallel ; the sides are somewhat angularly 
but obtusely delimited from the dorsum, but not marginate. The 
2nd abdominal segment hardly longer, but one-quarter wider than 
the 1st. Posterior metatarsi longer than the tibiae. 

Nesting under the roots of a tree. Umgeni, Durban. (C. B. 
Cooper.) 

This species appears to differ from P. Braunsi, which is known 
to me only from the description, by its larger size, smaller eyes, 
longer scape, and much stronger puncturation. 

Type in my collection. (E.M., S.A.M. and G.A. colls.) 



Tribe CYLINDROMYRMICINI, Emery. 

Characters. 

% and ? . Frontal carinae elongate and projecting laterally so 
as to form a short scrobe into which the base of the scape can be 
inserted. Eyes large, at least one ocellus in the $ . Body elongate. 
Pygidium furnished laterally with short stumpy spines. 

$ . Antennae 13-jointed ; scape short, 1st joint of flagellum very 
short, the following joints longer than wide. 

This tribe includes two genera, Gylindromyrmex, Mayr, which is 
■confined to South America, and Simopone, Forel, of which 5 species 



20 Annals of the South African Museum. 

are known, 3 being recorded from Madagascar and 2 from Africa, 
viz., S. conradti, Emery, from the Cameroons, and the new species 
described below. 



Genus SIMOPONE, Forel. 
In Grandidier's Hist. Madagascar, vol. 20, p. 139, 1891. 

Characters. 

% . Body more or less cylindrical ; bead parallel-sided. Antennae 
11-jointed, scape very flattened and strongly incrassate towards the 
apex. Thoracic sutures usually indistinct. Petiole articulated to 
the 1st abdominal segment by a narrow surface. The constriction 
between the 1st and 2nd abdominal segments very wide and rather 
low down. Legs short ; claws dentate or pectinate. 

? . Unknown. 

3 . Clypeus very short ; frontal carinae convergent behind and 
separated by a longitudinal sulcus. Mandibles triangular and 
edentate. Antennae 13-jointed, scape short and thick, 1st joint of 
nagellum very small. Mayrian furrows on the mesonotum strongly 
defined. Petiole nodiform ; the constriction between the 1st and 
2nd abdominal segments very strong. Anterior wings with two- 
cubital cells, not completely closed. 

Simopone Marleyi, n. sp. 

£ . 7 mm. Eeddish ochreous yellow, mandibles and flagellum a 
little darker, apical segment of abdomen except at its extreme base, 
and the articular surface between the 1st and 2nd abdominal seg- 
ments, black. Posterior half of thorax, petiole, legs and scape very 
shining, the rest of the body moderately shining. Head, thorax, 
petiole and lst-4th abdominal segments sparsely and shallowly 
punctured ; the punctures are ill-defined and largest on the head, 
smallest on the abdomen. The legs, antennae and mandibles are 
sparsely and finely punctured. The anterior half of the head is- 
microscopically longitudinally striate. The pubescence is sparse 
and consists of short recumbent golden hairs. It is more abundant 
on the 1st and 2nd segments of the abdomen, and very scanty on 
the head and thorax. The apical margins of the petiole and 
abdomen, and the sides of the apical segment bear some longer and 
thicker hairs ; legs and antennae very sparsely pubescent. 

Head slightly narrower in front than behind, almost one-third 
longer than wide, sides moderately convex, posterior margin feebly 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 21 

arcuate, posterior angles rounded. Clypeus smooth and without 
carinae, sloping inwards, fused posteriorly in the middle with the 
frontal area ; its posterior margin is raised, and bears on each side 
just below and external to the frontal carinae, a rounded, prominent 
tubercle which projects over the mandible when looked at from the 
side. The frontal carinae are flattened and produced into a rounded 
lobe in front, they diverge in front and behind and terminate at a 
point on a level with tbe anterior margins of the eyes. The latter 
are very large. The ocelli are very small ; the space between them 
is fuscous. The mandibles are triangular, very convex dorsally, the 
external margin shallowly concave, tbe masticatory margin edentate. 
The scape of the antenna is strongly compressed dorso-ventrally, 
widest at the apex and almost triangular, or twice as long as the 
apical width ; it just reaches back as far as the anterior margin of 
the eyes. The flagellum is 10-jointed, the 1st joint is about as long 
as wide, the 2nd-9th joints much wider than long, the apical joint 
longer than wide, and half as long again as the preceding. 

The thorax is parallel-sided, its dorsum is flat longitudinally and 
feebly convex from side to side. The pro-mesonotal suture fairly 
distinct, the meso-epinotal ill-defined. The pronotum is distinctly 
margined anteriorly by a dark raised line ; the declivity of the 
epinotum is similarly margined above and at the sides. The petiole 
is wider behind than in front and feebly convex above. The anterior 
face of the node is vertical and slightly concave ; it is margined 
above by a fine but very distinct and dark raised line, which is con- 
tinued along the sides inferiorly to the dorsal margin of the posterior 
face ; the posterior angles are produced backwards, so that the 
posterior margin is arcuate. The 1st abdominal segment is at least 
one-third longer than the petiole, and as wide as long; it is separated 
from the 2nd segment by a wide and deep constriction ; the 3rd and 
following segments are wider than long. The pygidium is produced 
at the apex into a bidentate projection. Behind this projection the 
pygidial area of the 5th segment is flattened, smooth and shining in 
the centre, rugoso-punctate at the sides and armed on each lateral 
margin with six short spines or teeth (see figs. 46, 46a, Plate V.). 
Legs short, posterior metatarsi as long as the tibiae and nearly 
as wide. 

Three specimens were found by Mr. Marley in hollow stems of 
the castor-oil plant, Stella Bush, Durban. At first glance this 
species bears a deceptive resemblance to Sima natalensis, Smith. 
The type in my collection. 



22 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Section PEOPONEEINAE, Emery. 
Teibe PLATYTHYKEINI, Emery. 

Comprising only the following genus. 

Genus PLATYTHYEEA, Eoger. 
Berlin Ent. Zeitschr., vol. 7, p. 172, 1863. 

Characters. 

$ . Whole body finely punctured, covered with a pruinose pubes- 
cence. Clypeus flat and indistinctly defined posteriorly ; frontal 
area generally indistinct ; frontal carinae widely separated, thick 
and dilated in front. Mandibles triangular, with the masticatory 
edge large, finely dentate or without teeth. Maxillary palps 6-jointed, 
labial palps 4-jointed. Antennae 12-jointed, eyes moderately large, 
no ocelli. The pro-mesothoracic suture slightly mobile, the rest of the 
thorax completely fused together. Petiole large but not squamiform, 
narrowly articulated to the 1st abdominal segment at about the 
centre of the latter, the abdominal constriction not very deep. Middle 
and posterior tibiae with two calcaria ; claws unidentate. 

?. Winged; resembling the worker but slightly larger; eyes 
larger and ocelli present : pronotum large, mesonotum depressed. 

$ . Clypeus more convex than in the $ ; frontal carinae not 
dilated in front ; mandibles triangular. Antennae 13-jointed, scape 
slightly shorter than the 3rd joint. Eyes and ocelli very large. 

Pronotum large, not covered by the mesonotum, the latter not very 
convex, and with Mayrian furrows indistinct. Wings with 2 cubital 
cells. Petiole as in the £ . Pygidium rounded, cerci present. 

Key to the % % of Platythyrea. 

(10). 1. Dorsum of mesonotum as high as, or higher than the epinotum ; con- 
striction between the 1st and 2nd abdominal segments moderate. 

(7). 2. Node of petiole with the posterior dorsal margin produced on each side 
into a more or less distinct tooth. 

(4). 3. Larger species, 14-16"5 mm. Whole body black . . cribrinodis, Gerst. 

(3). 4. Smaller species, less than 10 mm., legs and antennae red. 

(6). 5. Posterior dorsal margin of node with a median rounded tooth, longer 
than the lateral angles ; puncturation feeble, 7 mm. 

Mocquerysi, Emery, var. matopoensis, Arnold. 

(5). 6. Posterior dorsal margin of node without a median rounded tooth •, 
puncturation moderately strong, 8-5-9 "5 mm Schultzei, Forel. 

(2). 7. Node of petiole without lateral dorsal teeth on the posterior margin. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 23 

(8). 8. Larger species, 12-13 mm. Node at least twice as long as wide. 

Arnoldi, Forel. 
(8). 9. Smaller species, 6 - 5 mm. Node not more than half as long again as wide. 

Cooperi, Arnold. 
(1.) 10. Dorsum of the mesonotum on a lower level than that of the epinotum ; 
constriction between the 1st and 2nd abdominal segments very strong. 

(12). 11. Node of petiole truncate posteriorly lamellosa, Roger. 

(11). 12. Node of petiole rounded posteriorly. 

lamellosa, Roger, race longinoda, Forel, and var. rhodesiana, Forel. 

P. cribrinodis, Gerstaecker. (Plate I., fig. 4.) 

Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, £ , p. 504, 1858. Emery, Ann. 

Mus. Stor. Nat. Genoa, vol. 37, p. 154, $ , 1896 ?. Forel, 

Deutsch. Bnt. Zeitschr. Beiheft, p. 208, $, 1913. 

£ . 14-16"5 mm. Black and dull, calcaria and last two joints of 

the tarsi ferruginous. Whole body covered with an exceedingly fine 

pruinose pubescence, yellow and somewhat longer on the clypeus ; 

apical abdominal segment clothed with short reddish-yellow hairs ; 

apex of anterior tibiae and anterior tarsus beneath clothed with 

short golden hairs. 

The head (excluding clypeus and anterior half of frontal carinae) 
thorax, node of petiole and 1st abdominal segment, punctured ; the 
spaces between the punctures are microscopically rugulose, the 
punctures are fairly evenly distributed, round and shining, and 
the floor of each puncture is pitted with two or three minute points. 
The punctures are larger and closer on the posterior half of the head 
and on the node. 2nd to 5th abdominal segments rugulose but 
impunctate. 

Head with posterior angles well defined, occipital margin straight, 
sides moderately convex. Eyes of medium size, situated at about 
the middle of the sides of the head. Mandibles triangular, slightly 
shining, and striato-punctate. Posterior margin of clypeus indistinct, 
but produced into a wide angle between the frontal carinae. The 
latter are broad in front and flat, much narrower and convergent 
behind. The scape reaches beyond the occipital margin. The 
nagellum is as long as the thorax, with the 2nd joint longer than 
the 3rd. 

Pronotum wider than long, anterior margin arcuate and with 
prominent anterior angles. Pro-mesonotal suture well defined, 
meso-metanotal suture absent. 

The epinotum has a short triangular and blunt tooth on each side 
above the declivity ; the latter is very steep, excavated, and with the 
dorsal margin considerably raised, the lateral margins less so. Node 



24 Annals of the South African Museum. 

of petiole longer than wide, distinctly wider behind than in front, 
slightly convex, rounded above and truncate in front and behind ; 
the posterior dorsal margin is bi-emarginate, so as to form a tooth 
on each side and a median obtuse angle. The ventral lamella of 
the petiole is produced anteriorly into a truncated lobe. First 
abdominal segment narrower at the base than at the apex, a little 
shorter and narrower than the 2nd segment. Abdominal constriction 
distinct. 

S . 13 - 5 mm. Black, pruinose pubescence as in the $ . On the 
head, epinotum, and petiole the puncturation is much sparser than in 
the £ ; the 1st abdominal segment is sparsely and very shallowly 
punctured, so as to appear almost impunctate. Mesonot'um strongly 
punctured in its basal half, scutellum feebly punctured. Head 
somewhat triangular, occipital margin straight, posterior angles 
rounded. Eyes very large and prominent ; ocelli large but not 
raised. The frontal carinae reach far back, frontal area distinct. 
Clypeus convex, posterior margin very ill-defined. Mandibles large, 
sinuate externally, masticatory margin obtusely denticulate, the 
apex incurved. The antennae reach back as far as the posterior 
extremity of the thorax; the scape is slightly shorter than the 
2nd joint of the filiform flagellum ; the 1st joint of the latter is 
very short. 

Pronotum exposed, one-third as long as the mesonotum, and with 
a short lateral fovea on each side of the apical margin ; the parapsi- 
dial areas are marked off by a raised line. The declivity of the 
epinotum sub -concave and marginate, the dorsal lateral teeth very 
much reduced. The petiole is like that of the £ but is less dis- 
tinctly truncate posteriorly, and the posterior dorsal margin is only 
sub-angular and not toothed on each side. The abdomen is as in 
the $ . Pygidium with apex rounded. Wings smoky, especially 
round the stigma ; nervures pale brown, stigma dark brown, legs 
slender. 

Bab. Southern Ehodesia. (G.A., S.A.M., P.M. colls.) 

/ Var. punctata, n. v. 

This variety differs from the type in having the posterior region of 
the head, the pronotum and epinotum more densely punctured. The 
node of the petiole is as wide in front as behind, the posterior lateral 
teeth shorter and more obtuse, and the ventral lamella acute 
anteriorly, the apex of the projection not being truncate as in the 
type. 

Hab. Victoria Falls. (G.A., S.A.M.) 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 25 

P. Schultzei, Forel. 
Schultze, Zool. Anthrop. Eeise Siidafrika, vol. 4, p. 3, 1910. 

" $. 8 - 5-9'5 mm. Black, mandibles, frontal carinae, antennae and 
legs red. Mandibles moderately shining, exceedingly finely rugulose, 
punctured, and with the anterior margin sharp. Clypeus with 
anterior margin feebly and obtusely projecting, posterior margin 
prominent and distinct between the frontal carinae. The latter are 
strongly curved and convex exteriorly. Head trapezoid, slightly 
wider behind than in front, feebly concave posteriorly and a little 
longer than wide. The eyes are situated a little in front of the 
middle of the sides, moderately convex and occupying nearly one- 
quarter of the sides of the head. Scape flattened at the apex, and 
nearly reaching beyond the back of the head to the extent of its own 
width ; 2nd joint of flagellum longer than the 1st and 3rd, 6th-10th 
joints slightly wider than long, the rest longer than wide. 

Thorax constricted a little posteriorly, anterior angles obtuse. 
Pro-mesonotal suture distinct, with traces of sutures behind the 
meso- and the metanotum. Basal area of epinotum convex, some- 
what longer than the declivity, which is terminated above by two 
flat, triangular teeth. Petiole longer than wide, slightly wider 
behind than in front, convex above, vertical in front and behind, 
the posterior margin convex in the middle and dentate laterally. 
Ventral lamella projecting longitudinally. 

Abdomen feebly constricted, 2nd segment as long and as wide as 
the 1st. 

The whole body, including the legs and antennae fairly densely 
reticulate-punctate and slightly shining ; intermixed, are some 
rather- coarse and shallow punctures, especially on the head. The 
coarse puncturation is absent on the clypeus, frontal carinae, legs, 
and abdomen, excepting the 1st segment. Finely and sparsely 
covered with yellow pubescence. Pygidium with short yellow hairs. 

Hab. Hereroland, Windhoek, G.S.W. Africa. (Schultze.)" 
Lonely Mine, S. Ehodesia. (Dr. Swale.) (G.A., coll.) 

P. LAMELLOSA, PtOger. 

Berlin Ent. Zeitschr., 4, p. 295, $ , 1860. 

" g . 12 - 5 mm. Blackf dull, and pruinose, antennae and legs 
brown-black, mandibles and tarsi red. 

Head quadrangular, only slightly narrower behind than in front. 
Eyes moderately convex and situated at about the middle of the 
sides of the head. Frontal carinae broad and fused with the clypeus, 



26 Annals of the South African Museum. 

which is rounded anteriorly and flat. The scape projects beyond 
the back of the head, and is gradually thickened from the middle to 
the apex. The flagellum is 11-jointed, the 2nd joint is one-third 
longer than the 1st, the rest progressively shorter, except the last 
joint which is only slightly longer than the preceding. Mandibles 
short and triangular, curved in front and below, convex above, finely 
rugose and edentate. The whole body is finely rugulose, with a few 
coarse punctures. 

Pronotum rounded at the sides, anterior angles obsolete, slightly 
arched dorsally and separated from the mesonotum by a deep suture. 
Meso- and metanotum fused. The declivity of the epinotum is 
steep, shallowly excavated, witb two small obtuse teeth close 
together on the upper margin. The puncturation of the thorax is 
similar to that of the head, but somewhat more strongly punctured 
on the prothorax and the pleurae. Petiole seen from above 
cylindrical, longer than it is wide or deep, rounded in front, abruptly 
truncated behind and coarsely punctured all over. Ventral lamella 
anteriorly, with a tooth-like projection, truncated at its apex. The 
1st abdominal segment anteriorly modei'ately truncate but without a 
distinct edge, broader than long, campaniform, constricted at its 
apex ; 2nd segment wider that long, longer than the 1st, both 
segments finely punctured. 

The legs are long ; posterior tibiae with 2 calcaria, the outer 
pectinate. Metatarsi much shorter than the tibiae, and slightly 
shorter than the tarsi together. Anterior tarsi and metatarsi with 
thick golden pubescence beneath. A few erect hairs occur on the 
last abdominal segment." 

Hab. Cape Province. (G.A., S.A.M. colls.) 



Sub-sp. longinoda, Forel. 

Mitt. Schweiz. Ent. Ges., vol. 9, p. 75, £ , 1894. 

" Like the type, but as far as I can judge from Eoger's description 
without seeing the type, differing in the following characters- 
Mandibles with 3 to 1 teeth, separated from each other. Head 
rectangular, longer than wide. Mesonotum wider than long, very 
short, and separated from the metanotum by a plainly visible even, 
if somewhat indistinct suture. The mesonotum is fairly flat and 
depressed, lying at a lower level than the pro- and mesonota. 
Declivity of the epinotum excavated, the margins sharply defined, 
above with two very stumpy rounded bosses (in place of teeth). 
Petiole cylindrical, more than twice as long as wide, hardly wider 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 27 

behind than in front, roundly truncate in front and behind. 
Puncturation similar to that of P. cribrinodis. 
Valdezia, Transvaal. (Rev. P. Berthoud.) " 



Race longinoda. Var. rhodesiana, Forel. (Plate I., fig. 3.) 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, iv. p. 110, £ $ , 1913. Ibid., p. 317, 

2 , 1913. 

£ . 12-13 mm. This variety differs from lamellosa, in being more 
finely punctured, especially on the petiole ; the latter is almost twice 
as long as wide, and is widest in its posterior half, whereas in the 
type it is hardly more than one-quarter as long again as wide, and 
is widest in the middle ; the projection of the ventral lamella is 
smaller and more acute, not widely truncated at the apex as in the 
type ; the two obtuse tubercles or teeth of the epinotum are also 
much less prominent in this variety. It differs from race longinoda 
by its stronger puncturation, its larger size, the slightly longer 
petiole, and the greater width of the head behind. 

" 5 . 14 mm. Almost identical with the £ . Thorax nearly as 
wide as the head. Mesonotum and scutellum short. The teeth of 
the epinotum broader and more noticeable than in the $ ; other- 
wise identical, but the antennae, tarsi, and mandibles are distinctly 
reddish. Dealated." 

$ . 13*5 mm. Black, tarsi brown, extreme base of scape 
ferruginous. Pruinose pubescence as in the £ . Whole body finely 
rugulose and irregularly punctured with small shining punctures, 
most abundant on the head and thorax, sparser and much shallower 
on the abdomen. Head, including the mandibles, nearly half as 
long again as wide, widest across the eyes, posterior angles con- 
siderably rounded. Clypeus large and convex, posterior margin 
clearly defined. Mandibles large, triangular, shining and finely 
punctured ; masticatory margin denticulate, with an elongate sub- 
apical tooth, apex incurved and moderately acute. Antennae reach 
back as far as the base of the 1st abdominal segment; the scape is 
very nearly as long as the 2nd joint of flagellum ; the 1st joint of 
the latter is very short, not one-third as long as the scape ; 2nd-10th 
joints sinuate externally, so that they are all much wider at the apex 
than at the base. Frontal carinae wide. Eyes large and convex, 
the ocelli situated on a raised area. 

Pronotum exposed, sides slightly concave, anterior margin round ; 
pro-mesonotal suture distinct. Mesonotum very convex in front, 
flatter at the base, and raised well above the level of the pronotum. 



28 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Mayrian furrows well defined, and with a short shallow groove 
between the fork. Scutellum triangular, very gibbous and seen 
from the side, much higher than the mesonotum. Epinotum as 
long as the meso- and metanotum together, the dorsum is sloping 
and moderately convex ; the declivity is short and gradual, excavated 
dorso-ventrally, shining and bounded by a raised margin all round. 
Petiole long, two and a half times as long as wide, widest a little 
before the apex, the extreme base is angularly emarginate above, 
with the angles raised into two small flaps. Seen from the side, the 
petiole is convex above and concave below. The ventral lamella is 
produced into a small blunt angle at the extreme base. First 
abdominal segment almost triangular, the apical margin is quite 
four times as wide as the basal. 2nd abdominal segment is as long 
as the 1st, wider than long and moderately convex at the sides. 
Pygidium sub-acute. The apical third of the posterior wings, and 
two-thirds of the anterior wings externally, dark fuscous ; stigma 
and nervures dark brown. Legs long and slender. 

Hab. S. Ehodesia. The nest of this species is so distinctive that 
it cannot be mistaken for that of any of our other Ponerinae. The 
entrance is surmounted by a dome, from 6 to 8 inches high, by 
about 12 inches broad at the base. The dome is built up of very 
even-sized small pebbles, about 5 to 8 mm. in their largest diameter. 
The entrance is situated in the centre above, and this is generally 
the only entrance, very exceptionally there may be a smaller and 
less regular opening at the base of the mound. The type form 
appears to be replaced entirely throughout S. Ehodesia by this race. 
(G.A., S.A.M., P.M. colls.) 

P. Aenoldi, Forel. 
Deutsch. Bnt. Zeitschr. Beiheft, p. 206, $ , 1913. 

£ . 12-13 mm. Black, mandibles castaneous red. At first glance 
this species is not unlike laviellosa, especially var. rhodesiana of the 
race longinoda. It can, however, easily be distinguished from those 
three forms by the structure of the dorsum of the mesonotum, 
which is as high as the epinotum, and not on a lower level as in 
those forms. The 2nd segment of the abdomen is longer than 
wide, and is not wider than the 1st, whereas in laviellosa the 
2nd segment is wider than the 1st, and distinctly wider than long, 
and the inter-segmental constriction is much more pronounced. 

The apex of the abdomen clothed with rufous hairs, otherwise 
the pubescence and pilosity as in laviellosa, var. rhodesiana. As 
in the latter, the whole body is microscopically rugulose, but the 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 2 9 

head is less closely punctured, and the pro- and mesonotum dorsally, 
and abdomen, are almost impunctate. The epinotum has some 
punctures, large and very shallow on the dorsum, but smaller and 
deeper at the sides ; the sides of the petiole are rather strongly 
punctured. Mandibles shining and punctate-striate, masticatory 
margin concave, apex acute but not ending in a tooth. The eyes 
are larger and flatter and placed farther forwards than in lamellosa- 
rhodesiana, and the head is not very noticeably wider than the 
pronotum. The epinotum is not unlike that of lamellosa, but the 
dorsum is wider and flatter, and the declivity is distinctly and rather 
sharply margined laterally and above, the margin above ending on 
each side in a rounded angle, hardly large enough to be called 
a tooth. The dorsum of the thorax is slightly angularly marked 
off from the sides, i.e. sub-marginate. The declivity of the epinotum 
is less sloping than in lamellosa. The node of the petiole, seen from 
above, is twice as long as wide, slightly concave in the middle of 
the sides, rising from front to back, rounded in front and truncate 
behind ; the posterior face is moderately concave and feebly mar- 
gined all round ; the ventral lamella is produced at the extreme base 
into a blunt triangular tooth. 

Abdomen oblong, 1st segment inverted cup-shaped, slightly wider 
than long ; 2nd segment longer than wide, longer but not wider 
than the 1st, the constriction between the two segments feeble. 
Legs not so long as in lamellosa. 

Shiloh, S. Rhodesia. (S.A.M., R.M., G.A. colls.) 
I have met with this species on only one occasion. The nest, 
situated on an open piece of ground, was surmounted by a mound 
with the entrance at the apex, as in lamellosa, v. rhodesiana, but 
unlike that species the mound of Arnoldi contains no large pebbles. 
The surface of the mound was covered with the elytra and carcases 
of hundreds of beetles, mostly Tenebrionidae. Workers were seen 
carrying live beetles to the nest, the prey being held by its mandibles 
in a position above and parallel to the body of the ant. Since a 
careful examination of the rubbish-heap of this nest failed to show 
the remain of other insects, it is probable that this species feeds 
entirely on Coleoptera, differing in this respect from most of the 
other members of the genus, which in Rhodesia, at any rate, are 
eminently termitophagous. 

S P. Coopeei, n. sp. 

£ . 6 - 5 mm. Brownish black, mandibles, anterior half of head and 
3rd-5th abdominal segments brownish red, antennae, coxae, and legs 



30 Annals of the South African Museum. 

rust-red ; apical margins of 1st and 2nd abdominal segments, and 
sometimes also the posterior half of thorax, slightly tinged with red. 
Covered all over with a dense, yellowish recumbent pubescence, less 
abundant, however, on the flagellum. Pilose hairs entirely absent. 
Exceedingly finely punctate-striate all over, with a few shallow 
punctures on the sides of the head above the eyes, the petiole and 
first two segments of the abdomen. The head much narrower 
across the clypeal region than elsewhere, looks apparently much 
longer than wide, it is, however only one- sixth longer than its 
greatest width, i.e. across the eyes. The sides of the head are 
almost straight, but the eyes project considerably beyond the 
level of the same ; the posterior angles of the head are rounded, 
the posterior margin moderately arcuate. The eyes are large and 
situated at about the middle of the sides. The clypeus is approxi- 
mately triangular, the posterior margin hardly distinguishable, the 
anterior margin straight. The frontal carinae are very wide, 
obtusely angular above the insertion of the antennae (behind which 
they are a little wider even than in front), nearly parallel, not 
convergent posteriorly, and extending back to about the level of the 
middle of the eyes. A shallow depression extends from the posterior 
margin of the clypeus to about the middle of the vertex. Mandibles 
triangular, finely rugulose, edentate, the extreme apex truncate. 
Scape not reaching the occipital margin, incrassate towards the 
apex ; flagellum about one-third longer than the scape, 1st and 
2nd joints subequal, a little longer than wide, 3rd-10th joints 
a little wider than long, apical joint not quite as long as the 9th and 
10th joints together. 

The dorsum of the thorax and epinotum is flat or only very feebly 
convex, and is angularly and obtusely delimited from the sides. 
Pronotum a little wider in front than behind, as long as wide, the 
anterior angles or shoulders almost obsolete. Pro-mesonotal suture 
distinct, the meso-epinotal indicated by a slight depression ; the 
mesonotum is nearly as long as the pronotum, but a trifle narrower. 
The declivity of the epinotum is almost vertical, angularly emar- 
ginate above (/^-shaped), and distinctly concave; the lateral margins 
of the declivity rather tumid, forming at the junction with the 
dorsum a wide and rounded angle at each side. Node of petiole 
one-third longer than wide, nearly as wide as the epinotum, the 
sides almost straight, higher and wider behind than in front, the 
anterior face very rounded, the posterior face vertical and feebly 
margined. Ventral lamella of the petiole produced at the extreme 
base into a rounded projection. Abdomen elongate and narrow, 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 31 

about as long as the thorax, the sides feebly convex. 1st and 
2nd segments distinctly longer than wide, 2nd segment longer 
than the 1st. Legs rather short, anterior femora thick and broad, 
posterior coxae not toothed. 

cT . 6-5 mm. Eust-red, antennae and tarsi yellowish red, eyes 
black. Puncturation and pubescence as in the £ , but the punc- 
turation is a little finer, and the pubescence shorter and less 
dense. 

Head, excluding mandibles, as long as it is wide across the eyes. 
The latter very large, the internal margins sinuate, occupying more 
than three-quarters of the sides of the head. Mandibles large and 
shaped as in the £ . Clypeus similar to that of the $ , but the 
posterior margin is more distinctly defined. The frontal area is 
an elongate triangle, indistinctly defined but continued into the 
median depression of the vertex, which ends at the anterior ocellus. 
The ocelli not very large and not situated on a raised area. The 
frontal carinae are widely divergent behind. Antennae filiform, 
extending back as far as the 1st abdominal segment ; scape short, 
not longer than the distance separating the two posterior ocelli ; 
1st joint of flagellum less than half as long as the scape, 2nd joint 
as long as the third. Pronotum rounded in front and at the sides, 
at least three times as wide as long. Mesonotum rather flat 
posteriorly, moderately convex in front and at the sides, not rising 
very much above the level of the pronotum. Mayrian furrows and 
parapsidal sutures very distinct. Scutellum a little wider than 
long, not gibbous. Dorsum of the epinotum much wider at the 
base than at the apex, where it forms a distinct angle with the 
declivity. The latter is distinctly margined all round, nearly 
quadrangular, not vertical as in the £ , but sloping very obliquely. 
The node of the petiole is similar to that of the $ , but is 
not so high, nor truncated behind, the dorsal profile forming a 
continuous curve rising from front to back. The abdomen as in 
the $ ; the pygidium ends in a short curved spine. Legs longer 
and thinner than in the £ . Wings smoky, nervures pale brown, 
stigma black. 

Types £ and $ in the Durban Museum. 

Stella Bush, Durban. (C. B. Cooper.) 

This species differs from the allied forms, frontalis, modesta, tenuis, 
Emery, etc., by the entire absence of teeth on the posterior dorsal 
margin of the node, and by the widely separated frontal carinae. 
(KM., S.A.M., G.A. colls.) 



32 Annals of the South African Museum. 

P. Mocquebysi, Emery. 
Bull. Ent. Soc. Ital., vol. 31 p. 270, $ ? , 1900. 
j Var. matopoensis, n. v. 

? 7-7*5 mm. Black, mandibles, clypeus, antennae, legs and 
apex of the abdomen more or less ferruginous. Pubescence pruinose 
and rather thin, pilosity absent except on the last segment of 
the abdomen. Microscopically rugulose, sparsely and shallowly 
punctured on the head, meso- and epinotum, petiole and first two 
segments of the abdomen. The pronotum and apical segments of 
the abdomen with very sparse and minute punctures ; the punctures 
on the sides of the head and on the epinotum are larger and deeper 
than on the rest of the body. Head sub-quadrate, as long as 
wide, sides feebly convex, posterior margin almost straight, posterior 
angles rounded. The anterior margin of the clypeus feebly arcuate, 
posterior margin indistinct. Mandibles dull, finely punctuate- 
striate, triangular, external margin convex or very slightly sinuate, 
masticatory margin finely denticulate. Frontal carinae broad, nar- 
rower and slightly convergent behind. Eyes large, their posterior 
margins lying in front of the middle of the sides of the head. Scape 
of the antenna reaches back a little beyond the occipital margin ; 
lst-5th joints very little longer than wide, 6th-10th joints about as 
long as wide, apical joint half as long again as wide. The pronotum 
is a little wider than the rest of the thorax, and narrower behind, 
the sides of the rest of the thorax nearly parallel. Pro-mesonotal 
suture distinct. The declivity of the epinotum is very steep but not 
vertical, concave and distinctly margined, the margin above ending 
on each side in a broad, rounded and stumpy tooth. Node of 
petiole half as long again as wide, a little longer than high, convex 
from side to side, a trifle wider behind than in front, anterior face 
nearly vertical but considerably rounded above, posterior face 
vertical and produced dorsally into three obtuse teeth, the median 
tooth being wider and longer than the lateral teeth. Ventral lamella 
very slightly produced. Abdomen oblong, 1st segment very little 
longer than wide, 2nd segment longer than the 1st, and one-fifth 
longer than wide. Legs rather short, posterior coxae armed on the 
inner margin with a blunt tooth. . 

Matopo Hills, S. Rhodesia. Type in my collection. 

This variety appears to differ from the type form of Madagascar 
only by the longer node of the petiole. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 33 

Tribe PEOCEEATIINI, Emery. 

Characters. 

$ . Frontal carinae do not cover the articulations of the 
antennae, they are close together and are sometimes even fused 
into a single vertical lamella which is fused to the clypeus. 
Mandibles triangular ; antennae 9 to 12 joints ; eyes small or 
wanting. Thorax usually without dorsal sutures ; petiole nodiform 
or squamiform ; 1st abdominal segment large, separated by a con- 
striction from the 2nd segment which is large and forms the greater 
part of the abdomen. Tibiae with only one spur ; claws simple. 

? . Winged; eyes and ocelli well developed, otherwise resembling 
the $ . 

$ . Clypeus and frontal carinae much the same as in the $ ; 
antennae 13-jointed ; wings with only one closed cubital cell. 

This tribe contains five genera, two of which are represented in 
South Africa. 

1. Clypeus very short, but not projecting in a roof -shaped mass above the mouth; 
body not filiform, apical segments of abdomen incurved under the 2nd segment 
and reflected, so that the apex points forwards Sysphincta, Roger. 

2. Clypeus fused with the frontal carinae and the cheeks, and projecting in a 
roof-like manner above the mouth ; body filiform ; apical segments of abdomen 
straight, not incurved and reflected Probolomyrmex, Mayr. 

Genus PBOBOLOMYBMEX, Mayr. 
Ann. K.K.N.H. Museum, Vienna, vol. 16, p. 2, 1901. 

Characters. 

$ . Body filiform, head long and narrow. The clypeus is fused 
with the frontal carinae and the cheeks, forming a projecting ledge 
over the mouth, in front of the antennae; the frontal carinae, fused 
in front, are separate behind. The mandibles are hidden by the 
clypeal projection, and are elongate-triangular and dentate. Antennae 
12-jointed ; scape long, flagellum claviform but not forming a club 
•of a definite number of joints. Byes wanting. Thorax without 
sutures, the declivity of the epinotum surrounded by a raised edge. 
Node of the petiole compressed, higher behind than in front, longer 
than wide ; ventral lamella produced into a vertical projection, 
pointing backwards. Abdomen elongate, not reflexed ventrally ; a 
slight constriction between the 1st and 2nd segments. 

? and $ . Unknown. 

3 



34 Annals of the South African Museum. 

P. filiformis, Mayr. (Plate I., fig. 2, 2a.) 
Loc. cit. 
$ . 3 mm. Head nearly twice as long as wide, posterior angles 
feebly rounded. The anterior portion of the head is produced into a 
roof-like projection or ledge which reaches as far as or a little 
beyond the apex of the closed mandibles. This projection is formed 
by the clypeus and the anterior portion of the fused frontal carinae 
and all that part of the face which lies between a point' a little 
behind the antennal sockets, and the anterior margin of the clypeus. 
Viewed from the side, the antennae are seen to be inserted on this 
ledge half-way between its anterior and posterior limits, and 
therefore lie above the middle point of the mandibles when the 
latter are closed. The frontal carinae which arise a little in front of 
the antennal sockets, leaving them uncovered, are curved inwards,, 
fused together for half their length, diverge again posteriorly and 
reach to a point about as far back as the base of the mandibles. 
The fused portion of the carinae forms a rounded and raised crest, 
lying between the insertion of the antennae. The latter are 
12-jointed ; the scape, somewhat flattened, reaches back two-thirds 
of the head ; the flagellum is gradually thickened towards the apex. 
The last joint is twice as long as the two preceding, and all the joints 
except the 1st and 3rd, are noticeably wider than long, the 1st joint 
is two-thirds as long again as it is wide, the 3rd joint is about as- 
long as wide, and the 2nd joint is very small and nearly twice as- 
wide as long. 

The colour is a rich burnt sienna, with the antennae, legs, and 
apex of abdomen lighter, or ferruginous yellow. The whole body is 
dull and microscopically and densely punctulate, intermixed with 
larger and shallower punctures on the 1st and 2nd abdominal 
segments and the back of the head. The general puncturation is 
only observable with a magnification of 60 diameters, and the larger 
punctures are barely recognizable under a magnification of even 20 
diameters. 

Other characters as for the genus. 

Port Elizabeth. (Brauns.) 1 £ in my collection presented by 
Dr. Brauns. 

Genus SYSPHINCTA, Eoger. 
(Sy sphing ta), Berlin Ent. Zeitschr., vol. 7, p. 175, 1863. 

Characters . 
$ and $ . The anterior margin of the clypeus is produced into a 
point (not in S. Amolcli). Flagellum very slightly, if at all„ 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 35 

incrassate towards the apex. Eyes very small, situated in the 
middle of the sides of the head. Petiole nodiform. 

$ . Clypeus produced anteriorly in an obtuse point ; frontal 
carinae separated by a sulcus. Scape longer than one-third of the 
flagellum. Epinotum truncate. Petiole not so high as in the 
$ . 2nd segment of abdomen only feebly incurved. Wings with 
one cubital and one discoidal cell. 



S. Arnoldi, Forel. 

Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr. Beiheft, p. 210, $ , 1913. 

$ . 3 mm. Eeddish yellow, the margins of the frontal carinae 
and the epinotal teeth piceous. Covered all over with a very 
dense yellowish-white semi-erect pubescence longer on the abdomen 
than elsewhere, very short on the flagellum ; a few short pilose hairs 
on the front of the head, long pale hairs on the ventral surface and 
sides of the abdomen. Whole body, excluding the legs and flagellum, 
dull, very minutely, shallowly and irregularly rugose, 2nd abdominal 
segment and legs slightly shining. Head globose, very little longer 
than wide, sides moderately convex. Eyes very minute, placed 
slightly behind the middle of the sides and consisting apparently of 
only a single facet. Clypeus very short and fused with the frontal 
carinae ; the latter are linear, convergent in front, divergent behind. 
Mandibles coarsely punctured, with about 4 blunt teeth on the 
masticatory margin. Scape strongly incrassate towards the apex, 
reaching back not quite as far as the occipital margin; flagellum 
11-jointed, nearly half as long again as the scape, the terminal joints 
do not form a club, 1st joint a little longer than wide, last joint as 
long as the three preceding taken together, all the other joints wider 
than long. Thorax about one-fifth longer than the head, widest in 
front, but not so wide as the head, narrowing gradually to the 
epinotum, very convex from side to side and rounded in front. The 
dorsum of the epinotum is depressed towards the apex which carries 
a minute blackish tooth on each side ; the declivity is short and 
vertical. The dorsum is faintly, and the declivity distinctly 
margined laterally by a raised dark line, confluent with the epinotal 
teeth. Node of petiole not squamiform, but thick and sub-globose, 
wider than long, convex at the sides and above, vertical in front and 
behind; ventral lamella very strongly produced, excised below 
posteriorly so as to form a sharp tooth pointing backwards. Seen 
from above, the abdomen is oblong, the 1st segment as long as wide 
and not much, if at all wider at the apical margin than at the base, 



36 Annals of the South African Museum. 

2nd segment longer than wide, and one-third longer than the 1st 
segment. Seen from the side, the 1st segment is much deeper at the 
apical margin than at the base, the extreme base below is produced 
into a strong obtuse tooth pointing forwards ; the 2nd segment 
is very convex above and posteriorly and covers the remaining 
segments, which are incurved and reflected, so that the apex of the 
abdomen points forwards. Seen from above, the apical segments 
are completely hidden from view by the 2nd segment. 

Bulawayo. 1 taken under a stone, and 1 taken in the nest of 
Platythyrea cribrinodis, Gerst. (G.A., coll.) 

As I have adopted the scheme of classification for the genera 
given by Emery in the "Genera Insectorum," I have retained this 
species under the genus Sysphincta. Dr. Forel in his description 
refers it to the genus Proceratium, and points out that this and 
other species share some of the characters of both genera, so that he 
considers it necessary now to sink Sysphincta to a sub-genus of 
Proceratium. 



Section EUPONEEINAE, Emery. 
Teibe PONEEINI, Forel. 

Characters. 

£ and ? . Mandibles articulated near the anterior angles of the 
head ; frontal carinae convergent posteriorly and nearly always 
produced into a lateral lobe anteriorly, which covers the insertion of 
the antennae. A more or less marked constriction between the 1st 
and 2nd abdominal segments. Claws simple or dentate. 

$ . Claws simple or dentate. 

Key to the $ and 2 . 

(2). 1. Middle pair of tibiae with two simple calcaria ; posterior tibiae with two 
calcaria, the inner large and pectinate Centromijrmex, Mayr. 

(1). 2. Tibiae not so formed. 
(14). 3. Middle and posterior tibiae with two well-developed calcaria, the inner 
the larger, and pectinate. 

(5). 4. Node of the petiole compressed above and forming a sharp edge, with a 
slight notch behind which is in front of a terminal blunt tooth ; clypeus 
produced into a blunt tooth in the middle of each side ; very large 
species Streblognathus, Mayr. 

(4). 5. Petiole not compressed above. 

(7). 6. Clypeus with a median raised portion; the latter is deeply excavated in 
the middle and projects beyond the anterior margin of the head ; 1st 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 37 

abdominal segment produced ventrally at its junction with the petiole 

into a blunt, compressed tooth Paltothyreus, Mayr. 

(6). 7. Clypeus otherwise formed. 

(9). 8. Eyes situated behind the middle of the head; claws with a minute sharp 

tooth close to the base. Head narrow, excluding mandibles, at least one 

and a third times as long as wide across the eyes Opthalmopone, Forel. 

(8). 9. Eyes situated at about the middle or a little in front of the middle of the 

head. 

(11). 10. Claws with a single blunt tooth a little distance from the base. 

Megaponera, Mayr. 
(10). 11. Claws simple. 
(13). 12. Meso-metanotal suture obsolete in the 5 , medium-sized species, 

10-14 mm. Pachycondyla, Smith. 

(12). 13. Meso-metanotal suture more or less distinct, small species, mostly less 

than 10 mm Euponera, Forel. 

(3). 14. Middle and posterior tibiae with only one well-developed calcar, which is 
also pectinate ; the other is rudimentary or absent. 
(16). 15. Sculpture fine ; at least the abdomen is pubescent, outer calcar absent ; 

small species, less than 10 mm Ponera, Latr. 

(15). 16. Abdomen not pubescent ; whole body very shining, evenly and largely 
punctured ; medium-sized or very large species . . Plectroctena, Smith. 



Key to the $ $ . 

(2). 1. Middle tibiae with two very small calcaria, posterior tibiae with one 

large pectinate calcar Centromyrmex, Mayr. 

(1). 2. Tibiae not so formed. 
(14). 3. Middle and posterior tibiae with two calcaria, the inner pectinate. 
(7). 4. Scape not considerably shorter than the 2nd joint of the flagellum. 
(6). 5. Scape a little longer than the 2nd joint of the flagellum ; frontal carinae 

rudimentary Megaponera, Mayr. 

(5). 6. Scape a little shorter than the 2nd joint of the flagellum; frontal carinae 

distinct Opthalmopone, Forel. 

(4). 7. Scape considerably shorter than the 2nd joint of the flagellum. 

(9). 8. Pygidium prolonged into a curved spine; clypeus truncate or feebly 

produced Pachycondyla, Smith, Euponera, Forel (pars). 

(8). 9. Pygidium blunt or pointed, but not produced into a spine. 
(13). 10. Ventral lamella of petiole not furnished with an acute spine pointing 

backwards. 
(12). 11. First abdominal ventral segment produced at its extreme base into a 
sharp tooth pointing backwards ; large species, 15 mm. at least. 

Paltothyreus, Mayr. 
(11). 12. First abdominal ventral segment simple, small species. 

Euponera, Forel (pars). 
(10). 13. Ventral lamella of petiole produced posteriorly into an acute spine 

pointing backwards . . Strehlognathus, Mayr. 

(3). 14. Middle and posterior tibiae with a single calcar. 
(16). 15. Pygidium pointed or produced into a spine ; scutellum depressed or 
moderately convex ; integument finely punctured, small species. 

Ponera, Latreille. 

(15). 16. Pygidium obtuse ; scutellum prominent ; integument coarsely punctured, 

large species Plectroctena, Smith. 



38 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Genus CENTROMYRMEX, Mayr. 
Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, vol. 16, p. 894, 1866. 
Spalacomyrmex, Emery, Ann. Mus. Stor. Genova, vol. 27, p. 189, 
1889. 

Characters. 

£ . Clypeus projecting far backwards between the frontal carinae ; 
the latter expanded in front, not close together, and with a long 
sulcus between them. 

The scape of the antennae is rather flattened, the flagellum 
incrassate towards the apex. Eyes absent. 

Mandibles long, the masticatory margin unusually so, with fine 
denticulations or without teeth. 

Pro-mesonotal suture distinct, meso-epinotal suture obsolete. 

Pronotum sharply marginate in front, the part below the margin 
almost vertical. The dorsum of the epinotum is contracted at its 
base so as to form a median saddle-shaped ridge, and is raised into a 
hump towards the apex above the declivity. 

Node of petiole somewhat conical, with a fine sharp spine beneath. 
Abdomen ovate. 

Legs very short and stout, the femora and tibiae broad and flat. 
Posterior tibiae with two calcaria, the inner pectinate, the outer 
simple ; middle tibiae with two simple calcaria. 

$ . Similar to the $ but winged, slightly larger, with medium- 
sized eyes placed nearly in the middle of the sides of the head ; 
small ocelli present, situated close to the occiput. 

$ . Head rounded, the clypeus very convex. Mandibles short, 
triangular and edentate. Thorax rather short, the mesonotum with 
Mayrian furrows. Epinotum very convex. Node of petiole emar- 
ginate above. Abdominal constriction feeble. Pygidium not pointed. 
Wings short, not reaching the end of the abdomen. Calcaria of 
middle tibiae simple and small ; posterior tibiae with two calcaria, 
the inner pectinate. 

C. Constanciae, n. sp. (Plate II., figs. 14, 14a, 146, 14c.) 

£ . 5-5 - 3 mm. Dark reddish yellow, posterior half of head, 
anterior portion of pronotum, mesonotum, and epinotum above, the 
basal half of the abdominal segments, apices of the joints of the 
flagellum, except the apical, and the anterior tarsi, castaneous. 

There is no pubescence, and the whole body is very smooth and 
shining. Sides and posterior part of the head with very distinct 
small punctures ; scape and frontal carinae and the central portion 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 39 

of the clypeus with a few small punctures ; mandibles very finely 
and sparsely punctured ; depressed area below the antennal sockets 
very finely striate. Pronotum above rugulose ; mesonotum with 
about 15 large punctures on each side, the central longitudinal area 
impunctate. The pleurae, femora, tibiae, and abdominal segments 
very sparsely and finely punctured. 

The pilosity consists of yellow hairs arising from the punctures, 
rather short on the thorax and vertex of head, longer on the abdomen 
and node of petiole. There is a long hair on each side of the middle 
of the clypeus. 

Head seen from the side, nearly flat above, truncate behind and in 
front. Seen from above, the head is wider behind than in front, the 
posterior angles very rounded. 

Mandibles very convex longitudinally, more than two-thirds the 
length of the head, and with the masticatory margin almost smooth. 
Clypeus transversely impressed behind the straight anterior margin, 
raised in the middle (the raised portion forming a vertical and sub- 
quadrate area, shining and punctured), produced backwards between 
the frontal carinae as far as the beginning of the frontal sulcus, 
which is long and deep and ends abruptly in the middle of the 
vertex. The frontal carinae much widened anteriorly but not lobed. 

Scape about as long as the mandibles, considerably flattened 
dorso-ventrally ; flagellum 11 -jointed, not quite so long as the head 
and mandibles together, 1st joint nearly as long as the 2nd, 3rd 
and 4th together, 2nd joint very short, 2nd to 8th joints wider than 
long, apical joint as long as the two preceding together. Eyes and 
ocelli absent. 

Pronotum with a raised margin anteriorly, the region between 
the latter and the neck, vertical. Seen from above, the pronotum 
has a crescentic outline, obtusely pointed in the middle in front. 
Mesonotum twice as long as the pronotum, with a raised margin in 
front, and at the sides anteriorly. The dorsum of the epinotum is 
depressed and saddle-shaped anteriorly and raised into a hump 
posteriorly, but the declivity also enters partly into the formation of 
the latter. The petiole is elongate, with a minute lateral tooth on 
each side of the extreme base ; the node is slightly excavated and 
sub-vertical in front, very convex above and at the sides, vertical 
behind. The ventral lamella is produced at its anterior third into a 
short, sharp spine, pointing forwards. The node does not rise 
higher than the epinotum. 

Abdomen ovate, the 1st segment sub-truncate in front, and one a 
half times as long as the 2nd ; the constriction between these two 



40 Annals of the South African Museum. 

segments is feebly indicated dorsally. Sting very long, three- 
quarters the length of the abdomen. 

Coxae, especially of the 1st pair of legs, very large. Anterior 
femora and tibiae flattened and wide. The intermediate tibiae 
short, only half as long as the femora ; the posterior tibiae also 
short, but a little longer than the intermediate. The 2nd, 3rd, and 
4th joints of all the tarsi wider than long ; the apical angles of all 
the tarsal joints produced into stout, blunt spines ; the posterior 
metatarsi with three or four stout spines, the intermediate tibiae 
with two rows of spines on their external margins. 

? . 7 mm. Similar to the $ but much darker, the 1st abdominal 
segment dark reddish brown, the apical margin lighter ; the 2nd-4th 
segments piceous, the 5th ferruginous in the middle, piceous at the 
sides. The margin of the pronotum is much more prominent than 
in the £ , the mesonotum is flatter, raised more above the pronotum 
and is vertically truncate in front. The scutellum is distinct, black, 
shining, and impunctate, and separated from the mesonotum by a 
shallow sulcus. The metanotum is very short ; epinotum not 
forming a hump as in the g , the dorsum short, the declivity steep, 
rounded above and at the sides. 

Eyes and ocelli present ; the former moderately large, their 
distance from the base of the mandibles being about two-thirds of 
their own length ; the ocelli are set far back, close to the occipital 
margin. The legs are proportionately more slender than in the £ . 
"Winged (de-alated in the single specimen in my possession). 

Bulawayo, Bembesi, under large stones. The genus is termi- 
tophilous, but this species does not appear to be so, since it was not 
found in or near the nests of termites. The species cannot be 
mistaken for any other Ponerine ant of our region, on account of 
the striking fossorial structure of the legs, and the marginate 
pronotum. This species is apparently closely related to C. sellaris, 
Mayr, from the Cameroons, although not having had an example of 
the latter for inspection, it is not easy to compare the two species, 
since Mayr's description of sellaris is based mainly on a comparison 
between it and C. Feae, Emery, an Indian species. Judging, how- 
ever, by the descriptions of these two species, Constanciae has the 
following characters to distinguish it from sellaris. The colour is 
much darker ; the striae below the antennal sockets do not extend 
back to the posterior angles of the head, hardly passing beyond the 
middle line of the head ; the limits of the declivity above (seen from 
behind) are distinctly marked off from the humped shaped portion 
of the dorsum of the epinotum. The declivity is also distinctly 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 41 

convex from above to below, and from side to side, not flat in the 
middle and below as in sellaris. (S.A.M., E.M., G.A., coll.) 



Genus STEBBLOGNATHUS, Mayr. 
Verb.. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, vol. 12, p. 716, 1862. 
The genus includes only a single species. 

S. aethiopicus, Smitb. (Plate I., fig. 5.) 

Cat. Hymen. Brit. Museum, vol. 6, p. 91, £ , 1858. Emery, Ann. 
Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 43, p. 468, $ , 1899. 

£. 18-22 mm. Black, mandibles piceous, anterior tarsi beneath 
with dense golden hairs. Head and thorax dull, petiole and abdo- 
men shining. A very short pale pubescence on the whole body, 
dense on the head and thorax, exceedingly scanty elsewhere. The 
pilosity consists of short thick hairs, dense on the head, scape and 
legs, scanty on the rest of the body. The head is very finely 
reticulate-punctate, the thorax finely striate, the abdomen smooth 
and shining, with a few fine punctures ; 3rd-5th segments a little 
more strongly and closely punctured, and with longer hairs. 

Head, excluding mandibles, almost rectangular, with the posterior 
angles rounded ; considerably wider than the thorax. 

Clypeus somewhat projecting, and sharply truncate inwardly in 
front, so that a deep depression lies between it and the labrum ; it 
is raised roof-shaped in the middle, the declivity on each side ending 
at about half the distance from the external angles ; on each side 
anteriorly it is produced into a blunt tooth which lies about half- 
way between its centre and the base of the mandible. Frontal area 
elongate and sharply defined, produced backwards almost two-thirds 
the length of the frontal carinae. The latter are short, dilated in front, 
and project over the insertion of the antennae. Mandibles two-thirds 
the length of the head, oblongo-triangular, coarsely punctured on the 
masticatory margin, which is oblique and longer than the basal. 
Antennae long, the scape reaching back to the middle of the 
mesonotum, scape and flagellum together reaching a little beyond 
the middle of the 1st abdominal segment ; flagellum filiform, the 1st 
joint two-thirds the length of the 2nd. Eyes more dorsal than 
lateral, moderately lai"ge and situated in about the middle of the 
length of the head. 

Pro-mesonotal suture distinct, the meso-metanotal suture less so. 
Mesonotum raised higher than the pronotum ; the metanotum and 



42 Annals of the South African Museum. 

epinotum narrow and compressed. The dorsum of the epinotum 
flat, with slightly raised lateral margins which end just before the 
apex in two short teeth which are continuous with the sharply raised 
lateral margins of the declivity (see Pig. 3, p. 4). Petiole convex 
anteriorly, sharply truncate and slightly concave posteriorly, com- 
pressed laterally so as to form an acute dorsal ridge which ends 
posteriorly in a curved point, with a small notch at its base. - The 
posterior apex of the petiole lies considerably higher than the thorax. 
Ventral lamella produced along nearly its whole length into a 
blade-like expansion which is truncate in front and semicircularly 
emarginate behind. 

x\bdomen pear-shaped ; 1st segment nearly as long as the 2nd, 
the latter as long as the remaining segments together. The apical 
segment is microscopically rugulose and with a sparse but coarse 
piligerous puncturation. 

The legs are long, the posterior metatarsi as long as the tibiae. 

? . Unknown. 

3 . 18 mm. Testaceous, scutellum and last two abdominal seg- 
ments darker. Head, between the eyes and ocelli and posteriorly, 
black and shining. Wings pale fuscous, nervures and stigma 
piceous. Head strongly transverse. Eyes and ocelli very large, the 
former occupying almost the whole of the sides of the head. 

Clypeus trapezoid, arcuately emarginate in front, and separated 
from the frontal area behind by a suture. The frontal area is large 
and projects back in an acute angle between the antennal sockets. 
Frontal carinae rudimentary. Antennae filiform and very long, 
reaching back to the apex of the 4th abdominal segment ; the 
scape very short, about as long as the long diameter of the 
ocellus. 

The mesonotum is dull and finely punctured, rounded, and with a 
shallow furrow on each side which extends from the posterior margin 
to a point beyond the anterior edge of the tegulae. A feeble ridge 
in the centre extends from the pro-mesonotal suture to about the 
middle of the mesonotum. Scutellum raised above the level of the 
rest of the notum ; it is sloping in front and behind, somewhat 
compressed laterally and separated from the mesonotum by a deep 
and clathrate suture. 

Epinotum with a faint median sulcus at its extreme base ; the 
declivity is not steep, but forms a continuous curve with the dorsum 
and its lateral margins are defined by rather feeble ridges which 
converge towards the base and almost meet below the median 
sulcus. The declivity smooth and shining below, the rest of the 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 43 

epinotum duller and feebly punctured. Node of the petiole longer 
than wide, convex in front, truncate behind and obtusely pointed 
above. The ventral lamella in the middle is produced into a sharp 
spine, pointing backwards. 

Abdomen smooth and shining, apical dorsal segment slightly 
carinate and ending in a short, sub-acute point. 

Tbe whole body covered with a fine, pale pubescence. Pilosity 
absent except on the ventral surface of the abdomen, which is 
clothed with long pale hairs. Willowmore. (Brauns.) (S.A.M., 
E.M., G.A., coll.) 



Genus PALTOTHYEEUS, Mayr. 

Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, vol. 12, p. 735, 1862. 

Formica (pars), Fabricius. 

Pachycondyla (pars), Smith. Cat. Hymen. Brit. Mus., vol. 6, p. 105, 
1858. 

Characters. 

$ . Clypeus with the central portion raised, roundly truncate in 
front and projecting beyond the rest of the clypeus. This raised 
portion is deeply excavated in the middle, shining, and with two or 
three longitudinal striae ; the sides of the raised part are also 
striate. Frontal carinae triangularly dilated in front, slightly 
divergent behind ; the frontal area, fused with the clypeus, reaches 
backwards as far as the ends of the frontal carinae, beyond which 
lies a short, shining depression. 

Mandibles elongate and triangular ; the masticatory margin is long 
and furnished with numerous small teeth. Plagellum of antennae 
filiform ; scape arcuate and somewhat flattened at the apex, longer 
by one-third than the head (excluding the mandibles). Eyes moder- 
ately large and situated in front of the middle of the sides of the 
head. Pro-mesonotal suture distinct, meso-epinotal suppressed dor- 
sally. Thorax widest in front, gradually thinning towards the base. 
Node of petiole high and rounded ; ventral lamella produced into a 
broad, triangular tooth. First abdominal segment, at its junction 
below with the petiole, produced into a blunt tooth ; the segment is 
vertical in front, and the basal margin above has distinct but obtuse 
lateral angles. Abdominal constriction feeble. Claws with a small 
tooth between the base and the middle. 

$ . Winged, larger than the $ ; thorax depressed, with the 
pronotum largely visible. 



44 Annals of the South African Museum. 

$ . Clypeus triangular, with a small conical protuberance on the 
anterior margin. Frontal carinae very short and feebly developed. 
Ocelli small. Head not wider than the pronotum at its widest. 
Antennae filiform and long, reaching back to the apical margin of 
the 2nd abdominal segment ; scape a little longer than the distance 
between the two posterior ocelli. Pronotum moderately long and 
plainly visible from above. Mesonotum with a central depression 
extending from the base to a little beyond the middle, and with traces 
Of lateral grooves. Node of the petiole similar to that of the £ , 
but not so high and with the lamellar tooth less acute. The basal, 
ventral tooth of the 1st abdominal segment is larger than in the $ . 
Abdominal constriction feeble. Pygidium pointed, but not spined. 



P. taesatus, Fabr. (Plate I., figs. 6, 10.) 
Suppl. Ent. Syst., p. 280, 1798. {Formica tarsata.) Mayr, Verh. 
Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, vol. 16, p. 894, $ , 1866. Forel, Gran- 
didier Hist. Madag., vol. 20, p. 136, 2 , 1891. Smith, Cat. 
Hymen. Brit. Mus., vol. 6, p. 92, $ , 1858. (Ponera spiniventris .) 
Ibid., p. 105, ? . (Pachycondyla simillima.) 

$ . 17-20 mm. Black, masticatory margins of mandibles, lobes 
of frontal carinae and tarsi reddish black. Head, thorax, legs and 
antennae with a fine, inconspicuous yellow pubescence, and sparsely 
and irregularly beset with longer yellow hairs. Pilosity and 
pubescence of abdomen scantier, apical segment with yellowish-red 
bristles. Mandibles with a row of large punctures along the masti- 
catory margin, elsewhere with a few shallow punctures. 

Head evenly and finely striate, the striae running diagonally from 
the centre outwards. Pronotum with larger striae running arcuately 
from front to base. Meso- and epinotum transversely and rather 
obliquely striate, the striae finer than on the pronotum. Mesopleurae 
finely punctate. Dorsum of epinotum long, the declivity short 
and gradual. Node of petiole above with a few almost obsolete 
striae. Abdomen shining, 1st and 2nd segments with a few 
irregular punctures on the dorsum near the base, their apices more 
closely punctured. Third and 4th segments evenly and fairly closely 
punctured ; apical segment microscopically rugulose at the base, 
shining and impunctate at the apex. Anterior tarsi densely clothed 
beneath with golden, bristly hairs. 

? 23 mm., including the mandibles; similar to the £ except for 
the usual sexual differences. Pronotum more than twice as wide 
as long ; mesonotum wider than long, one-quarter longer than the 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of Sotith Africa. 45 

pronotum. Node of petiole a little wider and thicker above than 
in the £ . Wings brownish yellow, nervures and stigma brown. 
Alar expanse 29 mm. 

g . 14 mm. Black ; wings fuscous, nervures brown, stigma 
piceous. Head and thorax with a close yellow pubescence, especially 
on the epinotum and posterior face of the node, and a fairly abundant 
pilosity of yellowish hairs. Abdomen with a pale inconspicuous 
pubescence, less abundant on the 3rd and following segments ; 
ventral segments with long, pale hairs. 

Head and thorax moderately shining, irregularly and shallowly 
punctured ; the base of the mesonotum punctate-striate ; the scutel- 
lum finely punctured. Abdomen very shining and with a bluish 
reflection, all the segments very finely and sparsely punctured. 
The 1st segment has on each side of the apical margin a trans- 
versely elongate, and almost obsolete, angle or hump. Pygidium 
very smooth and shining, with a few fine punctures. Other 
characters as for the genus. 

This species is widely but locally distributed. Generally the £ £ 
go about singly, but occasionally forage in short columns, in single 
file. The food is varied, but consists largely of termites. The nests 
have several entrances, which are sometimes surrounded by large 
heaps of finely divided earth. The species has a most powerful 
and offensive smell, which appears to me to resemble that of the 
juice in a foul tobacco pipe. 

Bulawayo, Victoria Palls, Bembesi and Matoppos, Ehodesia ; 
Willowmore. (Brauns.) Zululand. (Marley.) (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. 
coll.) 

Var. delagoensis, Emery. 
Ann, Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 43, p. 468, g , 1899. 

This differs from the type in having the median longitudinal 
raised line of the clypeus extending further back, and in the less 
distinctly striated mandibles. 

Delagoa Bay. (S.A.M. coll.) 

These characters are variable in Ehodesian specimens, in which 
as a rule the mandibles are only very faintly striate, and it appears 
to me doubtful whether the above form is worthy of even varietal 
distinction. If it is, the Ehodesian examples ought perhaps to be 
referred to it. In a specimen from West Africa in my possession 
the mandibles are almost smooth, and the clypeus projects back 
only a short distance between the frontal carinae, but the striation 
of the head is much stronger than in the Ehodesian examples. 



46 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Genus MEGAPONERA, Mayr. 
Verh. Zool. Bofc. Ges. Wien, vol. 12, p. 734, 1862. Emery, 
Megaloponera, Ann. Mus. Stor. Nat. Genoa, vol. 9, p. 368, 
1877. 
Ponera (pars), Guerin, Gerstaecker, Roger. 
Formica, Fabricius, Latreille. 

Characters. 

$ . Clypeus rounded anteriorly, with the anterior border and 
middle portion raised, the latter convexly so, and produced back- 
wards angularly between the frontal carinae. The latter are 
slightly lobed in front, convergent in their middle portion and 
diverge before ending at about the level of the eyes. Mandibles 
triangular, the masticatory margin beset with alternating large and 
small teetb. Eyes a little in front of the middle of the sides of the 
head. Pronotum long, twice as long as the mesonotum ; the latter 
margined all round by a tolerably distinct suture. Node of petiole 
large, trapezoid in horizontal cross-section ; the ventral lamella is 
produced into a blunt tooth, pointing backwards. Abdominal con- 
striction obsolete. Claws with a short tooth near the base. 

? . (See footnote, p. 48.) 

$ . Clypeus gibbous, anterior margin rounded, posterior margin 
not projecting between the frontal carinae, which are short and 
indistinct. Mandibles very short and edentate. The antennal 
sockets are further apart from each other than they are from the 
sides of the head. Antennae moderately long, scape long, being 
longer than the longest joint (2nd) of the flagellum ; the latter 
filiform. Eyes slightly sinuate on their inner margins, and occupy- 
ing less than half the sides of the head. Tbe posterior dorsal 
margin of the head is produced into a rim or collar. Mesonotum 
prominent and twice as long as the pronotum. Abdominal con- 
striction feeble. Pygidium not spined. Claws with 3 or 4 minute 
teeth near the base. 



M. foetens, Fabr. (Plate I., figs. 7, 8, 8a, and text-fig. 6.) 

(Formica), Ent. Syst., vol. 2, p. 354, $ , 1793. 

(Megaloponera) , Mayr, Sjostedt. Zool. Exp. Kilimandjaro, Formi- 
cidae, p. 9, $ , 1907. 

(Ponera crassicornis), Gerstaecker, Sitzungsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 
p. 262, $ mi., 1858. 

£ major. 15 mm. Black, covered with a fine, yellow pruinose 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. . 47 

pubescence, and with golden-red hairs on the inner margin of the 
mandibles, the clypeus and apical abdominal segment. The latter 
is ferruginous at the apex. The apex of last joint of flagellum, the 
spines of the tarsi, and the calcaria also ferruginous. The apices of 
the dorsal segments of the abdomen dark ferruginous. 

Mandibles very strongly curved, the convexity being dorsal, two- 
thirds as long as the head from clypeus to occiput, and shallowly 
and sparsely punctured. A carina extends on the cheek from the 
anterior margin of the eye to the clypeus. 

Head, pro- and mesonotum and abdomen moderately shining, and 
the whole body impunctate. The pronotum has a longitudinal 
central impressed line anteriorly. The dorsum of the epinotum is 
flat, with a faint longitudinal impression centrally, and widens 
towards the brow of the declivity, which bears on each side a blunt 
prominence (hardly a tooth) ; the declivity is somewhat excavated 
and vertical. Mesapleurae, epinotum, and node of petiole duller 
than the rest of the body. 

Antennae reach back as far as the base of the 1st abdominal 
segment ; scape as long as the head from the clypeus to the occiput, 
thickened and flattened towards the apex; 2nd joint of the flagellum 
longest, but not quite twice as long as the first. 
$ minor, 9-11 mm. =M. crassicomis , Gerst. 

It differs from the $ major in being considerably smaller and 
less pubescent. The abdomen, the vertex of the head, the pro- 
and mesonotum are much more shining than in the larger form. 
It also differs by the thicker and shorter scape, which is widest 
in the middle, and by the node of the petiole, which is less acute 
dorsally. 

Nevertheless small examples are met with which are just as 
pubescent and dull as the larger sort. 

$ . 12 mm. Black, the apical margins of all the abdominal 
segments widely ferruginous. The dorsum of the epinotum is 
short, not longer than the pronotum, and only slightly indented 
at the apex centrally. Wings short and narrow, fuscous, with the 
apical half darker, the nervures light brown, the stigma, costa, and 
whole of the marginal cell dark brown. Third, 4th, and 5th ventral 
segments of the abdomen with dense golden fimbriae. For the rest 
the characters of the genus. 

Formerly the small workers were separated as a distinct species, 
crassicomis Gerst., but the two forms are found together in the same 
nest, and the distinction cannot therefore be maintained. It is a 
common ant in Ehodesia, and lives almost exclusively on termites, 



48 Annals of the South African Museum. 

which are carried off by means of carefully arranged raids in which 
the ants march in double file. This is the species which is popularly 
called the " Matabele " ant, and like its cousin Paltothyreus, it is 
also endowed with a very offensive odour. They stridulate very 
loudly when disturbed, and their sting is exceedingly painful. The 
entrance to the nest consists of one or more simple holes, without 
any mounds of earth around them.* (S.A.M., R.M., G.A., coll.) 

* Since the above descriptions were written, I have had the good fortune to 
witness the singular spectacle of a migration of this species, and to obtain thereby 
a specimen of the real queen of this ant. As I intend to give a fuller account 
elsewhere of the manner in which the migration was carried out, it will suffice 
here to remark that the old and new nests were situated about 60 feet apart, and that 
the journey was accomplished by the colony in stages, in the following manner. 
At about 15 feet from the old nest the first camp was formed and a halt made, 
until all the eggs, larvae, and pupae were collected together, and until most of the 
stragglers had come in. Similar halting-places or temporary camps were formed 
every 15 feet or so. I saw the queen in the first camp, but failed to seize her with 
my forceps ; the same thing occurred when she was seen once again in the second 
camp, and it was only in the third camp that I managed to capture her, not an easy 
task when the viciousness of the g $ is taken into account. 

In the Introduction to this work (p. 6) I pointed out that if Emery's suggestion 
be correct that the larger worker-like form is the ergatoid ? , the species would be 
peculiar in having normally more queens than workers in the nest. The discovery 
of the true, although ergatoid, queen, disposes of this anomaly, and at the same 
time indicates the remarkable fact that the workers of this Ponerine ant are 
dimorphic. I append herewith a description of the queen, from which it will 
be seen that although similar in general appearance to the 5 major, it differs 
from it radically in important particulars, notably in the shape of the epinotum 
and petiole. 

? . 18'5 mm. ; length of abdomen, 9 mm. (in the $ major, 4-5-5 mm.) ; width 
of abdomen, 4 mm. (in the g major, 2-3 mm.). The pubescence is a little more 
abundant and longer than in the $ major, but the pilosity of the body is much 
more abundant, especially on the sides of the pronotum, the mandibles and the 
margins of the abdominal segments. The fine sculpturation is similar to that 
of the g major, but the mandibles are more coarsely punctured, and the head, 
thorax, petiole, and abdomen have some scattered, shallow, and fairly large 
punctures, from which arise" the pilose hairs, almost entirely wanting in the 
5 major. 

The head, pro- and mesonotum as in the 5 major, but the meso-epinotal suture 
is much deeper and wider. The dorsum of the epinotum is not longer than the 
pronotum (much longer in the 5 major). Seen from the side, it is not horizontal 
as in that caste, but convex longitudinally from the base to the apex, and convex 
from side to side, not sub-margined as in the 5 5 . A longitudinal and very 
distinct median groove runs from the base almost to the brow of the declivity ; 
this groove is but faintly indicated in the 5 major. The declivity is similar to 
that of the 5 major, but not so steep, and the lateral tubercles above are flatter or 
less dentiform. The node of the petiole is not sub-cubic as in the 5 ? , but almost 
squamiform and slanting forwardly, so that the anterior and posterior faces are 
not vertical or almost so, as in the 5 5 , but obliquely sloping. The anterior face is 
strongly concave, and the posterior face is only a little less so. Seen from the side, 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 49 

Genus OPTHALMOPONE, Forel. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. Vol. 34, C.E. p. 113, 1890. 

Pachycondyla (pars), Emery, Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital., vol. 18, p. 360, 
1886. 

Characters. 

g . Clypeus rounded in front, moderately convex, produced back- 
wards angularly between the frontal carinae; the latter are short, 
close together and narrow, sometimes lobed anteriorly. Mandibles 
triangular, long, and beset with alternating long and short teeth. 
Eyes large, placed behind or in the middle of the sides of the head. 
Pronotum much longer than the mesonotum ; the latter is circum- 
scribed by a distinct sulcus. Node of petiole thick, truncate behind, 
and with the ventral lamella produced into a more or less sharp 
point. Constriction between the 1st and 2nd abdominal segments 
very slight. Claws simple. 

? . Unknown. 

c? . Head longer than the pronotum ; clypeus gibbous and pro- 
jecting beyond the base of the mandibles ; frontal carinae distinct, 
divergent behind. Mandibles moderately long and pointed. An- 
tennae about as long as the head and thorax together ; scape shorter 
than the 2nd joint of the flagellum. Pronotum largely exposed, at 

the node is four and a half times higher than long (about two and a half times in 
the 5 major). Seen from above, the node is three and a quarter times as wide as 
long (about as wide as long in the 2 major) ; the node above is longer, i.e. thicker 
in the middle than at the sides; it is also convex from side to side, but more acute 
dorsally than in the 5 5. The anterior face of the 1st abdominal segment is not 
perpendicular as in the 55, but slopes forwards. The abdomen is much larger 
than in the g major, and all the segments are much wider than long. The teeth 
of the mandibles are larger and more acute. Other characters as in the $ major. 
Bulawayo. 




TTioroDCof- 



Fig. 6. 

Megaponera foetens, Fabr. 

4 



50 Annals of the South African Museum. 

its widest only slightly, if at all, wider than the head across the eyes. 
Node of petiole thick, lamellar projection beneath arcuately emar- 
ginate, with a posterior tooth pointing backwards. 

There are two South African species, distinguished as follows : 

(2). 1. ^ . Head, excluding mandibles, only slightly longer than wide across the 
eyes. 

c? . Frontal area very shining and indistinctly defined ; mandibles 
narrow and obliquely truncate at the apex ; 6th ventral segment furnished 
on each side with a flat and spatulate appendage . . hottentota, Emery. 

(1). 2. £ . Head, excluding mandibles, one and two-thirds as long as wide across 
the eyes. 

c? . Frontal area dull and distinctly defined ; mandibles broad and acute 
at the apex ; 6th ventral segment simple Berthoudi, Forel. 



0. Berthoudi, Forel. (Plate II., figs. 11, 13.) 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 34, C.E. p. 112, $ , 1890. Mitt. Schweiz. 
Ent. Ges., vol. 6, p. 76, $ , 1894. 

$ . 12 mm. Black, masticatory margin of mandibles, extreme base 
of scape and 2nd-5th joints of all the tarsi dark red, calcaria reddish 
yellow. The whole body microscopically rugulose and covered with 
a very close and fine dull golden pubescence ; the inner margin of 
the mandibles, the clypeus and last two segments of abdomen with a 
few golden bristles, more abundant on the last segment. Clypeus 
broadly angular in the middle and with three small grooves on each 
side of the middle area behind the anterior margin, the innermost 
the longest. Head very long, parallel-sided and rounded behind. 
The mandibles strongly convex longitudinally ; seen from the side, 
as long as from the apex of the cheek to the posterior margin of the 
eyes. The latter are large and situated behind the middle of the 
sides of the head. 

The clypeus produced posteriorly between the frontal carinae, 
beyond which is a narrow, shining depression. The frontal carinae, 
divergent in front and behind, only just reach a point level with the 
anterior margin of the eyes. Antennae reach backwards as far as 
the base of the 1st abdominal segment ; scape slightly thickened 
towards the apex, and as long as the head, excluding the 
mandibles. 

Pronotum two and a third times as long as the mesonotum. Epi- 
notum laterally compressed, with a shallow but distinct longitudinal 
groove in the middle, stretching from the base of the dorsum to the 
brow of the declivity. The latter is very steep, and seen from 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 51 

behind is angular at the sides and bluntly so above, the lower and 
central portion of its face slightly gibbous. Node of petiole not so 
high as the 1st abdominal segment, rounded in front, truncate in 
front and behind, and with a well-defined posterior dorsal margin 
which is bisinuate in the middle and feebly angled at the 
corners. The ventral lamella ends in a sharp tooth pointing 
backwards, and does not extend beyond the middle of the petiole. 
Abdomen somewhat conical and widest at the base. 1st and 
2nd segments sub-equal in length, constriction obsolete. Legs 
long and thin. 

$ . 11 mm. Black, 3rd and following joints of flagellum ferru- 
ginous yellow, lighter towards the apex ; 1st joint of flagellum, base 
and apex of scape, the last joint, and apices of all the joints of the 
tarsi, dark rusty red. Wings fuscous, darker towards the apex, 
nervures pale brown, stigma piceous. The whole body microscopi- 
cally rugulose and covered with a greyish pruinose pubescence 
similar to that of the Platythyreini. Base of head, the thorax and 
abdomen with large but shallow, piligerous punctures, sparse on the 
head and thorax, closer on the petiole and abdomen. The hairs are 
longer on the prothorax, epinotum, node of petiole and abdomen, 
shorter elsewhere, and of a fulvous colour. 

Head narrowest at the base, the portion which extends from the 
base to a line joining the anterior margin of the eyes having the 
shape of an inverted triangle. Mandibles broad and acute at the 
apex; clypeus large, slightly acuminate in the middle in front, 
rounded at the sides and gibbous at the base. Antennae filiform, 
1st joint of flagellum very short, the rest diminishing in length to- 
wards the apex. Frontal carinae broad and reaching to a point 
beyond the middle of the eyes. The latter are very large and placed 
in front of the middle of the sides of the head ; ocelli not very large. 
Posterior margin of the head reflexed above and at the sides, forming 
a slight collar similar to that of the $ of M. foetens. Pronotum 
widely exposed, two-thirds as long as the mesonotum. Pro- 
mesonotal suture distinct ; mesonotum separated from the scutellum 
by a deep and wide sulcus ; there is also a narrow lateral groove on 
each side reaching to a level beyond the anterior margin of the 
tegulae. The scutellum is sub-conic and finely striated at the sides. 
The base of the epinotum and the brow of the declivity rugose ; the 
declivity is oblique. The tooth of the ventral lamella of the petiole 
is thinner and more acute than in the £ . Pygidium narrow, shin- 
ing, and ending in a short spine. Abdomen of a similar shape to 
that of the $ , the hairs on the 3rd and following segments very long 



52 Annals of the South African Museum. 

and bright fulvous. 3rd to 5th ventral segments with long golden 
hairs on their apical margins. 

This species is an exceedingly fast ant which occasionally may be 
seen foraging in very irregular columns. It is common in the neigh- 
bourhood of Bulawayo, and nests under stones or in deserted 
termite mounds. 

(S.A.M, R.M., G.A. colls.) 

0. hottentota, Emery. (Plate II., fig. 12.) 
Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital., vol. 18, p. 360, g , 1886. 

$ . 10-11 mm. Black ; very similar to Berthoudi, but differs in 
the following features. The pubescence is denser and of a more 
fulvous tint. The head is shorter and not so parallel-sided, the eyes 
are placed farther forwards and the mandibles are broader and not 
so long. The epinotum is less compressed laterally and broader on 
top, and not so long or so flat ; it is compressed near the base and 
then rises in a slight hump and is continued in a gradual curve to 
the brow of the declivity. The latter, seen from above, has a much 
less angular outline than in Berthoudi. Seen from above, the node 
of the petiole is much narrower in front than in Berthoudi, and is 
only slightly emarginate in the middle posteriorly, and also not 
bisinuate nor obtusely angled laterally. The tooth of the ventral 
lamella is shorter and more acute. 

$ . 11-12 mm. Black. Mandibles obtuse and obliquely trun- 
cate at the apex ; posterior margin of the head not reflexed so as to 
form a collar. Frontal area shining and indistinctly defined. The 
head is more transverse than in Berthoudi, since the base of the 
head is much wider than in that species. Antennae, mandibles, 
tarsi and apical third of all the femora, ferruginous. 

It is easily distinguished from Berthoudi by the following characters. 
Head, thorax and base of abdominal segments with golden, not 
pruinose, pubescence. Piligerous punctures entirely absent, the 
whole body shining, especially the abdomen and node of petiole. 
The latter is more sharply truncate posteriorly and feebly sinuate 
in the middle. The ventral segments are more densely fimbriated 
and the 6th ventral segment is produced on each side into a long, flat 
and spatulate appendage, densely fimbriated at the apex. Wings 
wider and longer than in Berthoudi. 

Willowmore. (Brauns.) Cape Province generally, and Sebakwe, 
Mashonaland. I have not met with it in Matabeleland. 

(S.A.M., B.M., G.A. colls.) 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 53 

Genus PACHYCONDYLA, Smith. 
Pachycondyla (pars), Cat. Hymen. Brit. Mus., vol. 6, p. 105, 1858. 

Characters. 

% and ? . Clypeus rounded in front, or obtusely pointed, pro- 
longed backwards angularly between the frontal carinae. Mandibles 
sub-triangular, dentate. Eyes situated in the anterior third of the 
sides of the head. Cheeks not carinated. Pro-mesonotal suture 
distinct ; meso-epinotal suture obsolete above. Petiole generally 
with a thick, squarish node. Abdominal constriction usually dis- 
tinct. Claws simple. 

$ . Head more or less transverse. Clypeus rounded and gibbous 
in the middle, or broadly carinate. Ocelli large ; eyes very large, 
occupying nearly the whole of the sides of the head. Prontal 
carinae very feebly developed or obsolete. Antennae long, scape 
shorter than the 2nd joint of the flagellum. Pronotum largely ex- 
posed dorsally. Mesonotum usually with two lateral grooves and 
Mayrian furrows. Node of petiole compressed laterally and smaller 
than in the $ . Ventral lamella with a small tooth. Abdominal 
constriction distinct. Pygidium prolonged into a sharp spine. 
Claws simple. Wings very broad, the greatest width being only a 
little less than half the length. 

The genus comprises three sub-genera, viz. Pachycondyla, Ecto- 
momyrmex and Bothroponera. Of these the first is confined to 
America, and the 2nd is mainly Asiatic. The following characters 
distinguish Bothroponera and Ectomomyrmex. 

1. Dorsal surface of the head marked off from the cheeks and the posterior occipital 
region by a tumid angular margin ; the mesothoracic episternum divided from 
the sternum in the 5 by a strong suture Ectomomyrmex, Mayr. 

2. Dorsal surface of the head not marked off from the rest by a margin ; meso- 

thoracic episternum fused with the sternum, in the 5 . Bothroponera, Mayr. 



Sub-Genus ECTOMOMYRMEX, Mayr. 

Tidjschr. v. Entom. vol. 10, p. 830, 1867. 

P. (Ectomomyrmex) Brunoi, Forel. 

Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr. Beiheft, p. 205, g , 1913. 

$. 4-4'G mm. Black, apical segments of abdomen lighter. Legs, 
frontal carinae and antennae dark yellowish red, the apical halves 
of the 2nd-10th joints of the flagellum darker, coxae and trochanters 



54 Annals of the South African Museum. 

brown, mandibles ferruginous. Legs, antennae, and body covered 
with a pale yellowish and rather long pubescence ; mandibles, 
clypeus, and apical margins of abdominal segments with long pale, 
semi-erect hairs. Head dull, very finely and closely punctured. 
Thorax slightly shining, evenly but less closely punctured than the 
head. Abdomen shining, 1st segment finely and distinctly, 2nd 
segment faintly punctured. 

Head, excluding the mandibles, a little longer than wide, sides 
convex, occipital margin straight, posterior angles rounded but 
distinct. The angulation of the surface of the head, between the 
dorsal and genal regions, characteristic of the genus, is so feeble in 
this species as to be hardly noticeable. 

Clypeus shining and very short, anterior margin moderately 
convex, raised in the middle to form a shining carina which is fused 
with the frontal carinae. Mandibles triangular, shining, sparsely 
punctured, furnished with about 7-8 teeth. Scape reaching back as 
far as the occipital margin, flattened and incrassate towards the 
apex ; flagellum strongly incrassate towards the apex, the last 
4 joints forming a club ; 1st joint longer than wide, 2nd-10th joints 
wider than long. Eyes consisting of about 6 ill-defined facets, very 
small and flat, situated in the anterior fifth of the sides of the head. 
Frontal carinae wide, their external margins very convex. Pronotum 
not quite so wide as the head, wider than long, rather flat above and 
at the sides, rounded in front and with the anterior angles rounded 
but fairly distinct. Pro-mesonotal suture strong, meso-epinotal suture 
feeble. Mesonotum ovoid, wider than long, hardly two-thirds as 
long as the pronotum. Dorsum of epinotum very narrow, widening 
towards the apex ; declivity rather abrupt and nearly vertical, smooth 
and shining. The upper surface of the node, seen from above, is in 
the shape of a wide-based triangle, the apex very rounded ; seen from 
the side, the node is convex above from side to side, the anterior face 
slopes backwards and is concave from below to above, the posterior 
face vertical and concave from side to side. Ventral lamella of 
petiole produced and widely truncate at the apex. Abdomen 
elliptical, 1st segment with the anterior face sloping forwards, wider 
at the apex than at the base, as wide as long ; 2nd segment a little 
longer than the 1st, the constriction between the two segments 
moderate. Anterior femora and tibiae stout. 

$ (hitherto undescribed). 4 - 2 mm. Black, scape and 1st joint 
of flagellum, trochanters, apices of femora and tibiae, extreme bases 
of tibiae and all the tarsi pale brownish yellow. Head and thorax 
very shallowly punctured, abdomen impunctate. Whole body 



A Monograph of the Formic id ae of South Africa. 55 

shining, clothed with a long adpressed pale pubescence, closer on 
the head and legs, very dense on the antennae and scantier on the 
thorax and abdomen ; abdomen sparsely pilose with semi-erect long 
pale hairs, the rest of the body with a very scanty blackish pilosity. 
Head wider than long, excluding the clypeus nearly twice as wide as 
long. Clypeus raised roof-shaped towards the middle line, anterior 
margin straight and depressed ; seen directly from above, the 
clypeus projects considerably in front of the line of the mouth. 
Frontal carinae flat and nearly obsolete. Mandibles atrophied to 
two triangular flaps at the sides of the mouth. Byes large, not very 
prominent, their internal margins moderately concave. Ocelli large, 
on a slightly raised area. Antennae long and filiform, reaching 
back as far as the base of the 2nd abdominal segment ; scape shorter 
than the distance separating the two posterior ocelli, 1st joint of 
flagellum a little shorter than the scape, 2nd joint three times as 
long as the 1st, last joint nearly as long as the two preceding 
together. 

Pronotum exposed, not quite so wide as the head. Mesonotum 
a little longer than wide, with the parapsidal sutures and anterior 
Mayrian furrows sharply defined. Scutellum moderately gibbous, 
less than one-third the length of the mesonotum, from which it is 
separated by a deep crenate suture. Dorsum of epinotum wider 
than long, sloping gradually into the declivity. Node of petiole 
like that of the £ , but narrower and more parallel-sided. First 
segment of abdomen convex in front and at the sides, 2nd segment 
a little longer than the 1st, and wider than long. Pygidium pro- 
duced into a long spine. Wings hyaline, nervures and stigma pale 
yellow. 

Bulawayo, under stones, in small colonies of less than a dozen 
individuals. (S.A.M., P.M., G.A. colls.) 



Sub-Genus BOTHPOPONEPA, Mayr. 

Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, vol. 12, p. 717, 1862. 

Key to the % $ of Pachycondyla. (Sub-Genus Bothroponera, Mayr.) 

(10). 1. Head, thorax, and basal segments of abdomen coarsely punctured. 

(5). 2. Mandibles striated. 

(4). 3. Node of petiole widely emarginate posteriorly .. .. cariosa, Emery. 

(3). 4. Node of petiole sharply truncate posteriorly . . . . cavernosa, Roger. 

(2). 5. Mandibles not striated. 

(7). (5. Node of petiole widely emarginate posteriorly, a golden pubescence on the 

whole body granosa, Roger. 



56 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(6). 7. Node of petiole truncate posteriorly, no golden pubescence. 

(9). 8. Third, 4th, and 5th abdominal segments dull . . . . strigulosa, Emery. 

(8). 9. Third, 4th, and 5th abdominal segments more or less shining. 

pumicosa, Eoger. 

(1). 10. Head, thorax, and basal segments of abdomen finely punctured. 
(14). 11. Larger species, 11 mm. or more. 

(13). 12. Head and thorax dull ; head ovoid Kriigeri,Fore\. 

(12). 13. Head and thorax shining ; head quadrate .. .. laevissima, Arnold. 
(11). 14. Smaller species, 8 mm. soror, Emery. 



P. Keugeei, Forel. 

Ann. Soc. Bnt. Belg. vol. 54, p. 23, % , 1910. 

£ . 11 mm. Black ; mandibles and last four joints of all the 
tarsi, apical half of last joint of nagellum, and extreme base of the 
scape, castaneous brown. Calcaria dirty yellow. Extreme apex of 
abdomen ferruginous. 

Whole body covered with a short and inconspicuous golden-grey 
pubescence, punctured all over with very fine, close, and shallow 
punctures ; these punctures are coarser and confluent on the head, 
thorax and node of petiole. Intermixed with these are some larger 
shallow piligerous punctures, which are most abundant on the 
epinotum, node of petiole and first two abdominal segments. The 
hairs are short, erect, and black, but on the apical abdominal segment 
longer and golden brown. 

Clypeus raised in the centre and somewhat projecting, ending 
anteriorly in a blunt point, emarginate laterally and fringed with a 
few golden bristles on the anterior margin. It is produced behind 
angularly between the frontal carinae. The latter are broad in 
front, arcuate at the sides and divergent behind, and extend back- 
wards to a point level with the posterior margin of the eyes. The 
latter are not large, and are placed at the middle of the sides of the 
head. Mandibles triangular, very finely striate and with a row of 
coarse punctures on the masticatory margin, which is furnished 
with about 8 or 9 teeth. 

Antennae reach back hardly as far as the node of the petiole. 
Scape flattened and incrassate apically, not longer than the head 
excluding the mandibles. Flagellum very slightly clavate, apical 
joint longest, the rest sub-equal. 

Pronotum large, rounded in front. Pro-mesonotal suture distinct. 
Epinotum rounded above, the declivity gradual and with the lateral 
margins well defined. Node of petiole, seen from above, trapezoid, 
wider behind than in front ; seen from the side, sharply truncate in 
front and behind, rounded above. Ventral lamella not produced. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 57 

First abdominal segment nearly twice as wide as the node of petiole, 
and with a small truncate projection below at the extreme base 
Abdominal constriction well marked. Second segment slightly wider 
than the 1st, but not longer. Anterior tarsi with thick golden - 
brown hairs beneath. 
Transvaal. 

Var. ehodesiana, Eorel. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. 109, 1913. 

This differs from the type in its larger size, 13 mm. g , and more 
abundant pilosity. The node of the petiole is not so smooth, and is, 
like the abdomen, duller. 

$ (hitherto undescribed). 10 mm. Head black; mandibles, 
clypeus, antennae, legs, and last abdominal segment occasionally, 
reddish yellow. Thorax dark castaneous brown, pronotum somewhat 
lighter. Epinotum, petiole, and abdominal segments reddish brown, 
the apical margins of the latter testaceous yellow. 

Head transverse ; clypeus produced and raised in the middle 
anteriorly. The frontal carinae are very short and indistinct. 
Eyes very large and reniform. Antennae filiform, reaching back 
as far as middle of 2nd abdominal segment. Pronotum only slightly 
exposed dorsally. Mesonotum with a central impressed line, 
broken in the middle ; the Mayrian furrows distinct, the lateral ones 
less so. A crenate sulcus separates the mesonotum from the 
rather gibbous scutellum. Epinotum rounded, the declivity with a 
raised central line. Node of petiole sloping in front, rounded above 
and with a faint median impression, vertical behind and longer than 
wide. Seen from above, the petiole has a minute tooth on each side 
at the extreme base, and a slightly larger tooth beyond the latter. 
The ventral lamella is produced into a very short obtuse angle. First 
abdominal segment beneath with a truncate process at the extreme 
base similar to that of the $ . Abdominal constriction distinct. 
Legs long and slender. Wings hyaline, nervures yellow, stigma 
dirty yellow. Body rather shining and covered with a silky grey 
pubescence. There is a sparse pilosity on the margins of the last 
three abdominal segments. Head and thorax very finely, closely, 
and shallowly punctured ; base of epinotum a little more coarsely 
and rugosely punctured. Abdomen impunctate. 

This variety is common round Bulawayo. The nest is generally 
placed under a stone, with several entrances which are surrounded 
by loose earth ; the male is very common at light. 

(S.A.M, B.M., G.A.) 



58 Annals of tlie South African Museum. 

J 
j P. laevissima, n. sp. (Plate II. , figs. 15, 15a.) 

£ . 12 mm. Black; antennae, mandibles, outer angles of frontal 
carinae, and articulations of the legs piceous red ; extreme margins 
of abdominal segments pale. The whole body is very shining, 
punctured all over with very fine, sparse punctures, from which 
arise the pubescent hairs. Intermixed are other larger punctures 
which are very shallow and scanty on the 1st abdominal segment, 
deeper, larger and more abundant on the node of the petiole and on 
the head, and very sparse on the thorax. The pubescence on the 
body is very scanty and inconspicuous, but less so on the apical 
segments of the abdomen. Pilosity of tbe body meagre, consisting 
of a few short hairs ; pale and denser on the legs. 

Head quadrate, sides slightly convex, posterior margin straight, 
very convex above, posterior angles rounded. Mandibles triangular, 
moderately shining and very finely striate, sparsely and strongly 
punctured, the punctures larger and elongated along the masticatory 
margin. The latter carries 7 teeth, and is but little shorter than the 
basal margin. Clypeus striato-rugose, angularly produced in the 
middle, sub-carinate, and with a row of deep punctures along the 
anterior margin. The frontal carinae are very broad in front, and 
excepting their extreme lateral margins which are smooth and 
shining, are more closely punctured than the rest of the head. 
Eyes rather small, situated a little in front of the middle of the sides 
of the head. Antennae extend back as far as the apex of the 
epinotum ; scape incrassate towards the apex, the flagellum only 
slightly so. First joint of flagellum two-thirds as long as the 2nd, 
the latter hardly longer than the 3rd. 

Pro-mesonotal suture distinct, meso-epinotal suture obsolete. 
Pronotum convex above, rounded in front and at the sides, a little 
wider than long. Mesonotum as long as the pronotum. Dorsum of 
epinotum merges into the declivity by a very gradual curve. The 
declivity is very oblique and feebly margined laterally. (The profile 
of the thorax is a segment of a circle and more convex than 
P. cavernosa, Eoger.) Node of petiole trapezoid, wider behind 
than in front, wider than long, rounded above, vertically truncate in 
front and behind, and nearly as high as 1st abdominal segment. 
The sides of the 1st and 2nd abdominal segments very convex, the 
constriction between them strong. The 1st segment is narrower at 
the base than at the apex, as long as the 2nd segment but not quite 
so wide. Legs moderately long. 

Saldanha Bay, Cape Prov., Type in my collection. 

(S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 59 

P. soror, Emery. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 43, p. 472, g 2 , 1899. 

£ . 7-8-5 mm. Black ; mandibles and legs dark chestnut-red. 
Scape, flagellum, and clypeus red-brown, the last joint of flagellum 
dark red at the apex. Calcaria, and the long hairs on the thorax 
and abdomen, orange. A fine golden-grey pubescence all over, as in 
P. Krilgeri. Occipital margin of head straight, the corners rounded, 
the sides slightly convex. Clypeus raised and sub-carinate in the 
centre, rounded in front, the raised area shining. Frontal carinae 
wide in front, narrow behind and divergent. Mandibles smooth and 
shining, with a few large, deep punctures, chiefly on the inner 
margin. First joint of flagellum a little longer than the 2nd, 3rd to 
6th joints as long as broad, 7th to 10th slightly broader than long, 
apical joint flattened and nearly twice as long as the penultimate. 
Head and thorax finely and closely punctured, node of petiole more 
coarsely punctured, 1st and 2nd abdominal segments finely but very 
distinctly punctured. There are large, shining, piligerous punctures on 
the body, proportionately larger than in Krilgeri. The epinotum has 
the declivity widest in the middle, lozenge-shaped, slightly shining and 
distinctly margined at the sides. Proportionately the node of the 
petiole is wider than in Krilgeri, and is also flatter on top, otherwise 
similar. The abdominal constriction is not so marked as in that 
species. In size and general appearance this species is deceptively 
like Euponera cajfraria, from which it can be distinguished on closer 
inspection by the thick node of the petiole, which in cajfraria is 
squamiform. 

This is a rather rare species in the neighbourhood of Bulawayo. 
It usually nests under stones, and has a very strong smell of 
cockroaches. The colonies do not usually comprise more than two 
dozen individuals. (S.A.M., P.M., G.A. coll.) 

P. cariosa, Emery. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 20, $ , 1895. 

" $. 11mm. Black; mandibles, flagellum, articular portions 
of the legs and tarsi rufescent, margins of the abdominal segments 
and the anus narrowly testaceous ; very coarsely punctured and 
also longitudinally striate, with a dense flavous pubescence. Clypeus 
carinate and produced in the middle, mandibles striate and punctured, 
node of petiole sub-trapezoid, widely emarginate behind. . . . The 
petiole is wider behind than in front, depressed in the middle of the 
posterior margin so as to make it appear widely emarginate. The 



60 Annals of the South African Museum. 

insect is dull, more so than in pumicosa, which is due to the spaces 
between the large punctures being also closely punctured, or almost 
striated in parts ; . . . the pubescence is longer and more recum- 
bent than in strigulosa ; the last two abdominal segments are not 
striated. The mandibles are finely striated and punctured. 
Delagoa Bay." 

P. cavernosa, Eoger. 
Berlin Ent. Zeitschr., vol. 4, p. 288, £ , 1860. 
" £ . 13 mm. Brownish black ; antennae, mandibles, and legs 
red, slightly shining, covered with very short reddish-yellow pubes- 
cence. The whole body is densely punctate with coarse and 
somewhat confluent punctures. The punctures of the 2nd abdominal 
segment are sparser, shallower, and smaller, giving this segment a 
rather smooth appearance. The head is wider than the thorax, 
quadrangular, rounded in front and behind, and also very feebly emar- 
ginate behind. The eyes are situated in front of the middle of the 
sides of the head. The frontal carinae are thick, lobate, horizontal, 
and divided by a deep central line. The 12-jointed antennae are 
inserted in a deep depression at some distance from the anterior 
margin of the head, as well as from each other ; the scape is sparsely 
clothed with erect hairs and reaches back as far as the occiput ; the 
2nd and 3rd joints of the flagellum of equal length, and a little 
longer than the 1st ; the apical joint as long as the two preceding 
together. Clypeus arched in the middle, feebly carinate and slightly 
impressed transversely along the anterior margin. The mandibles are 
triangular, not much elongated, finely and longitudinally striate or 
rugulose, more coarsely on the inner margin, which has 6 to 7 blunt 
teeth. The prothorax is wider than the rest of the thorax, rounded 
at the sides, narrow and lower in front and separated from the 
mesothorax by a depressed line ; the rest of the thorax without 
sutures, compressed laterally and feebly convex towards the base, 
the declivity of the epinotum abruptly truncate. The sides of the 
thorax not rugose. The node of the petiole is as wide as the 
epinotum but narrower than the 1st abdominal segment, higher than 
long, perpendicular behind, rounded in front and strongly so above ; 
ventral lamella with a small tooth. The 1st abdominal segment is 
perpendicular in front, rounded above, wider than long, rounded at 
the sides and constricted behind. The 2nd abdominal segment is 
wider than long, with a fine median longitudinal line. All the tibiae 
with pectinate calcaria. The tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi almost of 
equal length. The front legs have the metatarsi shorter than the 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 61 

tibiae, and like the latter at their apices, are densely clothed with 
golden hairs. Claws simple. Cape." 

P. strigulosa, Emery. 
Ann. Soc. Eat. France, vol. 63, p. 19, g , 1895. 

" $ . 10 mm. Black ; mandibles, anteaaae, aad tarsi piceous, 
margins of abdominal segments and anus smooth and testaceous ; 
closely punctured with very coarse punctures and very finely longi- 
tudinally striate, dull, scarcely pubescent, and with a pilosity of 
short golden hairs. Clypeus carinate aad produced ia the middle, 
coarsely puactured but aot striate; aode of petiole truacate posteriorly. 
Kimberley." 

" Closely allied to pumicosa, which it resembles ia the shape of the 
body, uustriated maadibles aad puacturation intermixed with fine 
striae ; the latter, however, are more numerous and stronger, giving 
this species a duller appearance. The abdomen is wholly dull, even 
the apical segments. In pumicosa the last three segments are 
shining, the antepenultimate less strongly striated than the pre* 
ceding, and the following segments only punctured." 

P. granosa, Eoger. (Plate II., fig. 16.) 
Berlin Eat, Zeitschr., vol. 4, p. 290, ? , 1860. 

" $ . Black, apex of abdomea aad tarsi rufesceut, moderately 
shiaiag, pilosity very short, pubesceace goldea yellow, puactured all 
over, aode of petiole sub-emargiaate posteriorly. 14 mm." 

" This species is very similar to cavernosa, but differs from it in the 
following characters : the whole body is covered with a very fine 
recumbent yellow or yellowish-red pubescence, which gives the body 
when seen from the side a yellow silky tinge. The sculpture of the 
head is not so coarse as in cavernosa, the punctures are farther apart 
and are not coaflueat ; the puactures are also shallower. The space 
betweeu the puactures is finely striate. The apex of the frontal 
carinae is smooth, shining, and of a reddish colour ; the mandibles 
are dark red, shiaing, aot striated but puactured with rather coarse 
aad fine puactures intermixed. The head is somewhat longer than 
in cavernosa. The clypeus is sharply carinate. The punctures of 
the thorax are large and shallow, the interspace rugulose. The node 
of the petiole is slightly rounded in front, the posterior face is 
vertical but the dorsal margin of same widely emarginate, flat above, 
narrower ia froat thaa behiad; below, the ventral lamella is produced 
into a tooth pointing backwards. The 1st abdominal segmeat, seen 



62 Annals of the South African Museum. 

from above, is almost quadrangular and with the sides only slightly 
convex, a little wider than long, and like the node strongly but not 
closely punctured, more strongly so than the thorax. The 2nd 
segment is more feebly punctured than the 1st, the rest only 
indistinctly. The apical margins of the abdominal segments are 
reddish. The claws are small and simple." 

P. pumicosa, Eoger. 
Berlin Ent. Zeitschr., vol. 4, p. ! 290, $ , 1860. Forel, Eev. Suisse 
Zool., vol. 9, p. 244, $ , 1901. 
£ . 12-13 mm. Black ; mandibles, flagellum, apex and base of 
scape, the legs, and apex of abdomen dark castaneous red. A thin 
golden pubescence all over ; a golden-brown pilosity on the node of 
the petiole and on the abdomen. The sides of the head, thorax, node, 
and 1st abdominal segment strongly and deeply punctured. The 
punctures on the node and 1st segment are very large and rather 
confluent, making the sculpturation almost rugose. The vertex of 
the head somewhat finely punctured. Second abdominal segment with 
shallower punctures than the 1st segment,* 3rd and 4th very finely 
punctured, pygidium impunctate. The spaces between the punctures 
on the first three segments striate, very finely so on the 3rd segment. 
Sides of head slightly convex, rounded at the corners in front and 
behind, hardly emarginate posteriorly. Clypeus feebly produced and 
carinate in the middle, the carina obtuse at the apex. Frontal 
carinae wide in front, smooth and moderately shining, as in granosa. 
Mandibles triangular, shining and punctured. Byes nearer the 
middle of the sides of the head than in granosa. The scape of the 
antenna hardly reaches back as far as the occiput ; flagellum more 
clavate than in granosa, 7th to 10th joints wider than long. Pro- 
mesonotal suture distinct ; declivity of epinotum shining, and less 
steep than in granosa. Node of petiole narrower in front than 
behind, rounded in front and above, sub-trapezoid, posterior face 
vertical and slightly concave. Ventral lamella angularly produced, 
but not toothed. Otherwise similar to granosa. 

" $ . 9 - 5 mm. Testaceous yellow ; head brown; mesonotum and 
scutellum brown with yellowish patches. The eyes occupy the 
whole of the sides of the head. Ocelli large and placed on a raised 
area. Wings pale yellowish, with nervures and stigma also pale. 
Sub-opaque, very finely punctured and pubescent." 

Cape Prov. (Brauns, Drege.) Natal. (Haviland.) 

* Roger says, " As coarsely punctured as the 1st segment " ; the punctures are as 
large, but certainly not so deep, when seen from above. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 63 

Eace Berthoudi, Forel. 

Eev. Suisse Zool., vol. 9, p. 344, % , 1901. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 

vol. 57, p. 109, 1913. 

This form has been sunk to the rank of a race by Forel, but I can 
find only the following differences, which appear to me to be worthy 
of only varietal rank. The node is slightly narrower posteriorly than 
in the type, the puncturation of the head is a little larger and the 1st 
abdominal segment a little wider. I append the following description 
of the 3 , since that of the type is so meagre. 

3 . 10 mm. Legs, pleurae, epinotum, node, abdomen, and antennae 
bright ochreous yellow; head dirty yellow below the antennal sockets, 
brown above. Thorax yellow-brown. Clypeus slightly raised in the 
middle. Frontal carinae obsolete. The eyes occupy the whole of 
the sides of the head; the ocelli large, and situated on a raised area. 
Antennae filiform, reaching back almost to the apex of the 1st 
abdominal segment. Prothorax very little exposed. Pro-mesonotal 
and meso-metanotal sutures distinct. The scutellum gibbous with 
the sides strongly striated. Mesonotum very shallowly punctured. 
Epinotum punctured at the sides, very shining and smooth above. 
Node of petiole narrow and parallel-sided, rounded above and in 
front, and less so behind. Lamellar tooth distinct but small. Con- 
striction between the 1st and 2nd abdominal segments distinct. 
Abdomen impunctate. The whole body clothed with a dense, downy 
and pale pubescence. 

Willowmore, Cape Prov. (Brauns.) Valdezia, Transvaal. 
(Berthoud.) (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. coll.) 

Genus EUPONEEA, Porel. 

Grandidier's Hist. Madagascar, vol. 20, p. 126, 1891. 

Potier a (pars), Smith, Eoger, Mayr, etc. 
Formica (pars), Fabricius. 

Characters. 

$ . Mandibles sub-triangular, the masticatory margin dentate and 
forming a distinct angle with the basal margin. Eyes placed on or 
in front of the anterior third of the head, sometimes absent or con- 
siderably atrophied. Meso-epinotal suture distinct, otherwise like 
Pachycondijla. 

2 . Always winged. 

3 . As in the sub-genera. 



64 Annals of the South African Museum. 

The genus is divided into four sub-genera as follows : — 

Key to the £ $ of the Sub-Genera o/Euponera. 

(2). 1. Mandibles elongate, the masticatory margin long, with numerous teeth ; 1st 
joint of flagellum usually shorter or of the same length as the following, 
rarely longer Mesoponera, Emery. 

(1). 2. Mandibles rather short, with few teeth ; 1st joint of flagellum much longer 
than the 2nd. 

(4). 3. Length 9-10 mm. ; mandibles with 8 teeth ; Madagascan species. 

Euponera, Forel. 

(3). 4. Insect much smaller. 

(6). 5. Mesonotum gibbous ; surrounded by a deep suture ; 1st joint of tarsi of the 
middle pair of legs not bristly on the dorsal surface. Brachyponera, Emery. 

(5). 6. Mesonotum depressed, the surrounding suture not deep ; tarsi of the middle 
pair of legs short, and bristly on the dorsal surface. 

Trachymesopus, Emery. 

Sub-Genus MESOPONEEA, Emery. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 45, p. 43, 1901. 

Characters. 

$ . Clypeus rounded, rarely pointed on the anterior margin. 
Mandibles elongate, with numerous teeth. Maxillary palpi 4-jointed. 
1st joint of flagellum shorter or of the same length as the 2nd, rarely 
longer. Thorax generally elongate ; mesonotum more or less oval 
and surrounded by a suture ; dorsum of epinotum in the elongate 
species equal in length to the pro- and mesonotum together. Legs, 
and especially the tarsi of the middle pair, long and slender, the tarsi 
rarely bristly. 

5 . As in the g . 

3 . Emery remarks (" Genera Insectorum ") that he knows of no 
character sufficient to distinguish the $ $ of this sub-genus from 
those of Pachycondyla. 

Key to the % % of Mesoponera. 

(6). 1. Large species, more than 6 mm. long. 

(3). 2. Insect 9 mm. long, whole body dull caffraria, Smith. 

(2). 3. Longer than 9 mm., at least the greater part of the body shining. 

(5). 4. 10-5 mm. long, head duller than the thorax and abdomen, fovea on the 

mandibles shallow and transverse Peringueyi, Emery. 

(4). 5. 11-13 mm. long, head not duller than the thorax and abdomen, fovea on the 

mandibles deep, sharply defined and oblique Havilandi, Forel. 

(1). 6. Small species, less than 6 mm. long. 

(8). 7. Colour black or nearly so fossigera, Mayi*. 

(7). 8. Colour brown or yellowish brown . . Elizae, Forel, var. rotundata, Emery. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 65 

B. (Mesoponera) caffraria, Smith. (Plate II., fig. 17, 17a, and 

Plate III., fig. 22.) 
Cat. Hymen. Brit. Mus., vol. 6, p. 91, ? , 1858. Mayr, Ann. Nat. 
Mus. Wien, vol. 10, p. 124, ? , 1895. 

$ . 9 mm. Black and dull; mandibles castaneous red; flagellum, 
tarsi, and last abdominal segment dorsally, brown. The whole body 
covered with an excessively fine and short pubescence, which is, 
however, dense enough to give the surface, viewed obliquely, a 
greyish-yellow tinge. Head, thorax, and apical half of all the 
abdominal segments microscopically punctured, the basal invagin- 
able portion of tbe latter shining and impunctate. A scanty pilosity 
of short, thin, pale hairs on the head and thorax, and longer on the 
abdomen, particularly the last three segments. Clypeus raised in 
the middle, with a central shining line, hardly produced backwards 
between the frontal carinae. Mandibles smooth, with a few large 
punctures on the inner margin. Frontal carinae only slightly 
widened anteriorly, the impressed line between rather faint. Scape 
of antenna hardly reaching the occiput ; flagellum feebly incrassate 
towards the apex. Eyes small, their long diameter not exceeding 
two-thirds the length of the apical joint of flagellum. Sides of head 
convex, anterior and posterior corners rounded, the former widely 
so ; posterior margin feebly arcuate. Head wider than thorax. 
Pronotum convex in front and at the sides ; dorsum of epinotum flat, 
narrowest at the base, where it is less than half as wide as the 
mesonotum ; declivity shining and steep, lateral margins tumid. Node 
of petiole squamiform ; seen from above, triangular ; thickest at the 
base, much wider above than below, rounded above ; posterior face 
perpendicular and shining. Ventral lamella with an obtuse projec- 
tion. Abdomen oblongo-ovate, 1st and 2nd segments of about 
equal length, the constriction between them feeble. The 1st seg- 
ment ventrally, has a slight median projection at its junction with 
the petiole. 

$ . 10" 5 mm. Mesonotum and scutellum together, seen from 
above, more than twice as long as the pronotum. Dorsum of 
epinotum short, not so long as scutellum. Wings smoky, nervures 
and stigma brown. Otherwise like the $ . 

S . 8 mm. Black and dull ; tibiae and tarsi yellow-brown, the 
margins of the abdominal segments impressed, shining and tes- 
taceous brown. Head, thorax, petiole and abdomen, except the 
apical segment, closely, finely and reticulately punctured ; the sides 
of the posterior portion of the mesonotum deeply excavated, shining 

5 



66 Annals of the South African Museum. 

and striated. Head about one-third wider, across the eyes, than it is 
long. Clypeus raised and carinate in the middle. Frontal carinae 
distinct but very short. Antennae long and filiform, reaching back as 
far as apical margin of 3rd abdominal segment, scape very short, 
barely twice as long as the 1st joint of fiagellum ; 2nd joint three and 
a half times as long as the scape. Eyes not very large, occupying 
but little more than the anterior half of the sides of the head ; ocelli 
small, situated on a slightly raised area. Pro-mesonotal suture dis- 
tinct ; the gibbous scutellum is separated from the mesonotum by a 
crenate impression. Pronotum exposed, seen from above only two- 
thirds as long as scutellum ; dorsum of epinotum as long as the 
scutellum, the declivity oblique and not abrupt. Node of petiole 
similar to that of the 5 , but smaller and more convex posteriorly ; 
ventral lamella not produced. The abdomen widens towards the 
apex; 1st segment not so wide as the 2nd and 3rd, the latter almost 
twice as wide as long ; constriction between the 1st and 2nd feeble. 
Apical segment shining and nearly impunctate ; pygidium ending in 
a short spine. Legs thin and slender ; tarsi of middle and hind legs 
as long as the tibiae. Wings slightly smoky, nervures pale brown, 
stigma dark brown. 

S. Ehodesia, common ; Willowmore. (Brauns.) Natal. (Cooper 
and Marley.) 

(S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 



E. (Mesoponeea) Peeingueti, Emery. (Plate II., fig. 19.) 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 43, p. 471, £ , 1899. 
£ . 105 mm. Black ; antennae, tibiae, and tarsi piceous brown, 
mandibles ferruginous brown. Shining, especially the abdomen and 
pronotum. Clypeus and sides of pronotum very finely rugulose, 
pleurae finely striate, all the rest of the body finely and evenly 
punctured. The punctures are very dense on the head and epinotum. 
Mandibles shining, with irregular and coarse punctures and a shallow, 
lateral and transverse fovea near the base. A fine grey pubescence 
on the whole body, inconspicuous and rather irregular ; pilosity 
absent. Head very similar to that of E. sennaarensis, Mayr, but 
the frontal carinae are more divergent behind, and reach to the level 
of the posterior margin of the eyes. The latter are relatively smaller 
and more convex. The clypeus is obtusely carinate in the middle, 
smooth and shining. Mandibles with 12-14 alternating large and 
small teeth. Antennae long, reaching back as far as base of 1st 
abdominal segment ; fiagellum very slightly incrassate towards the 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 67 

apex. Sides of head moderately convex, posterior angles rounded. 
Pronotum wider than long, the dorsal region distinctly, and rather 
angularly delimited from the sides. Mesonotum ovoid, narrower at 
the base. Pro-mesonotal suture well defined, meso-epinotal suture a 
little less distinct. Dorsum of epinotum narrow, very little longer 
than the mesonotum ; declivity tiiangular, with a faint median longi- 
tudinal impression. Node of petiole rounded above, convex from 
side to side in front, and flat behind. Seen in profile, vertically 
truncate in front, steeply sloping behind, and with sharply defined 
lateral margin separating the anterior and posterior faces. Ventral 
lamella triangularly produced along its whole length. The basal face 
■of the 1st abdominal segment is vertically truncate, forming a dis- 
tinct, though obtuse, angle with the dorsal surface. Below, at its 
junction with the petiole, the segment is produced into a strong 
tooth. Second abdominal segment slightly wider and longer than the 
1st, the constriction between the two segments feeble. Seen from in 
front or behind the node of the petiole is wider above than below, 
and of an ovoid shape. Legs comparatively long. Claws with a 
small tooth near the base. 

Nord Hoek and Saldanha Bay, Cape Prov. (Peringuey.) (S.A.M. 
and G.A. colls.) 

E Havilandi, Forel. (Plate I., fig. 9.) 

(Megaponera, sub-genus Hagensia), Rev. Suisse Zool., vol. 9, 
p. 333, $ , 1901. 

(Euponera sulcigera), Mayr, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, vol. 54, 
p. 593, ? , 1904. 

$ . 11-12 mm. Black, mandibles more or less castaneous red, legs 
and antennae brownish black. The whole body sub-opaque, the pos- 
terior face of the node of the petiole shining, finely pubescent, 
•closely and very finely punctured all over, except the posterior face 
of the node which is less densely punctured, and the declivity of the 
■epinotum which is reticulate-punctate or very finely rugulose. A 
few long hairs on the mandibles and apex of the abdomen. Head 
very little longer than wide, with the posterior angles considerably 
rounded, the sides moderately convex. Clypeus very convex in the 
middle, hardly carinate. Frontal area lanceolate, the depression or 
sulcus behind it moderately long. Eyes within the anterior half 
of the head, and separated from the base of the mandibles by a 
distance a little longer than their own long diameter. Mandibles 
shining, finely striate near the base, sparsely and coarsely punctured 
near the apex, with 13-15 irregular teeth, and a deep oblique fovea 



68 Annals of the South African Museum. 

near the base, much more sharply defined than in Peringueyi. 
Scape of antenna cylindrical and reaching back beyond the occi- 
pital margin ; 2nd joint of flagellum longer than the 1st. all the 
joints long and cylindrical. Pronotum as long as wide, its dorsum 
convex, sub-quadrangular, and margined behind and at the sides by 
a raised line (more pronounced than in Peringueyi), which ter- 
minates before the anterior margin. Pro-meso, and meso-metanotaL 
sutures well defined, the latter more strongly so than in Peringueyi. 
Dorsum of epinotum more compressed and much narrower than in 
Peringueyi, the declivity is triangular but narrower, and its sides 
are more sharply marginate than in that species. The declivity 
above, at its junction with the dorsum, has a longitudinal depression,, 
which is bounded on each side by the lateral margins. Node and 
abdomen as in Peringueyi, but the abdomen is longer and narrower 
in proportion, and the constriction between the 1st and 2nd segments 
is entirely absent ; the 1st segment below, at its junction with the 
petiole is also produced into a strong tooth, as in Peringueyi, but the 
ventral lamella of the petiole is larger and less blunt at the apex 
than in that species. Legs long and slender, with two calcaria fc> 
the middle and hind legs, and the claws of the tarsi with a small tooth 
near the middle. 

$ (hitherto undescribed). 12 mm. Black, legs brownish black 
with the tarsi paler, mandibles ferruginous. Head and thorax very 
finely punctured, but more densely so than in the £ ; the mesonotum 
is almost reticulate-punctate, the epinotum shallowly rugulose, the 
petiole impunctate, 1st abdominal segment very sparsely and finely 
punctured, the remaining segments microscopically punctate. The 
whole body pubescent as in the g , but the pubescence on the thorax 
is very sparse. Head dull, thorax sub-nitidulous, abdomen very 
shining. Head wider across the eyes than it is long, considerably 
contracted in front of the eyes. The latter large, occupying about 
one -third of the sides of the head, the internal margins feebly sinuate. 
Ocelli large, situate on a raised area. Glypeus very convex from 
side to side and rather long (as long as the scape), the anterior 
margin almost straight. Mandibles oblong, very small, hardly 
meeting together when closed, edentate. Frontal carinae obsolete. 
Antennae very long, reaching back almost to the apex of the abdomen, 
scape half as long as the 3rd joint of the flagellum ; the 1st joint of 
the latter is very short, being less than half as long as the scape, 
the 2nd joint a little longer than the 3rd, all the joints except the 
1st long and cylindrical. Pronotum only slightly exposed, meso- 
notum as long as wide, raised, round in front and convex from side 



A Monograph of the Formiciclae of South Africa. 69 

to side, concave posteriorly, and on each side with a slight depression 
internal to the parapsidal sutures, which are well denned. A raised 
central line runs back from the anterior margin of the mesonotum 
for about one-third of its length. A deep crenate sulcus separates 
the mesonotum from the scutellum ; the latter is gibbous, somewhat 
triangular and with the sides striate. Metanotum short, with a 
small tubercle in the centre. The dorsum of epinotum, as long 
as the mesonotum, merges gradually into the declivity ; the latter 
has on each side a small boss above, but its lateral limits are feebly 
defined. Petiole long, three times as long as wide, slightly raised 
into a node at its middle third ; at its extreme base, furnished with 
a minute recurved tooth at each side, and a little posterior to these, 
there is a distinct lateral tubercle. Abdomen lanceolate, 1st segment 
distinctly longer than wide and very narrow at the base, 2nd seg- 
ment also longer than wide and about as long as the 1st, the other 
segments wider than long. Pygidium produced into a sharp curved 
spine. Apex of abdomen piceous. Legs very long and slender, with 
two calcaria to the middle and hind tibiae ; claws furnished with 
a small tooth, nearer to the apex than in the $ . Wings smoky, 
stigma dark brown, a closed radial cell present, as in E. cdffraria 
and sennaarensis. Alar expanse 20 mm. 

1 $ taken with the workers by the Eev. E. Godfrey at King 
William's Town, type in S.A. Museum. 

Natal. (Haviland, Wroughton.) Grahamstown. (Hewitt.) 

The $ £ from King William's Town are slightly larger than the 
original specimens from Natal (13 mm.), but have the mandibles 
without any striae and a much more strongly defined and deeper 
fovea. They are also much more finely punctured and shining, not 
sub-opaque as in the Natal form, and the punctures are quite discrete 
and not reticulate. I am deterred from raising this form to varietal 
rank by an examination of a £ from Vredefort, in the S.A.M. col- 
lection, in which the puncturation is somewhat intermediate between 
the two described above, but in which there is also a very deep fovea 
on the mandible. 

The characters in the male sex alone make it clear that the species 
is an Euponera. Moreover, in the worker the similarities to the $ 
of E. Paring ucyi, Emery, are very marked. An examination which 
I was able to make of the two specimens in Dr. H. Brauns' collec- 
tion, named by Mayr as Euponera sulcigera, made it certain that 
Mayr's species is the same as the one now described. Mayr's name 
must therefore be sunk as a synonym, and at the same time Forel's 
sub- genus must also be deleted. Should the characters of the $ of 



70 Annals of the South African Museum. 

E. Peringueyi Emery, at present unknown, prove to be similar to that 
of Havilancli, it might be desirable in the future to re-erect Hagensia 
as a sub-genus of Euponera, or even to make it a separate genus of 
the Ponerini. (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 



E. (Mesoponera) Elizae, Forel, var. rotundata, Emery. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 20, g , 1895. Forel, Ann. Soc. 
Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. 108, $ , 1913. 

The above variety alone has been found within our limits. It 
differs from the type from Madagascar in having the metanotum 
(epinotum) shorter, with a more rounded profile, and not in the 
least angular. 

$ . 4"5 mm. Colour rather variable, castaneous brown or 
piceous brown, with the posterior half of the head, the margins of 
the pronotum, the sides of the epinotum and the apical margins 
of the 1st and 2nd abdominal segments much paler ; 3rd-5th 
segments ferruginous. Antennae, mandibles, legs, and clypeus fer- 
ruginous yellow. Covered all over with a fine and dense yellowish 
pubescence. The flavous pilosity is very short and scanty on the 
head, thorax, and first two abdominal segments, longer and more 
abundant on the clypeus and apical abdominal segments. Head and 
thorax shining, the abdomen much more so. Head very shallowly 
and finely punctured, the rest of the body impunctate or nearly so, 
the mesopleurae very smooth and shining Head longer than wide, 
almost parallel-sided, the posterior corners gently rounded. Clypeus 
raised sub-angularly in the middle, the anterior margin bearing in 
the centre a minute spine, plainly visible under a magnification of 
30 diameters. Frontal carinae very narrow in the middle, diverging 
posteriorly. 

Mandibles elongate and rather narrow ; the masticatory margin 
with about 12 alternatingly large and small teeth, the apical tooth 
very acuminate. The scape extends back nearly as far as the 
occiput; 6th-8th joints of flagellum as broad as long. Eyes small 
and flat, situated within the anterior fourth of the head. Pro- 
mesonotal suture distinct. Pronotum twice as long as the meso- 
notum, rounded in front, the sides somewhat flattened, Dorsum of 
epinotum short, about the same length as the mesonotum, very 
narrow at the base and widening towards the declivity. The latter 
is very smooth and shining, with the sides tumid, and a little longer 
than wide. Node of petiole, seen from above and in front, narrower 
than in E. fossigera, and only very little wider above than below, 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 71 

rounded above, slightly convex anteriorly, and steeply sloping pos- 
teriorly. The ventral lamella prolonged into a large triangular tooth, 
pointing backwards. 

Anterior portion of 1st abdominal segment flattened and sloping 
inwards. Abdomen more oblong and parallel-sided than in E. fossi- 
gera ; 1st and 2nd segments of about equal length, and very little 
wider than long, the constriction between them feeble. 

? (hitherto undescribed). 5*5-6 mm. Like the # , differing 
only in the following cbaracters. 

The colour is darker. The eyes are larger, and separated from 
the base of the mandibles by a little less than their own length. 
The ocelli are small. Pronotum, seen from above, half as long as 
the mesonotum. Pro-mesonotal suture distinct. The mesonotum 
is separated from the scutellum by a deep and wide groove. Dorsum 
of epinotum very short or almost obsolete. The epinotum is not 
compressed laterally as in the £ , but is rather broad, with the sides 
slightly convex. 

This species is not uncommon near Bulawayo. The nest is always 
placed under stones or logs, and seldom contains more than half 
a dozen workers. The latter avoid the light and are never seen at 
work in the open. (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 

Var. eedbankensis, Forel. 

Loc. cit., p. 109, $ . 

A little smaller than the type, the head a little broader, and the 
puncturation a little less dense. (G.A. coll.) 

E. (Mesoponera) fossigera, Mayr. (Plate II., fig. 20.) 
Ann. K.K. Nat. Mus. Wien, vol. 16, p. 3, £ , 1901. 
£ . 5 mm. Black and moderately shining, thorax a little brighter. 
Mandibles, antennae, and legs ferruginous brown, 3rd and 4th abdo- 
minal segments yellowish brown, 5th segment dirty yellow. The 
whole body is covered with a fine, grey pubesence, and with some 
scattered longer hairs on the head and apical portion of the abdomen. 
Closely and very finely punctured all over. Clypeus raised towards 
the middle but not carinate, with a longitudinal median and shining 
line, and the anterior margin acuminate in the centre. Mandibles 
elongately triangular, covered with a moderate, yellow pilosity and 
furnished with rather small teeth ; near the basal margin, externally, 
lies a small and shallow fovea. Frontal carinae narrowed in the 
middle of their length and divergent posteriorly. Eyes situated far 



72 Annals of the South African Museum. 

forwards and low down on the sides of the head, oval, and not 
longer than the 8th joint of the flagellum. Scape of antenna reach- 
ing back almost as far as the occiput ; flagellum more clavate than 
in sennaarensis, 3rd and 4th joints a trifle wider than long, the 2nd 
and 5th-10th joints as long as wide, the apical joint twice as long as 
the preceding. Head very little longer than wide, the sides parallel, 
the posterior angles widely rounded. Pro-mesonotal suture distinct. 
Dorsum of epinotum narrow, twice as long as wide at the base and 
rounded at the sides ; declivity oblique, its lateral margins distinct. 
Node of petiole wider above than below, the dorsal edge considerably 
rounded, much more so than in sennaarensis, convex in front, flat 
and vertical behind. First and 2nd abdominal segments sub-equal, 
wider than long ; the constriction between them feeble. 

Port Elizabeth. (Brauns.) 

(G.A. coll.) 

Sub-Genus BRACHYPONERA, Emery. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 45, p. 43, 1901. 

Characters. 

£ . Clypeus rounded in front and convex. Mandibles short and 
broad, with small crowded teeth. Maxillary palpi 3-jointed. First 
joint of flagellum much shorter than the 2nd. Eyes flattened, 
placed close to the anterior margin of the head. Thorax rather 
short ; mesonotum gibbous, surrounded by a deep suture ; dorsum 
of epinotum narrow at the base ; declivity sometimes excavated so 
as to lodge the anterior face of the node. Node of petiole high and 
broad, squamiform and much thinned above. First joint of the tarsi 
of middle legs not furnished with stiff hairs or bristles on the upper 
surface. 

5 . Similar to the £ , excepting the usual sexual differences, but 
considerably larger. 

$ . Larger than the £ , not much smaller than the ? . Antennae 
in our sole species short. Petiole sqamiform and high. Abdomen 
not elongate, ovoid ; constriction between 1st and 2nd segments 
feeble. Pygidium pointed or produced into a short spine. 

E. (Brachyponera) sennaarenis, Mayr. (Plate II., fig. 21.) 

Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, vol. 12, p. 721, £ , 1862. 

£ . 5-6 mm. Black ; antennae, all the tibiae and tarsi, the 
emora at the base and apex, ferruginous. Mandibles castaneous, 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 73 

the margins black. Covered all over with a fine and close pubes- 
cence. The pilosity on the head and thorax very scanty, apical 
abdominal segment and clypeus with some longer yellowish-red hairs. 
Mandibles with short yellow hairs, very minutely striate and coarsely 
punctured, the apical tooth large. Head, thorax, and abdomen very 
finely and closely punctured. Head wider than the thorax, the sides 
convex, the posterior margin widely and rather deeply emarginate ; 
including the mandibles the head is as long as the thorax. Clypeus 
raised but not projecting in the middle, excavated at the sides 
between the anterior margin and the antennal sockets. Frontal 
■carinae nearly as wide in front as they are long. Antennae reach 
back as far as the petiole, flagellum gradually incrassate towards the 
apex, 1st joint slightly longer than the 2nd. Eyes moderately large, 
separated from the base of the mandibles by about their own length. 

Pronotum, seen from above, one-third longer than the mesonotum, 
excluding the scutellum. Epinotum compressed at the base, 
widening and raised towards the declivity ; the latter oblique but 
not descending abruptly from the dorsum. Petiole, seen from above, 
convex in front, with the posterior face concave in its lower half, 
vertical and shining, the upper half sloping slightly forwards. The 
anterior and posterior surfaces meet at the sides and above in a 
rather sharp edge. Ventral lamella produced into a blunt tooth 
pointing backwards. The abdomen is more shining than the rest 
of the body. Constriction between the 1st and 2nd segments 
almost obsolete. The 1st and 2nd segments sub-equal. Legs 
slender. 

? . 8-9 mm. Black ; mandibles castaneous with the margins 
black. Antennae and all the tibiae and tarsi more or less ferruginous ; 
femora dark reddish brown. Puncturation, pubescence, and pilosity 
as in the £ . Head very little wider than the thorax and as long as 
the same, excluding the epinotum. 

Pronotum as long as the scutellum. Epinotum wide, the dorsum 
very short or about two-thirds the length of the scutellum ; the 
declivity very steep, rounded above, the lateral margins slightly 
prominent. Wings pale yellowish, nervures and stigma dark yellow. 
Otherwise like the £ . 

S . 6-6*5 mm. Black ; all the tarsi and last four joints of the 
flagellum brownish yellow ; scape and basal portion of the flagellum 
brown ; femora and tibiae at the extreme base and apex ferru- 
ginous. Pubescence similar to that of the ? ; a few long hairs on 
the scutellum, epinotum, and node. Mesonotum finely punctured 
laterally at the base ; scutellum with very faint rugosity, the rest of 



74 Annals of the South African Museum. 

the body impunctate. Head and thorax shining, the abdomen 
more so, especially the pale apical margins of the segments. 

Head square, not so wide as the prothorax, rounded posteriorly 
and feebly convex at the sides. Eyes rather prominent, occupying 
a little less than half the sides of the head. Clypeus rounded, the 
anterior margin depressed. Frontal carinae very short. Antennae 
filiform, reaching back as far as the petiole ; scape two and one-third 
times as long as the 1st joint, and a little shorter than the 2nd joint 
of the flagellum. 

Pronotum moderately exposed. Mesonotum with well-developed 
Mayrian furrows, and short, narrow, parapsidal sutures ; separated 
from the very gibbous scutellum by a deep crenate impression. 
Epinotum as wide as the mesonotum behind the tegulae, sloping in 
a continuous curve from base to apex, so that there is no distinct 
dorsum. Petiole squamiform, very thin above, vertically truncate in 
front and behind, and seen from the front, apparently circular ; seen 
under a high magnification, it is in reality of an angular outline and 
has a slight dorsal emargination. Ventral lamella produced into a 
large tooth, pointing backwards. Abdomen pyriform, in its widest 
part wider than the thorax. All the segments much wider than long. 
Pygidium angular but not spined. Legs slender. Wings hyaline, 
nervures and stigma pale yellow. 

This is the commonest Ponerine ant around Bulawayo. A 
crateriform mound of fine earth generally surrounds the entrance 
to the nest, which is as often situated in the open as it is under 
stones. The economic value of this little species can hardly be 
over-estimated, since it is exceedingly plentiful and preys unceasingly 
on termites. It is, however, omnivorous, since it will eagerly collect 
bread-crumbs, insects of all sorts, and seeds of grass. Heaps of the 
latter are often found in the nests. (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 

Sub-Genus TEACHYMESOPUS, Emery. 
Genera Insectorum, Ponerinae, p. 84, 1911. 

Characters. 

£ and J . Anterior margin of clypeus rounded or produced into 
a blunt and short point. Mandibles sub-triangular, with a distinct 
angle between the basal and masticatory margins ; the latter usually 
furnished with only a few teeth. Maxillary palpi 4-jointed. First 
joint of flagellum distinctly longer and generally thicker than the 
following joint. Eye close to the anterior margin of the head. 
Mesonotum depressed, the surrounding suture not very deep. Tarsi 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 75 

of the middle pair of legs short ; the 1st joint of the tarsus with 
stout hairs or bristles on the dorsal surface. 

$ . Abdomen with a distinct constriction between the 1st and 
2nd segments. Pygidium produced into a sharp point. 



E. (Trachymesopus) Wroughtoni, Forel. (Plate II., fig. 18.) 
Eev. Suisse Zool., vol. 9, p. 341, £ $ , 1901. 

$ . 5-5*3 mm. Head, thorax above excepting the mesonotum, 
petiole and dorsal portion of 1st and 2nd abdominal segments, dark 
brown. Mesonotum and ventral surface of abdomen reddish brown. 
Third, 4th, and 5th abdominal segments rusty yellow. The sides of 
the head castaneous. Antennae, mandibles, margins of pronotum, 
meso- and metapleurae and legs more or less ferruginous, the tarsi 
paler. Clothed all over with a fine golden pubescence. The pilosity 
consists of fairly long flavous hairs, evenly distributed. Head and 
thorax dull, abdomen slightly shining, declivity of epinotum and 
both faces of the petiole very shining. 

Scape, head, and thorax very finely, closely and shallowly 
punctured. Abdomen exceedingly finely punctured. Neck of pro- 
notum transversely rugulose. Head, excluding the mandibles, 
nearly quadrate or slightly longer than wide, sides moderately convex, 
posterior angles rounded, posterior margin shallowly emarginate. 
Clypeus short, sub-truncate anteriorly, raised and carinate in the 
middle. Mandibles finely striated, with a few coarse punctures on 
the masticatory margin, a long groove on the external margin, and 
an. elongate fovea near the basal margin; the masticatory margin 
furnished with about 9 blunt teeth. Frontal carinae extend a little 
beyond the level of the posterior margin of the eyes. The latter 
small and flat, situated within the anterior third of the head, and 
separated from the anterior margin by a distance equal to their own 
length. Scape of antennae reaches back almost to the occiput ; 
flagellum one-third longer than the scape ; 3rd to 10th joints wider 
than long. 

Pronotum rounded, with a distinct neck, and one and a half 
times as long as the mesonotum. The latter wider than long. 
Dorsum of epinotum round above ; one and two-thirds as long as 
the mesonotum. The declivity rather steep, the margins slightly 
raised, especially above. Node of petiole in front convex from side 
to side, slightly concave dorso-ventrally, and concave behind. The 
summit a little flattened, the anterior and posterior faces do not 
meet laterally in such a sharp edge as in sennaarensis. The 



76 Annals of the South African Museum. 

constriction between the 1st and 2nd abdominal segments much 
stronger than in that species. Second segment a little longer than 
the 1st. Legs rather stout, and shorter than in sennaarensis. 

" $. 7-8 mm. Black; tarsi reddish brown; maxillary palpi 
5-jointed. Mandibles rudimentary, without teeth. Antennae fili- 
form ; scape scarcely longer than broad ; 1st joint of flagellum 
broader than long, 2nd joint very long and cylindrical. Head 
rounded, convex behind. 

Pronotum exposed ; scutellum gibbous. Dorsum of epinotum 
fairly long, distinct from the declivity. Node of petiole thick, sub- 
conical. First segment of abdomen small and short, the constriction 
between it and the following segment very strong, the other 
segments only feebly constricted. Sub-genital plate elongate and 
entire, pygidium produced into a long point. Wings brown. 
Sculpture and pilosity as in the $ , but the mesonotum and 
scutellum are dull, with longitudinal striae." 

Natal. (Wroughton.) Knysna. (Brauns.) 

(G.A. coll.) 

Var. ceudelis, Forel. 
Loc cit. 

" $ . 6-7 mm. Head larger, almost square, at least as wide as 
long, less contracted in front. The sides of the mesonotum have 
a dentiform angle on the anterior margin (less marked in the type). 
Dorsum of epinotum wider and shorter. Pilosity a little more 
abundant. Colour varies from a reddish testaceous yellow to a 
slightly reddish brown. 

$ . Identical with the type form and of the same size." 

Natal. (Haviland.) 

Genus PONEEA, Latreille. (Emery, emend.) 

Hist. Nat. Crust. Insect., vol. 13, p. 257, 1805. Emery, Ann. Soc. 

Ent. Belg., vol. 45, p. 41, 1901. 

Characters. 

£ . Head sub-elongate, sides slightly convex, wider behind than 
in front. Anterior margin of clypeus arcuate, or prolonged into 
a rounded lobe. Mandibles broad and triangular, with small teeth ; 
maxillary palpi one- or two- jointed. Antennae clavate, with 
5-jointed club, or only incrassate. Eyes small or absent. Meso- 
epinotal suture usually distinct. Node of petiole squamiform or 
thick. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 11 

? . Very similar to the $ , and winged. The eyes larger, and 
ocelli are present. The node of the petiole is generally higher and 
thinner than in the £ . 

$ . In some species the $ is ergatoid ; in the ordinary winged 
form the scape is nearly always shorter than the 2nd joint of the 
flagellum. Mesonotum gibbous, overhanging the pronotum. Pygi- 
dium generally aculeate. The eyes and ocelli large. Node of 
petiole similar to that of the £ . 

The following key to the $ $ of the genus is admittedly 
imperfect, but may be better, I hope, than none at all. Our 
various species of Ponera are so small and so much alike that 
it is not easy to pick out differences between them which can be 
seized at a glance, so that, unreliable as colour differences often 
are, I have nevertheless preferred to use them here rather than base 
the key on subtle distinctions requiring a minute inspection with 
the aid of a high-power lens. As I have not seen a specimen of 
P. coarctata, race boerorum, Forel, and since that author's descrip- 
tion is very meagre, it is not possible to include it in the key. 

Key to the £ £ of Ponera. 

(2). 1. Black species Dideroti, Forel. 

(1). 2. Yellowish or reddish species. 

(4). 3. Larger, 3-7 mm. long, colour pale chestnut red, head finely but clearly 

punctured spei, Forel. 

(3). 4. Smaller, not more than 3 mm. long, puncturation of the head less 

obvious. 
(8). 5. Head, excluding mandibles, clearly at least one-quarter longer than 

wide. 
(7). 6. Head one and a quarter times as long as wide ; 2nd abdominal segment 

wider than long Gleadowi, Forel. 

(6). 7. Head one and a half times as long as wide ; 2nd abdominal segment 

longer than wide Bagusae, Em., r. Bulawayensis, Forel. 

(5). 8. Head, excluding mandibles, not obviously longer than wide, certainly 

less than one and a quarter times as long as wide. 
(10). 9. Dorsal surface of the node distinctly thicker in the middle than at the 

sides, or greatest thickness equals one-third of the width. 

ergatandria, Forel, r. cognata, Santschi. 
(9). 10. Dorsal surface of node very little thicker in the middle than at the sides, 

or greatest thickness equals one-fifth of the width . . . . dulcis, Forel. 



P. spei, Forel. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 54, p. 423, g , 1910. 

$ . 3 - 7 mm. Head, thorax, and node dark yellowish red, legs 
dirty yellow, abdomen rusty red, apex paler ; the whole body 



78 Annals of the South African Museum. 

shining. Head finely and closely punctured, 1st and 2nd abdominal 
segments a little more coarsely punctured, thorax nearly impunc- 
tate. Covered all over with a fine and close grey pubescence, and 
with a few scattered and rather short pilose hairs on the thorax 
and abdomen. Head, excluding the mandibles, rectangular, and 
one-fifth longer than wide ; the posterior angles widely rounded, the 
sides slightly convex, the posterior margin concave. Eyes very 
small, composed of four facets, situated in the anterior fourth of 
the head. Clypeus raised gradually towards the middle, the 
anterior half minutely sub-carinate on each side of the median 
line, and the anterior margin feebly bisinuate in the centre. 
Frontal carinae convergent posteriorly and very small. Man- 
dibles smooth, shining and sparsely punctured ; teeth very small. 
The scape reaches back as far as the occiput, fiagellum one and 
a half times as long as the scape, incrassate towards the apex, 
2nd-10th joints broader than long. Pro-mesonotal suture distinct, 
meso-epinotal much less so. Pronotum one-third wider and longer 
than the mesonotum. Pro- and mesonotum convex. Dorsum of 
epinotum convex transversely and widening towards the apex, 
where it joins the declivity in a gradual curve ; declivity with the 
lateral margins slightly raised. Node of petiole twice as wide as 
long, rounded above and at the sides, vertically truncate behind and 
obliquely truncate in front. Ventral lamella of petiole produced 
into an obtuse point. Abdominal constriction moderate ; abdomen 
a little longer than the thorax ; 1st segment narrower in front than 
behind. 

Natal. (Wroughton.) Algoa Bay. (Brauns.) 

(G.A. coll.) 

P. Dideeoti, Forel. 

Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr. Beiheft, p. 203, g ? $ , 1913. 

$ . 3 mm. Black, legs, antennae, and mandibles dark yellow. 
Pilose hairs absent except on the clypeus, covered scantily all over 
with a short pale pubescence. Microscopically punctured, sparsely 
and shallowly on the thorax and first two abdominal segments, 
more densely on the head and sides of epinotum. Head a little 
longer than wide, sides and posterior margin almost straight or 
only very feebly convex, posterior angles rounded. Clypeus raised 
in the middle but not carinate, anterior margin convex. Frontal 
carinae small, moderately angulated laterally in front. Eyes small, 
situated low down and far forwards, separated from the base of the 
mandibles by a distance equal to their own diameter. The scape 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 79 

reaches back as far as the occipital margin, 1st joint of flagellum 
nearly twice as long as wide, as long as the two following joints 
taken together, 2nd joint not much wider than long, 3rd-10th joints 
decidedly wider than long, terminal joint as long as the two pre- 
ceding together. Mandibles shining, sparsely punctured, masti- 
catory margin with about 4 or 5 small teeth, the apical tooth well 
developed. Thoracic sutures well denned. Pronotum almost as 
long as wide, anterior margin convex, much narrower in front 
than behind. Mesonotum two-thirds as long as the pronotum ; 
dorsum of epinotum flat, and as long as the declivity, the 
latter not very oblique, its sides slightly margined. Node of petiole 
convex from side to side in front, narrow above, vertical behind, 
and nearly so in front, quite twice as wide as long ; ventral lamella 
produced into a convex projection at the base. 1st abdominal seg- 
ment a little shorter than the 2nd, wider than long, the face of the 
1st segment in front vertical, intersegmental constriction feeble. 

? . 3"7 mm. Eyes larger than in the $ • Pronotum twice as 
wide as long ; mesonotum two-thirds as long as the pronotum, 
dorsum of epinotum half as long as the pronotum, the declivity less 
oblique than in the £ , and with the brow of the declivity obtusely 
emarginate. First and 2nd abdominal segments a trifle wider than 
long, 2nd segment a little longer than the 1st. Wings with a 
yellowish tinge, nervures very pale. Other characters as in the $ . 
$ . 3'6 mm. Black, legs, antennae, and apical segment of abdomen 
light brown. Clothed with a very sparse pale pubescence. Whole 
body shining. Head, thorax, and petiole very shallowly and finely 
punctured. The points of insertion of the pubescent hairs on the 
abdomen are so shallow that they can hardly be called punctures. 
Head sub-quadrate, excluding the clypeus, a little wider than long. 
The clypeus projects rather far forwards and is gibbous, the anterior 
margin obtusely angular in the middle. Mandibles truncated at the 
apex, the apices not meeting. Eyes very large, situated within 
the front half of the head. Ocelli small, placed on a very slightly 
raised area. Frontal carinae feebly developed, with a deep im- 
pressed line between them which reaches back as far as the anterior 
ocellus. Antennae filiform or only slightly thickened towards the 
apex ; scape twice as long as the 1st joint of the flagellum, but not 
longer than the distance separating the two posterior ocelli. The 
antennae reach back as far as the brow of the epinotum. Pro- 
notum short and exposed ; mesonotum about one-third wider than 
long, anterior margin round, parapsidal furrows well defined, 
separated by a deep suture from the scutellum. The latter is 



80 Annals of the South African Museum. 

moderately gibbous, and half as long as the mesonotum. Dorsum 
of epinotum as wide as long, and as long as scutellum and meta- 
notum together, the declivity very smooth and shining. Node of 
petiole like that of the £ , but not so thick. Abdomen ovate, 1st 
segment as long as the 2nd, all the segments much wider than long. 
Knysna. (Dr. H. Brauns.) (S.A.M., R.M., G.A. colls.) 

P. Eagusae, Emery, race bulawayensis, Forel. 

Emery, II Natural Sicil., 1895. Emery, Mem. Accad. Sc. Bologna 
(5), vol. v., pp. 292, 297, 1895. Forel, Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr. 
Beiheft, p. 203, $ , 1913. 

$ . 2-4-2-8 mm. Beddish yellow. Antennae and body covered 
with a whitish pubescence, somewhat sparse on the head and 
thorax. Head and thorax dull, microscopically punctured. Head 
a little wider behind than in front, half as long again as wide, sides 
feebly convex or almost parallel-sided, posterior margin moderately 
concave, posterior angles rounded. Eyes absent. Mandibles trian- 
gular, masticatory margin with about 6 or 7 small teeth. Clypeus 
short, anterior margin obtusely angular in the middle. Frontal 
carinae broad and flat. Scape of antenna widened towards the 
apex, not reaching back as far as the occipital margin ; the whole 
antenna reaches back as far as the base of the epinotum ; flagellum 
clavate, 1st joint a little longer than wide, and as long as the three 
following joints taken together, 2nd-10th joints wider than long, 
last joint a little longer than the two preceding joints together and 
twice as long as wide. Thorax rather flat dorsally ; pro-mesonotal 
suture distinct, meso-metanotal obsolete. Pronotum as wide as 
long, but narrower than the head, anterior margin and sides convex. 
Meso- and epinotum narrower than, and, taken together, one- 
quarter longer than the pronotum ; declivity of the epinotum 
oblique, smooth and shining. Node of petiole seen from above 
sub-quadrate, the sides slightly convex, narrower in front than 
behind, a little wider than long, and not including the ventral 
lamella, only a trifle higher than thick ; seen in profile, convex 
above from side to side, anterior and posterior faces vertically 
truncate ; ventral lamella produced into a long keel, slightly nicked 
in the middle. Abdomen elongate, as long as thorax and petiole 
together. First segment as long as, or a little longer than wide, 
2nd segment one-quarter longer than wide and longer than the 
1st ; the anterior face of the latter is vertically truncate, the brow 
rounded. 

Bulawayo. (G.A. coll.) 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 81 

P. eegatandria, Forel, race cognata, Santschi. 
Forel, Trans. Bnt. Soc. London, p. 365, 1893. Santschi, Ann, 
Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 56, p. 153, 1912. 
$ . 3 mm. Castaneous brown, head darker than the rest of the 
body, legs, antennae, clypeus, and mandibles brownish yellow. 
Clothed with a pale pubescence, very short on the head, and with 
pale pilose hairs on the 3rd-5th abdominal segments. Head very 
minutely and rather closely punctured, thorax less densely and much 
more shallowly punctured, a few large punctures on the mandibles, 
the rest of the body impunctate ; the whole body nitidulous. Head, 
excluding the mandibles, nearly one-quarter longer than wide, sides 
moderately convex, posterior angles rounded, posterior margin 
feebly concave. The scape does not reach back to the posterior 
margin ; the flagellum strongly incrassate towards the apex, the 
last 4 joints forming a club ; 1st joint of flagellum as long as the 
three following joints taken together, 2nd-10th joints wider than 
long, apical joint as long as wide, and as long as the two preceding 
joints together. Clypeus not so short as in Bagusae or dulcis, raised 
in the centre and impressed transversely above the anterior margin, 
which is slightly produced. Frontal carinae short and converging 
posteriorly, separated by a faint impressed line reaching to the 
middle of the head. Mandibles triangular, shining, with about 6 
small unequal-sized teeth on the masticatory margin, the apex 
ending in a sharp strong tooth. Eyes small, situated within the 
anterior fourth of the head. Pronotum only a little narrower than 
the head, one-third wider than long, very convex in front and at the 
sides. Mesonotum nearly round, as long as the pronotum, and a 
little wider than long. The profile of the dorsum of the thorax is 
almost straight, and the thoracic sutures quite distinct. Dorsum of 
the epinotum as long as the mesonotum, a little wider at the apex 
than at the base ; the declivity is not so oblique as in Bagusae or 
dulcis. The node of the petiole is much thicker above than in those 
species, nearly twice as wide as long, and with the anterior and 
posterior faces vertical. Seen from above, the margins of the dorsal 
surface of the node are convex in front, straight behind and feebly 
convex at the sides. Abdomen elongate, as long as the tborax and 
petiole together ; 1st and 2nd segments subequal, the constriction 
between them not very marked. Sting exserted. 

Found in some numbers round the almost dried bones of a buried 
snake in which small white Poduridae abounded, and on which the 
ants were seen to prey. 

Bulawayo. (S.A.M., P.M., G.A. colls.) 

6 



82 Annals of the South African Museum. 

P. dulcis, Forel. 

Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung., vol. 5, p. 2, g , 1907. 

£ . 2' 7-3 mm. Brownish yellow, mandibles, antennae, and legs 
ochreous, abdomen yellowish brown. Thorax very shining, abdomen 
and head moderately so ; head, scapes, and first two segments of 
abdomen microscopically punctured, elsewhere impunctate. A short 
pale sparse pubescence on the limbs and body, a little denser on the 
abdomen ; the clypeus and apical abdominal segments with a few 
long pale pilose hairs. Head one-fifth longer tban wide, slightly 
narrower in front than behind, sides convex, posterior margin almost 
straight, posterior angles rounded but distinct. Eyes small and 
black, situated within the anterior fifth of the sides of the head. 
Mandibles shining, triangular and with a few shallow punctures 
along the masticatory margin, which is feebly denticulate. Frontal 
carinae short, separated by a shallow impressed line which reaches 
back a little beyond the middle of the head. Clypeus short and 
similar to that of P. Bagusae. The antennae reach back as far as 
the brow of the declivity, the scape reaching a little beyond the 
occipital margin. Scape moderately, flagellum more strongly 
incrassate towards the apex. First joint of flagellum longer than 
wide, as long as the three following segments taken together ; 2nd- 
10th joints wider than long, apical joint longer than wide, and a 
little longer than the two preceding segments together. Thorax 
narrower than the head. Pronotum a little wider than long, the 
sides and anterior margin convex, the dorsal surface rather flat. 
Pro-mesonotal and meso-epinotal sutures sharply defined. Meso- 
notum half as long as the pronotum, nearly round, and elevated 
slightly above the level of the latter. Dorsum of epinotum narrow, 
as long as the pronotum and sloping towards the brow of the 
declivity ; the latter is oblique. Node of petiole squamiform ; seen 
from in front it is semicircular above, and wider above the middle 
line than below it. The anterior face is almost vertical or with only 
a slight slope from below backwards, and is also feebly convex from 
side to side. The posterior face is vertical and concave dorso- 
ventrally. First segment of abdomen as long as the 2nd, both 
segments almost as long as wide. Intersegmental constriction 
feeble. 

$ . (Hitherto undescribed.) 3-6 mm. Whole body reddish 
yellow, mandibles and anterior region of the head castaneous. Eyes 
black, very large, occupying more than one-quarter of the sides of 
the head. Pronotum nearly twice as wide as long, and very convex 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 83 

in front. Mesonotum wider in front than behind, as wide as long, 
and twice as long as the pronotum. Scutellum ovoid transversely, 
one-third as long as the mesonotum. Dorsum of epinotum rather 
short, twice as wide as long, the declivity much less oblique than in 
the $ : seen from in front, the brow of the declivity is feebly but 
distinctly concave from side to side. The node of the petiole is 
thinner above than in the $ . Abdomen elongate, very nearly as 
long as head and thorax together. Dealated. Other characters as 
in the $ . 

Under stones, Bulawayo. (S.A.M., G.A. colls.) 

P. Gleadowi, Forel, race aethiopica, Forel. 

Type : Mem. Ace. Bolog. 5, p. 60, g , 1887. Eace : Eev. Ent. Caen, 
vol. 26, p. 132, g , 1907. 

g . 2-5 mm. Head, thorax, and legs reddish yellow, the head 
■somewhat redder ; abdomen brown-yellow, the 1st and 2nd segments 
•dark brown with the basal margins paler. This species is very 
similar to spei, from which it is clearly distinguished by the following 
characters. 

Head much longer proportionately than in that species, one and a 
quarter times as long as wide. Eyes very minute ; flagellum more 
incrassate. The clypeus has a bisinuate anterior margin as in spei, 
but is convex from side to side, and rather abruptly raised in the 
middle so as to form a sub-carinate hump below the frontal carinae. 
The epinotum is proportionately wider than in spei, and the declivity 
is not sub-margined laterally. The abdomen is impunctate. 

Willowmore, Cape Prov. (Brauns.) 

(G.A. coll.) 

P. coarctata, Latreille, race boerobum, Forel. 

Type : Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, vol. 3, p. 65, g $ , 1802. Eace : 
Eev. Suisse Zool., vol. 9, p. 339, g , 1901. 

" $ . 2'4-2-8 mm. Yellow, slightly reddish, head more or less 
dark brown, thorax brownish red or yellow. Legs, mandibles, 
antennae, and abdomen always paler. Meso-metanotal suture very 
deep. The scape does not quite reach the occiput. Node of petiole 
very much as in the type form ; the clypeus is shorter and the 
mandibles longer. 

Natal, 1,600 metres above sea-level. (Haviland.) " 

I have copied Forel' s rather meagre description omitting only 



84 Annals of the South African Museum. 

some comparisons made between this race and some extra-ethiopian 
species. 

Genus PLECTKOCTENA, Smith 

Cat. Hymen. Brit. Mus , vol. 6, p. 101, 1858. 

Characters. 

$ . Clypeus very narrow, anterior margin straight, except above 
the base of the mandibles where it is shallowly emarginate ; labrum 
very large. Mandibles long and narrow, with a deep sulcus from 
base to apex on the upper inner side ; one large tooth below the- 
middle, and a small and very obtuse one between that and the apex ; 
the latter is obtuse. Frontal carinae large, slightly convergent 
behind, overhanging and apparently fused with the clypeus in front. 
Antennae incrassate gradually towards the apex. Eyes small, 
placed far forwards close to the base of the mandibles. Head much 
wider than the thorax. Thorax large, pro-mesonotal suture wide 
and deep, meso-epinotal suture slight or obsolete. Declivity of 
epinotum with the lateral margins raised into strong ridges. Con- 
striction between the 1st and 2nd abdominal segments strong. 
Node of petiole thick, longer than broad. Inner calcar of middle 
and hind legs well developed, outer calcar absent. 

? . A winged ? is not known in manclibularis ; in subterranea r 
Arnold, and minor, Emery, winged ? ? occur which are very 
similar to the £ . 

$ . Clypeus triangular ; frontal carinae well developed but short 
and considerably raised. Antennae long, reaching back as far as 
the base of the 2nd abdominal segment ; scape less than half tbe 
length of the 2nd joint of the flagellum, 1st joint of the latter very 
short, only one-third the length of the scape. Eyes moderately 
large, occupying less than half the sides of the head ; ocelli not. 
situated on a raised area. Pronotum exposed ; Mayrian furrows on 
the mesonotum strongly marked ; scutellum raised, pyramidal and 
grooved longitudinally. Declivity of epinotum with raised lateral 
ridges as in the £ . Node of petiole higher than long. Abdominal 
constriction distinct. Pygidium bluntly pointed. 

P. subterranea, n. sp. (Plate III., figs. 23, 23a.) 

$ . 7 - 5 mm. Castaneous red ; all the joints of the flagellum, 

except tbe apical, reddish brown. Except in size, puncturation, 

colour, and dimensions of the eyes, this species is very similar to 

mandibularis. Pubescence entirely wanting except on the legs and 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 85 

flagellum which bear a scanty microscopic pubescence. Pilosity 
also absent, except on the last two segments of the abdomen, the 
clypeus, mandibles and margins of the apical abdominal segments, 
which bear a few long golden hairs. The whole body very shining 
and polished, finely, evenly and sparsely punctured. The depressed 
areas behind the antennal sockets finely striate. 

The head is parallel-sided, and nearly one-fifth longer than it is 
wide ; in mandibularis the head is as long as wide and the sides are 
slightly convex. The scape of the antennae is only a little longer 
than half the head ; the flagellum is as long as the head, all the 
joints except the apical wider than long, the apical joint as long as 
the three preceding together. The eyes are exceedingly small, less 
than - l mm., slightly sunk below the surface, and composed of 
about 24 ill-defined facets. They are separated from the anterior 
margin of the head by a distance less than their own length. 
Mandibles as in mandibularis. Pro-mesonotal suture distinct, meso- 
epinotal entirely obsolete. Pronotum without a median longitudina 
impression. The lateral margins of the declivity of the epinotum 
are raised into much stronger ridges than in mandibularis ; the 
ridges are abruptly truncate above. Seen in profile, the thorax is 
much flatter dorsally than in mandibularis. The node of the petiole 
is not much narrower in front than behind, and the angular projec- 
tion of the ventral lamella is truncate at the apex, otherwise like 
mandibularis. The 2nd abdominal segment is less globose, and the 
legs are stouter and shorter proportionately than in that species. 
The 1st and 2nd abdominal segments are distinctly longer than wide. 

2 . 10 mm. Similar to the $ but winged, and with well- 
developed eyes, 03 mm. long, and three small ocelli. The colour 
of the head and thorax is darker than in the £ . The mesonotum 
is a little wider than long, and two and a half times as long as the 
pronotum. The parapsidal sutures are deep and well defined only 
on the posterior half of the mesonotum. All the transverse thoracic 
sutures distinctly defined. The scutellum is half as long as the 
mesonotum. Dorsum of epinotum as long as the scutellum, with a 
feeble median impression at the extreme base. The projection of 
the ventral lamella of the petiole blunt, but not truncate at the apex 
as in the £ . Other characters as in the $ . 

The single specimen of this sex was found alive and dealated 
under a stone. Of the $ £ I have two specimens, one considerably 
damaged. The latter was taken dead on the rubbish-heap belonging 
to a nest of Tetramorhtm Blochmanni, Forel, r. continentis, Forel, 
and the other in a similar situation, and also dead, from the nest of 



86 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Pachycondyla Krilgeri. From the very small size of the eyes in 
the $ sex, I am inclined to think that this ant leads an almost 
entirely subterranean existence. The presence of the dead £ £ 
on the rubbish-heaps of other ants is doubtless due to accidental 
intrusions into the galleries of the latter. 

Bulawayo, 1 £ , 1 ? . Shiloh, S. Ehodesia, 1 £ . 

(S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 

P. MANDIBULARS, Smith. 

Cat. Hymen. Brit. Mus., vol. 6, p. 101, $ <? , 1858. 

Var. major, Forel (= ergatoid 5 ). 
Mittl. Schweiz. Ent. Ges., vol. 9, p. 11, 1894. 
$ . 14'5-16"5 mm. Black; flagellum, mandibles, outer angles of 
frontal carinae and tarsi piceous ; apices of all the femora and tibiae 
castaneous ; 2nd-5th abdominal segments at their extreme apical 
margins pale brown. Legs with a sparse and coarse golden pubes- 
cence, antennae with a close and finer pubescence. Anterior margin 
of clypeus and masticatory margin of mandibles with a few long 
golden-brown hairs. The margins of the abdominal segments, except 
the 1st, with a few short golden hairs. The rest of the body 
without pilosity or pubescence. Head, mandibles, scape and 
abdomen very shining. Head evenly and sharply punctured, the 
punctures being larger at the sides. Abdomen sparsely, evenly and 
finely punctured. Thorax duller than the head or abdomen, more 
closely and strongly punctured, the space between the punctures 
very finely striate. Node shining and as coarsely punctured as the 
thorax. Head, excluding mandibles, almost square, posterior angles 
rounded, posterior margin arcuately emarginate. The antennae 
reach back as far as the middle of the epinotum. Pronotum as long 
as the mesonotum, slightly flattened above, rounded at the sides and 
in front, with a central longitudinal impression broken in the 
middle. The scutellar region is slightly indicated by a shallow 
impression at the sides and behind. Dorsum of epinotum nearly 
as long as the mesonotum and with a feeble median longitudinal 
groove ; declivity shining and microscopically punctured, the lateral 
margins raised into somewhat tumid ridges. Node of petiole convex 
from side to side in front, and above, the sides moderately convex, 
vertically truncate behind and nearly so in front, posterior angles 
fairly sharp but slightly rounded. Ventral lamella produced anteriorly 
into a wide angle. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 87 

First abdominal segment campaniform, 2nd segment longer than 
the 1st. Legs rather slender; anterior tarsi beneath clothed with 
dense, golden bristles. Sting short and blunt. For the rest, the 
characters of the genus. 

? . 20 mm. The large form which I regard as an ergatoid ? , 
differs from the $ chiefly in size, but the head and abdomen are 
proportionately wider and longer. The longitudinal impression on 
the pronotum is shallower, while that of the dorsum of the epinotum 
is deeper and wider. 

In a nest of three dozen or so individuals, not more than two or 
three of these large forms are to be found, and usually only one. 

$ . 14 - 5 mm. Black; 3rd segment of abdomen piceous, last three 
segments ferruginous. A golden-grey pubescence on the whole 
body, excepting the last four abdominal segments. The margins of 
all the abdominal segments except the 1st carry a few golden hairs ; 
elsewhere there is no pilosity. Head moderately shining, closely, 
finely and shallowly punctured, a little more coarsely in front and 
at the sides. Pronotum reticulate-punctate, the posterior margin 
transversely striate. Mesonotum rugosely punctate anteriorly, 
laterally sparsely and shallowly punctured, the space between the 
punctures rugulose. Scutellum and metanotum with very large 
reticulate punctures ; epinotum rugose, coarsely at the sides, 
finely so above. Node of petiole shining above, closely punctured 
and dull at the sides. Abdomen microscopically rugulose, shallowly 
and very sparsely punctured, the punctures somewhat larger and 
more abundant on the 1st and 2nd segments. 

Head wider than long, sides convex, occipital margin reflexed 
and forming a small collar. Clypeus widely emarginate ; frontal 
carinae short, raised above the antennal sockets ; frontal sulcus 
extends back as far as the anterior ocellus. Antennae filiform, 
reaching back as far as middle of 1st abdominal segment. Mandibles 
short, edentate and blunt at apex. Prothorax produced neck-like 
in front. Mesonotum with well-developed Mayrian furrows and an 
elongate median triangular area in front, which is shining and 
impunctate. Scutellum pyramidal, with a large longitudinal sulcus, 
and separated from the mesonotum by a coarsely crenate impression. 
Metanotum with a short central carina. Declivity of epinotum 
deeply excavated, transversely rugose ; the lateral margins ridged 
as in the £ . Node of petiole sub-globose seen from above ; seen 
from the side the dorsal portion is convex, the posterior face vertical, 
the anterior face almost so ; ventral lamella produced at the extreme 
base into a triangular tooth pointing downwards. Seen from above the 



88 Annals of the South African Museum. 

shape of the node is distinctive, the base being emarginate with small 
lateral angles, behind which on each side lies a flattened projection. 
The node of the petiole is only half as wide as the 1st abdominal 
segment. The latter is nearly as long as wide, sub-campaniform, 
and separated from the 2nd segment by a well-marked constriction. 
The 2nd segment is two-thirds wider than long, the sides slightly 
convex. Abdomen as long as thorax and petiole together. Pygidium 
narrowly truncate. Legs slender. Wings sub-hyaline, somewhat 
darker towards the apex, stigma brown, nervures pale brown ; 2 
sub-marginal cells, radial cell lanceolate. 

This species is fairly generally distributed. Specimens from 
Willowmore and Grahamstown are rather small, but otherwise 
agree with the type. They are intermediate in size and puncturation 
between the type form and the smallest form which I have received 
from Durban. The entrances to the nest are generally indicated by 
large heaps of earth. The chambers are placed deep below the 
surface, seldom less than 2 feet, and the number of individuals 
seldom exceeds 50. It is a sluggish and timid ant, the workers 
foraging singly. The food includes termites, but consists chiefly of 
millipedes and beetles. 

(S.A.M., E.M., and G.A. colls.) 



Var. strigosa, Emery. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 43, p. 469, $ , 1899. 

This differs from the type form in having the dorsal surface of the 
head, thorax and 1st segment of abdomen finely and regularly 
striate, longitudinally so on the head and thorax, transversely on 
the petiole, concentrically on the 1st abdominal segment and 
slightly so on the 2nd. The petiole is a little shorter than in 
the type form. Natal. 



Teibe LEPTOGENYINI, Eorel. 

Characters. 

$ and ? . Mandibles articulated near the anterior angles of the 
head; abdominal constriction between the 1st and 2nd segments 
feeble. Claws pectinate. 

$ . Claws pectinate. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 89 

Genus LEPTOGENYS, Eoger (Forel). 
Berlin Ent. Zeitschr., vol. 5, p. 12, 1861 (s. stricto) ; Jahrb. 
Hamburg Wiss. Anst., vol. 10, p. 6, 1893 (s. latiore). 

Characters. 

£ . Clypeus usually carinate, and produced in the middle 
anteriorly as a lobe or small platform. Mandibles linear or tri- 
angular with the masticatory margin dentate, or narrow and 
edentate. Antennae generally filiform. Meso-epinotal suture 
usually distinct. 

? . It is probable that all the ? ? of this genus are ergatoid. 

$ . Claws pectinate, thereby differing from the $ $ of all other 
Ponerinae. Scape short. Mensonotum with well-defined Mayrian 
furrows. 

This genus is divided into 4 sub-genera, of which the two following 
alone are represented in our region. 

1. Mandibles very elongate, crossing each other only slightly and enclosing a 
large space between them and the clypeus ; linear and acute, or ending in 
two small teeth placed close together Leptogenys, Eoger. 

2. Mandibles triangular, dentate, or narrow and with a terminal tooth ; in the 
latter case they are much shorter than in Lejrtogenys, and do not enclose a 
large space in front of the clypeus Lobopelta, Mayr. 

Sub-Genus LEPTOGENYS, Eoger. 
Berlin Ent. Zeitschr. vol. 5, p. 12, 1861. 

Key to the $ £ of Leptogenys, s. str. 

(2). 1. Body entirely dull, covered with a pruinose pubescence . . maxillosa, Smith. 

(1). 2. Body without any pruinose pubescence. 

(8). 3. Whole body shining. 

{7). 4. Node of petiole seen in profile, quadrant-shaped, seen from above much 

wider behind than in front. 
{6). 5. Head wider at the anterior margin than it is across the eyes. 10-11 mm. 

Stuhlmanni, Mayr. 
{5). 6. Head not wider at the anterior margin than it is across the eyes, 95 mm. 

Schwabi, Forel. 
{4;. 7. Node of petiole seen in profile, not quadrant-shaped, seen from above only 

a little wider behind than in front, 47 mm Ferrarii, Forel. 

(3). 8. Body dull, except the posterior portion of the abdomen, 5 - 5 mm. 

cribrata, Emery. 

L. maxillosa, Smith. (Plate III., fig. 24.) 
Cat. Hymen. Brit. Mus., vol. 6, p. 93, % $, 1858. 
$ . 6-6"5 mm., excluding the mandibles. Black ; antennae, 
mandibles (except the extreme base which is piceous), femora, tibiae 



90 Annals of the South African Museum. 

and apical segment of abdomen reddish brown ; the coxae piceous, 
the tarsi dark red. The whole body covered with an exceedingly 
fine pruinose pubescence, similar to that of the Platythyreini ; 
there are a few long hairs on the clypeus, and the apical segment of 
the abdomen is densely clothed with moderately long golden hairs. 
Head, scape of antenna, thorax, femora, tibiae, petiole, 1st and 2nd 
abdominal segments microscopically rugulose, and excepting the 
antennae and legs closely punctured with small, shallow punctures ; 
the 3rd and 4th abdominal segments very finely punctured. Head 
trapezoid, wider in front than behind, posterior margin slightly 
emarginate, posterior angles very round. The eyes occupy a little 
more than one-quarter of the sides of the head, and are placed far 
forwards and separated from the base of the mandibles by less than 
their own length. Clypeus shining and coarsely punctured, the 
anterior margin membranous and translucent, with a feebly crenate 
depression just in front of the membranous area ; the median portion 
very slightly raised, not carinate, projecting backwards between the 
frontal carinae. The latter are narrow, not divergent behind, 
separated along their posterior half by a narrow sulcus which is 
continued back to about the level of the middle of the eyes. 
Antennae reach back as far as the base of 1st abdominal segment, 
the scape reaches back as far as the middle of the pronotum. 
Mandibles very long, linear, acute at the apex, finely striate and 
shining. Pronotum about as long as wide, rounded in front, sides 
moderately convex. Pro-mesonotal suture distinct. Mesonotum 
hardly more than half as wide as the pronotum, and considerably 
less than half as long. Dorsum of epinotum widening towards the 
declivity and as long as the pro- and mesonotum together ; declivity 
shallowly excavated, the lateral margins raised. Node of petiole sub- 
quadrate, very slightly wider than long, rounded above, vertical in 
front and behind ; ventral lamella bluntly produced at the extreme 
base. Abdomen elongate, 1st segment as high as, and one-third 
wider than the node, spinously produced below at the base ; 1st and 
2nd segments sub-equal, their apical margins narrowly ferruginous. 

" $ . 2f lines. Black and slightly shining, finely punctured; 
eyes and ocelli very large, the latter glassy bright and very promi- 
nent ; the legs and antennae fusco-ferruginous ; the antennae 
towards their apex, the articulations of the legs, the tarsi and tip of 
abdomen ferruginous ; wings fusco-hyaline ; abdomen and node of 
peduncle as in the female (= worker)." 

I have not seen any $ $ of this species, and have therefore copied 
Smith's very scanty description. It is not a common species ; the 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 91 

colony is rather large as a rule, comprising as many as four or five 
dozen individuals. 

(S.A.M., P.M., G.A. colls.) 

L. cribrata, Emery. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 20, $ , 1895. 

" $. 5-5'5 mm. Piceous ; clypeus, antennae, legs and apical 
segment of abdomen rufescent, dull, abdomen posteriorly and below 
shining, very densely and finely punctulate all over, with a scanty 
pubescence and fine pilosity ; mandibles linear, acuminate ; node of 
petiole thick, convex above, truncate in front and behind. 

Vryburg, Bechuanaland." 

" This species is remarkable chiefly by its sculpture ; the whole 
body is finely and closely punctured, the head being entirely 
dull; the thorax and abdomen are slightly shining, especially the 
posterior portion and ventral surface of the latter ; the legs and 
antennae are also punctulate and almost dull The sides and 
posterior portion of the head are plentifully punctured, the thorax 
with larger punctures ; the punctures become gradually smaller on 
the petiole and abdomen, being simply piligerous points on the 
posterior segments. The head is nearly square or slightly narrower 
behind than in front, the eyes large, situated in front of the middle 
of the sides of the head and separated from the base of the mandibles 
by less than the length of their own diameter. The clypeus is widely 
lobate, round and with a membranous margin. Mandibles narrow, 
linear, arcuate near the base, then straight and again curved near 
the apex, which is acute. Thorax relatively stout, the epinotum as 
long as the pro- and mesonotum together ; the meso-epinotal 
suture deep ; the declivity of the epinotum has the same sculpture 
as the rest of the thorax, and the lateral margins are raised. Petiole 
seen from the side, nearly as wide as high, sharply truncate and 
smooth behind, convex and rugose above and in front ; seen from 
above, hardly wider than long, and slightly narrower in front than 
behind." 

L. Stuhlmanni, Mayr. 

Jahrb. Hamburg Wiss. Anst., vol. 10, 2, p. G, $ , 1893. Forel, Rev. 

Ent., p. 131, 3 , 1908. 

" $ . 10-10'6 mm. Black or brownish black, the scape brown, 

the mandibles, flagellum, and apex of abdomen lighter, the legs 

reddish brown or lighter. The whole body is covered with an erect 



92 Annals of the South African Museum. 

pilosity ; pubescence wanting except on the flagellum and tarsi. 
Mandibles nearly smooth, with here and there some indistinct longi- 
tudinal striae and pilose punctures, moderately long, narrow, with a 
distinct and very oblique masticatory margin at the apex, which ends 
in a curved pointed tooth. When the mandibles are closed there is 
a large space between them and the clypeus. The head is smooth, 
with sparse and shallow pilose punctures, somewhat stronger on 
the sides of the head ; the latter is of a reversed trapeze shape, being 
much wider in front than behind, and also wider there than across 
the eyes. Clypeus short, sharply carinate, with striae on each side 
of the carina which extend back a short distance between the 
antennal sockets and the base of the mandibles; the carina is 
produced in front to form a short and rather indistinct projection 
or snout, which is almost wider than long. On each side of the 
projection the anterior margin of the clypeus is curved slightly 
S-shaped. The eyes are nearer the base of the mandibles than the 
posterior angles of the head. The lower margin of the mouth is 
without a small tooth. All the joints of the flagellum longer than 
wide, the 2nd joint nearly twice as long as the 1st. The pronotum 
is more or less coarsely but shallowly strigose, with a few large 
shallow punctures at the side ; the mesonotum, which is similarly 
sculptured, is as long as wide, fairly round, and slopes backwards in 
such a way that the pro- and mesonotum together form a curve, 
moderately bowed from front to back. The thorax is not deeply 
constricted between the meso- and epinotum. The latter is long, 
about as long as the pro- and mesonotum together, and its dorsum 
rises gradually backwards and then falls rather abruptly towards the 
rounded boundary between it and the declivity; the dorsum is 
irregularly rugose, the declivity coarsely and transversely striate ; 
the sides of the meso- and epithorax are obliquely striate. 

The node of the petiole is finely wrinkled and sparsely punctured ; 
it is longer than wide, much wider and higher behind than in front, 
the posterior face vertical, flat and transversely striate. The abdo- 
men is almost smooth, barely constricted between the 1st and 2nd 
segments. Legs long and thin, the claws distinctly pectinate. 
Quilimane." 

Durban. 

The male of the type form is not known, but since the male sex 
usually varies but little in sub-species and varieties, it may be of 
some assistance to the student to be able to refer to the description 
by Forel of the race erythraea, Emery, which is herewith appended. 

" Stuhhnanni, race erythraea, Emery. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 98 

$ . 9 - 5 mm. Mandibles very wide at the base, attenuating 
abruptly to the apex, and curved inwardly. Clypeus broad and 
carinate, with a short and rounded lobe anteriorly. Head one and 
a half times longer than wide, narrowed behind the eyes and raised 
collar-like at the articular margin. The pronotum extends consider- 
ably in front of the mesonotum (i.e., not depressed below the latter). 
Mesonotum with two deep convergent furrows ; it is feebly convex 
in front and behind. Seen from the side, the node of the petiole forms 
almost an equilateral triangle, obtuse and rounded above. Sculp- 
ture, pilosity and colour as in the £ , but the head is smoother and 
the metanotum (epinotum) more hairy. Wings with a slight rusty 
tinge. Bourka, South Africa." 

I have met with this species only in Natal, where it appears to 
feed exclusively on woodlice ; the entrance to the nest can be plainly 
distinguished by the accumulation of the remains of their prey, 
bleached a dead white, scattered around it. The nest is not in- 
dicated by any mound or other accumulation of earth ; but in the 
neighbourhood of Durban at least, it is very frequently found in, or 
immediately adjacent to the nests of Myrmicaria eumenoides, Gerst. 
I am inclined to think that this Leptogenys dispossesses the latter 
species of a part of their large nest, rather than take the trouble of 
excavating one for itself. It also has a very noticeable smell, 
resembling essence of pears. (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 

L. Schwabi, Forel. 
Deutscb. Ent. Zeitschr. Beiheft, p. 208, $ , 1913. 

$ . 9 - 6 mm. Very similar to Stuhlmanni. Black, mandibles, 
flagellum, extreme base and apex of scape, the tarsi and apex of 
abdomen more or less ferruginous, the clypeus, tibiae and femora 
piceous. Whole body very smooth and shining, sparsely covered 
with long yellowish or golden hairs, which arise from very small 
punctures. Puncturation otherwise wanting. Pubescence entirely 
absent. The mesonotum is transversely and shallowly strigose 
above, obliquely so at the sides ; the epinotum is also transversely 
strigose above, but more strongly so than the mesonotum, especially 
over the brow of the declivity. The sides of the epinotum obliquely 
striated. 

Head a little longer than it is wide in front, much wider in front 
than behind, but at the anterior margin it is not wider than across 
the eyes. The latter large, situated a little in front of the middle of 
the sides. Clypeus like that of Stuhlmanni, but the apex not pro- 



94 Annals of the South African Museum. 

duced so much in the middle. Mandibles long, longer than the head, 
shining, sparsely punctured, the apical portion a little wider than the 
rest, and concavely excised so as to form a distinct tooth at the apex. 
Antennae long, reaching back as far as the base of the 2nd abdo- 
minal segment, the scape reaching back as far as the posterior 
margin of the mesonotum ; 2nd joint of the flagellum nearly twice 
as long as the 1st, all the joints cylindrical and much longer than 
wide. Thorax similar to that of Stuhlmanni, but the pronotum is 
smooth, and the epinotum more strongly strigose. The rest of the 
characters similar to those of Stuhlmanni. In both these species 
the node of the petiole seen from the side is approximately 
quadrant-shaped, the curvature being anterior and dorsal. 

Bulawayo. 

This species is crepuscular or nocturnal, and preys on termites. 
I have never seen it about during daylight. 

(S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls).) 

L. Ferbakii, Forel. 
Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr. Beiheft, p. 209, $ , 1913. 

$ . 4-7 mm. Brownish black, mandibles, clypeus, antennae, 
legs and apex of abdomen ochreous red. Very similar to Lobopelta 
nitida and castanea, but owing to the structure of the mandibles, 
this species is a true Leptogenys, s. str. Legs and body covered with 
short, yellow, semi-erect hairs, longer on the petiole and abdomen. 
Smooth and shining. Head very finely and somewhat sparsely 
punctured. Thorax with large and shallow irregular punctures ; at 
the sides and on the node these punctures are very elongated, almost 
forming short grooves. The declivity of the epinotum strongly and 
transversely striate. 

Head longer than wide, a little wider in front than behind, the 
sides and posterior margin moderately convex. Clypeus with a 
sharp median carina, which, seen from the side, projects at the apex 
distinctly beyond the level of the mouth. Mandibles smooth, shin- 
ing, sparsely punctured, shorter than the head, curved feebly from 
the base to the apex, a little broader near the apex, with a very short 
but distinct masticatory margin. Eyes moderately large, situated 
just in front of the middle of the sides of the head. Scape not ex- 
tending much beyond the occipital margin, about two-thirds as long 
as the flagellum ; 7th-9th joints as wide as long, the rest longer 
than wide, 1st joint as long as the 2nd. 

Pronotum convex in front and above, wider than the rest of the 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 95 

thorax and wider than long ; mesonotum wider than long. Pro- 
meso, and meso-epinotal sutures well defined ; epinotum as long as 
the pro- and mesonotum together, widening a little towards its apex, 
convex from side to side above ; the declivity rather short, very 
steep but not vertical. Node of petiole sub-quadrate, a little wider 
behind than in front, and a little wider behind than it is long, 
anterior and posterior faces vertical, but the former rounded at the 
brow ; the dorsal profile of the node slopes down from behind to 
the front. First abdominal segment as long as the 2nd, both seg- 
ments a little wider than long ; intersegmental constriction weak. 
Bulawayo. (G.A. coll.) 



Sub-Genus LOBOPELTA, Mayr. 
Verb.. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, vol. 12, p. 733, 1862. 

Characters. 

5 . Mandibles triangular and dentate, or narrow and with an 
apical tooth ; in the latter case the mandibles are much shorter than 
in Leptogenys and do not enclose a large space in front of the 
clypeus. Clypeus usually with a pointed or carinate lobe, or with 
a tooth on each side of the middle. 

? . Ergatoid. 

$ . Not distinguishable from that of Leptogenys. 

V 

Key to the $ $ of Sub-genus Lobopelta. 

(10). 1. Black species. 
(9). 2. Node of petiole as long as, or only slightly longer than wide. 
(4). 3. Impunctate or nearly so ; dorsum of epinotum very smooth. 

nitida, Smith. 
(3). 4. Puncturation distinct ; dorsum of epinotum more or less strigose. 

(6). 5. Pronotum distinctly punctured Peringueyi, Forel. 

(5). 6. Pronotum not punctured, but rugose. 

(8). 7. Node of petiole a little wider than long; 8th-10th joints of flagellum 

wider than long Arnoldi, Forel. 

(7). 8. Node of petiole longer than wide ; 8th-10th joints of flagellum longer 

than wide Havilandi, Forel. 

(2). 9. Node of petiole two and one-third times as long as it is wide posteriorly. 

attenuate!, Smith. 
(1). 10. Reddish yellow or castaneous species. 
(12). 11. Larger species, 4-4-5 mm. ; scape of antenna impunctate. .nitida, Smith. 
(11). 12. Smaller species, less than 4 mm. ; scape of antenna finely but distinctly 

punctured. 
(14). 13. Head almost quadrate, only slightly longer than wide . . parva, Forel. 
(13). 14. Head distinctly longer than wide castanea, Mayr. 



96 Annals of the South African Museum. 

L. (Lobopelta) Havilandi, Forel. 
Eev. Suisse Zool., vol. 9, p. 332, g , 1901. 
" £ . 6-5 mm. Mandibles narrow, slightly broader towards the 
apex, the apical margin forming a cutting, edentate edge, concave, 
curving into the inner margin, smooth and punctured. Head sub- 
rectangular, hardly longer than wide, wider in front than- behind, 
with posterior margin and angles rounded ; the posterior margin is 
confluent with the straight articular margin. Eyes large and flat 
and situated a little in front of the middle of the sides. Lobe of 
clypeus triangular, short, obtuse and rounded at its median point, 
margined in front along its whole length by a whitish edge. The 
scape reaches beyond the occiput by about one-quarter of its own 
length. Thoracic sutures distinct. Dorsum of epinotum as long as 
the pro- and mesonotum together. A narrow but deep sulcus 
between the meso- and epinotum. Node of petiole sub-cubic, 
slightly longer than wide, wider behind, posterior face vertically 
truncate and at least one and a half times as high as the anterior 
face, which is also truncate. Abdomen elongate, constriction 
between 1st and 2nd segments distinct. The 1st segment is not 
wider, perhaps even narrower than the 2nd. Head densely and 
strongly punctured, almost dull, except the clypeus which is longi- 
tudinally striate. Thorax and node fairly dull, very irregularly and 
rather coarsely rugose, finely reticulate between the rugosities. 
Abdomen smooth, with a few coarse irregular punctures, especially 
on the apical margin of the 1st segment. Legs and scapes finely 
punctured. Anterior and posterior faces of the node and anterior 
face of the 1st abdominal segment smooth and shining. Pilosity 
erect, yellow and fairly dense all over, somewhat oblique, longer on 
the abdomen, short and scanty on the legs. Pubescence scanty on 
the body, abundant on the legs. Black ; mandibles, antennae, legs 
and apex of abdomen reddish brown. Natal. (Haviland.)" 

L. (Lobopelta) Pekingueti, Forel. 

(L. Havilandi, race Peringiieyi), Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr. Beiheft, 
p. 210, $, 1913. 

Similar in general features to L. Havilandi, but smaller and with 
entirely different sculpturation and differently shaped head and 
mandibles. Dr. Forel treats it as a race of Havilandi, but in view 
of the marked differences, I have adopted the suggestion made in his 
description that it should perhaps be treated as a distinct species. 

£ . 6 mm. Black, mandibles, legs, flagellum and apex of 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 97 

abdomen brown, tarsi and joints of legs brownish red. Very 
sparsely pilose and pubescent, the pilose hairs yellowish and very 
short. Whole body moderately shining, clearly but not densely 
punctured, the punctures being sharply denned but not deep ; the 
sides of the meso- and epinotum obliquely punctate-striate. 

Head a little longer than wide, as wide behind as in front (in 
Havilandi it is much narrower behind than in front), posterior 
angles considerably rounded, sides and posterior margin moderately 
convex. Clypeus strongly carinate in tbe middle, more so than in 
Havilandi, and more acute at the apex. Mandibles smooth, with a 
few coarse punctures, widening towards the apex, which has a 
masticatory margin not so distinct as in Havilandi, ending in 
a small tooth below. The eyes are smaller than in Havilandi and 
are placed within the anterior half of the head. The scape extends 
back beyond the occipital margin, but is not so long as in Havilandi ; 
the 1st joint of the nagellum is very little longer than the 1st or 3rd 
(nearly twice as long as the 1st in Havilandi). The thorax is more 
constricted in the middle, and the pro- and mesonotum and the 
dorsum of the epinotum are more convex. The node of the petiole 
as long as wide behind, more convex above and not so sharply 
truncate in front and behind, and not quite so long as in Havilandi. 
It is also less sharply margined behind than in that species. 

Table Mountain. (Dr. L. Peringuey.) (S.A.M., G.A. colls.) 

L. (Lobopelta) attenuata, Smith. 
Cat. Hymen. Brit. Mus., vol. 6, p. 91, £ , 1858. 
$ . 8 mm. Black ; mandibles, scape, apical segment of abdomen 
and tarsi yellowish brown ; nagellum and extreme base of scape 
dark yellow ; apical margins of 1st and 2nd abdominal segments, 
the whole of the 3rd and 4th segments, all the coxae and the petiole 
piceous red. The sides of the head and the pleurae have in some 
lights a bluish reflection. A scanty and short greyish pilosity on 
the body and legs ; nagellum and tarsi pubescent. Impunctate. 
Head wider in front than behind, longer by nearly one-third than it 
is wide, sides convex, posterior margin strongly emarginate, posterior 
angles acute. Clypeus broadly triangular, with a sharp and narrow 
median carina ; anterior margin slightly produced and pointed in the 
middle, finely and longitudinally striate. Frontal carinae very short 
and narrow ; frontal sulcus narrow, deep, and extending back to 
about the level of the anterior margin of the eyes. The latter are 
large, convex, and situated a little in front of the middle of the sides. 
Antennae long ; scape extends beyond the occiput by one-third of 

7 



98 Annals of the South African Museum. 

its own length ; flagellum filiform, all the joints much longer than 
wide, 2nd joint two-thirds longer than the 1st. Mandibles shallowly 
punctured and shining, slightly widening from the middle to the 
apex, masticatory margin edentate and rather long. Pronotum 
slightly longer than wide, rounded above, in front and at the sides. 
Mesonotum rectangular, flat, longer than wide ; pro-mesonotal and 
meso-epinotal sutures distinct. Dorsum of epinotum almost as long 
as pro- and mesonotum together, very narrow at the base, widening 
towards the brow of the declivity ; the latter is very sbort and has a 
small angular projection above on each side. Node of petiole seen 
from above, two and a third times as long as wide, widest bebind 
and strongly compressed laterally ; seen from the side the node is 
almost triangular, the posterior margin vertically truncate, the dorsal 
profile from the base to the upper margin of the posterior face 
convex. The posterior face is smooth and shining. Ventral lamella 
angularly produced at the extreme base. The constriction between 
the 1st and 2nd abdominal segments is not deep. First segment 
campaniform, with a sharp angular projection at its base below, at 
the junction with the petiole. Fourth and apical segments strongly 
compressed laterally. Legs long and slender. 

Algoa Bay. (Brauns.) Durban. 

$ . 7 mm. (hitherto undescribed). Colour and pubescence as 
in the £ , with the antennae entirely ferruginous. Whole body 
shining, head with a few small punctures between the eyes and 
antennal sockets, prothorax smooth and impunctate, mesonotum 
with a few large shallow punctures, epinotum transversely striate. 
Head a little longer than it is wide across the eyes. The latter 
large, occupying more than half the sides of the head and separated 
from the base of the mandibles by a distance equal to the length of 
the 1st joint of the flagellum. Antennae filiform, reaching back as 
far as the base of the 3rd abdominal segment ; scape three and a 
quarter times as long as the 1st joint, 2nd joint of flagellum one and 
a half times as long as the scape. Clypeus long, sub-carinate 
medially, the anterior margin produced into a pronounced beak in 
the middle. Mandibles ochreous, oblong, rounded at the apex and 
edentate. Pronotum exposed, quite twice as wide as long ; meso- 
notum a quarter longer than wide, the Mayrian furrows wide and 
well defined. Epinotum as long as the mesonotum, longer than 
wide, widest at the base and narrowing towards the apex, and three 
times as long as the declivity. The latter is oblique, margined above 
and at the sides, the margins produced at each side above into short 
blunt angles. Node of the petiole as in the $ , but a trifle wider at 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 99 

the base above. The constriction between the 1st and 2nd abdominal 
segments quite as distinct as in the £ . Legs long and slender. 
Wings fuscous, stigma, and nervures yellowish brown. 
Durban. (C. B. Cooper.) (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 

L. (Lobopblta) Arnoldi, Forel. (Plate III., figs. 27, 27a, 28.) 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. 110, £ $ , 1913. 

£ . 63 mm. Black ; extreme apex of abdomen piceous, man- 
dibles, flagellum, base of scape, basal half of tibiae, and tarsi reddish 
brown. Head shining, thorax and petiole slightly dull, abdomen 
very shining and impunctate. Head closely and finely punctured, 
especially at the sides, very finely striate in front between the 
clypeus and the eyes. Median dorsal portion of pro- and meso- 
notum shining and impunctate, the sides of the same, the pleurae, 
epinotum and the node very finely rugulose and dull. The declivity 
of the epinotum strongly and transversely rugose. Legs and 
antennae with an inconspicuous and sparse pubescence. The whole 
insect covered with long, oblique yellowish hairs, which are denser 
arid longer on the clypeus and abdomen. Head a little longer than 
wide ; including the mandibles, somewhat oval. Clypeus triangular, 
carinate in the middle, the anterior margin narrowly membranous. 
Frontal carinae narrow. Mandibles shining and sparsely punctured ; 
they are wider towards the apex than at the base, convex above 
from base to apex and also on the external margin ; the masticatory 
margin is edentate, joining the inner margin in a gradual curve, the 
apex acuminate. Byes large, convex, and situated at the middle of 
the sides of the head. The antennae reach back as far as the base 
of the abdomen, the scape is rather flattened dorso-ventrally, the 
flagellum slightly incrassate towards the apex, 8th to 10th joints 
wider than long. Thoracic sutures distinct ; pronotum as long as 
wide, mesonotum quadrate, margined all round by a distinct sulcus. 
Dorsum of epinotum not quite as long as the pro- and mesonotum 
together, wider at the apex than at the base ; declivity rather 
abrupt, triangular in outline and with strong transverse striae. 
Node of petiole sub-cubic, very slightly wider than long, rounded 
above and at the sides, vertically truncate behind and in front, and 
wider behind than in front. First abdominal segment convex at the 
sides, shorter than the 2nd segment, the constriction between the 
two distinct. Apical segment slightly compressed laterally. First 
segment produced at the base ventrally into a blunt tooth. 

? . Ergatoid (hitherto undescribed). 9 mm. Abdomen, 4 mm. 
long, 1st segment 1*5 mm. wide. This differs from the £ by its 



100 Annals of the South African Museum. 

size and the proportionately longer abdomen. It is also a duller 
insect, which is due to the denser pilosity, especially on the abdomen 
which has a short pubescence intermixed with the pilosity. The 
mesonotum is also larger and longer than in the $ . 

$ . 8-8 - 5 mm. Black ; apex and base of scape pale ferruginous, 
flagellum ochreous, the last five joints fuscous above ; tarsi reddish 
yellow, and all the tibiae and femora ferruginous at the base and 
apex. Head almost impunctate, anteriorly slightly rugulose. Thorax 
and petiole very finely rugulose, the epinotum reticulate. Abdomen 
shining and impunctate. A fine grey pubescence on the whole body, 
longer and sparser on the abdomen, more abundant on the sides of 
the thorax, very inconspicuous elsewhere. Head, thorax, and sides 
of petiole dull, disc of metanotum, apex of node and the whole 
abdomen shining. Head lozenge-shaped, widest behind the eyes, 
narrow in front and more so behind. Clypeus gibbous in the middle, 
anterior margin convex. Frontal carinae obsolete. Mandibles con- 
siderably atrophied, represented by a spatulate yellow appendage, 
hardly larger than one of the ocelli. Eyes large, oval, situated at 
about the middle of the sides of the head ; ocelli well developed, not 
situated on a raised area. Scape short, not extending beyond the 
posterior margin of the eyes, widest at the apex, twice as long as 
wide. First joint of flagellum as wide as long, 2nd joint one and a 
third times as long as the scape, all the joints flattened dorso- 
ventrally, especially the last five joints which are spirally curved. 
Pronotum exposed, the anterior free margin reflexed. Pro-meso- 
notal suture well defined. Mesonotum rounded at the sides, 
depressed above, separated from the scutellum by a distinct but 
narrow sulcus ; mesonotum including the scutellum, almost three 
times as long as the pronotum. Epinotum as long as the meso- 
notum, the dorsum continuous with the declivity in a gradual curve; 
the declivity transversely striated. Node of petiole as long as wide, 
thicker above than below, obtusely and obliquely truncate in front 
and behind, sides convex. The node is less than half as wide as the 
1st abdominal segment. Abdomen elongate, 1st segment convex in 
front and at the sides, 2nd segment slightly wider than the 1st, and 
one-third longer. Pygidium rounded at the apex. Abdominal con- 
striction distinct. Wings slightly smoky, nervures fuscous, stigma 
brown. Legs thin and slender. 

I have taken this species on only one occasion. The nest, 
situated in sandy ground, contained several hundreds of £ $ and 
$ $ and one ergatoid ? . 

Plumtree, S. Ehodesia. (S.A.M., P.M., G.A. colls.) 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 101 

L. (Lobopelta) nitida, Smith. 

Cat. Hymen. Brit. Mus., vol. 6, p. 92, g , 1858. 

# . 4-4 - 3 mm. Ferruginous, the legs and apical margins of the 
abdominal segments, and the whole of the last three segments lighter; 
the 2nd abdominal segment and vertex of the head castaneous 
red ; or entirely black with flagellum ferruginous. A scanty pubes- 
cence on tbe legs and antennae ; a sparse pilosity on the body and 
legs, more abundant on the last segment of the abdomen. The 
whole body very shining and impunctate. Head oblong, about one- 
quarter longer than wide, sides very slightly convex, posterior 
margin straight, posterior angles rounded. Clypeus carinate in the 
middle, the carina ending in a sharp point ; produced backwards in 
an acute angle between the frontal carinae. The latter are very 
narrow behind the antennal sockets. Mandibles sbiningand coarsely 
punctured, slightly wider towards the apex, which ends in a sharp 
tooth, the masticatory margin concave and moderately large. Byes 
small, situated within the anterior third of the head. Scape of 
antenna extends back as far as the middle of the pronotum, flagellum 
slightly incrassate towards the apex, 1st and 2nd joints sub-equal, 
8th-10th joints as long as wide. Pronotum rounded above, in front 
and at the sides, convex in profile, twice as long as the mesonotum ; 
pro-mesonotal suture feeble, meso-epinotal well defined. Epinotum 
as long as pro- and mesonotum together. Dorsum of epinotum flat, 
narrower at the base, declivity gradual and rather short. Node of 
petiole higher than the epinotum; seen from above almost triangular, 
with the anterior face very rounded, the sides very slightly convex ; 
truncated in front and behind, and strongly convex above. Abdomen 
elongate, 1st and 2nd segments sub-equal, 1st segment rounded at 
the base, nearly twice as wide as the node of the petiole, the con- 
striction between the 1st and 2nd segments fairly deep. Legs long 
and slender. 

Ladismith, Cape Prov. (light variety). (Brauns.) Estcourt, Natal, 
(Wroughton.) (S.A.M., P.M., G.A. colls.) 

L. (Lobopelta) castanea, Mayr. 

Verb.. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, vol. 12, p. 734, g , 1862. 

g . 36 mm. Very similar to the pale variety of nitida in colour 
and general appearance, but lighter and narrower. It may be dis- 
tinguished from that species by the following characters. 

The scape of the antenna is considerably flattened, and distinctly 
but finely punctured, and the flagellum is much thicker. The eyes 



102 Annals of the South African Museum. 

are proportionately larger. The posterior angles of the head are not 
so round, thereby making the head look longer and more rectangular 
than in nitida. The 3rd-5th abdominal segments are narrower, 
being rather strongly compressed laterally. 
Algoa Bay. (Brauns.) (S.A.M., G.A. colls.) 

L. (Lobopelta) pakva, Forel. 
Eev. Suisse Zool., vol. 9, p. 332, g $ , 1901. 

" $ . 33-31 mm. Eelated to castanea, but the head is square, 
hardly longer than wide, the scapes not extending beyond the occiput, 
the flagellum with the 2-10 joints transverse, a little wider than long 
and the last joint moderately thick and long; the eyes are very 
small and flat, with a dozen atrophied facets; the node of the petiole 
is much more squamiform, wider than long. Mandibles narrow, 
smooth and shining, punctured, nearly as narrow at the apex as at 
the base, the terminal margin concave. The lobe of the clypeus 
forms a narrow beak, pointed and sharply carinate. Dorsum of 
thorax horizontal, without sutures. Declivity of epinotum oblique, 
but quite distinct from the dorsum. Legs shorter than in castanea. 
Otherwise in colour, sculpture and pilosity resembling castanea, 
which however is much narrower and differently shaped. 

" $ . 3-5 mm. Mandibles very short, not reaching together in the 
middle. Scape hardly shorter than the 2nd joint of the flagellum, 
the 1st joint of which is globose. Head sub-circular, a little longer 
than wide. Eyes small. Thorax as wide as the head ; mesonotum 
with two convergent sulci. Wings sub-hyaline, nervures and stigma 
very distinct. Dark brownish yellow, antennae brown. 

Natal. (Haviland.)" 



Teibe ODONTOMACHINI, Mayr. 

Characters. 

£ and ? . The head has an irregular hexagonal outline ; this is 
due to the inflection of the sides, at about the level of the eyes, so as 
to form two oblique minor sides anteriorly. Mandibles inserted near 
the middle of the anterior margin of the head, parallel, pointing 
forwards and furnished with two or three teeth. When quite open, 
the mandibles lie parallel with the anterior margin of the head, and 
can be shut by an instantaneous movement which in some species is 
done with such force as to produce a very distinct clicking noise. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 103 

Owing to the insertion of the mandibles being so closely approxi- 
mated, the clypeus which lies between their bases and the frontal 
carinae is very narrow and short. Abdominal constriction absent in 
Odontomachus, and in some species of Anochetus. Claws simple. 
$ . Abdomen similar to that of the $ , but in Odontomachus 
there is a slight constriction. Claws simple, hardly dentate. 

J 
Key to the Genera of Odontomachini. 

1. 8 and ? . Antennal hollows confluent posteriorly : <? pygidium spined. 

Odontomachus, Latreille. 

2. 5 and ?. Antennal hollows not confluent posteriorly ; <? pygidium not spined. 

Anochetus, Mayr. 

Genus ANOCHETUS, Mayr. 

Europ. Eormiciden, p. 53, 1861. 

Characters. 

g . Antennal hollows not confluent ; no large depressions on the 
sides of the head. The shape of the mandibles is very variable. 
Node of petiole squamiform, or bidentate and nodose, conical or 
terminating in a spine. 

? . Similar to the $ , winged, in some species ergatoid. 

$ . Mandibles and antennae as in Odontomachus ; node of petiole 
more or less pointed or emarginate. Abdominal constriction absent. 
Pygidium not spined. 

Key to the $ % of Anochetus. 

(6). 1. Node of petiole squamiform or nearly so, almost linear dorsally. 

(3). 2. Pro- and mesonotum strongly rugose Bequaerti, Forel. 

(2). 3. Pro- and mesonotum not rugose. 

(5). 4. Pro- and mesonotum strongly punctured; dorsum of node, seen from in 

front, very convex from side to side talpa, Forel. 

(4). 5. Pro- and mesonotum very feebly and sparsely punctured ; dorsum of node 

almost horizontal punctaticeps, Mayr. 

(1). 6. Node of petiole thick, dorsal surface not linear .. Levaillaiiti, Emery. 

A. Bequaerti, Forel. 

Eev. Zool. Africaine, vol. 2, p. 309, $ , 1913. 

5 . 5 - 3-5 - 5 mm. Head dark ochreous red, thorax brownish 
black, abdomen black, legs and antennae dirty yellow. A very fine 
and scanty pubescence on the head, antennae, and legs. Body, but 
not the legs, with scattered yellowish hairs, longer and stouter on 
the abdomen. Head sub-opaque, densely and finely striated from 



104 Annals of the South African Museum. 

end to end, except the occipital surface, the cheeks and antennal 
hollows which are smooth and shining. Thorax dull, closely reticu- 
late-punctate, intermixed with some larger rugae, which are more or 
less longitudinal on the pronotum, and transverse on the mesonotum ; 
abdomen and petiole smooth and shining, legs finely and closely 
punctured. Head a trifle longer than wide, widest across the eyes, 
widely excised behind, occipital portion not contracted ; the sides in 
front of and behind the eyes moderately concave. The antennal 
hollows are wide and bounded anteriorly and externally by a broad 
rounded ridge. Clypeus smooth and shining, extending back between 
the frontal carinae in a narrow elongate triangle ; anteriorly the 
clypeus is bilobed and concave dorso-ventrally. Mandibles a little 
more than half as long as the head, internal margins unarmed, 
ending in three teeth, the sub-apical shortest and arising from the 
apical. Eyes large. The scape is widest near the middle, and 
extends back a little beyond the occipital margin ; the flagellum 
moderately thickened towards the apex. The pronotum is as long 
as wide, widest in the middle and twice as wide behind as in front. 
Mesonotum short, wider than long. Pro-meso- and meso-metanotal 
sutures well defined. Epinotum as long as pro- and mesonotum 
together, with two distinct broad teeth at the apex of the dorsum ; 
declivity vertical, convex and more finely sculptured than the 
dorsum. The node of the petiole is squamiform, higher than 
wide, vertical behind and in front ; ventral lamella produced into 
a large oblong piece pointing forwards. The upper surface of the 
node is almost linear and slightly excised in the middle (this can be 
seen more clearly if it is viewed from the front). First and 2nd 
segments of the abdomen sub-equal, with no distinct constriction 
between them. 

5 (hitherto undescribed). 6 mm. Very similar to the worker, 
except the usual sexual differences. The pronotum is wider than in 
the £ and wider than long; the mesonotum is nearly as long as the 
pronotum, wider than long, finely and longitudinally striate ; the 
scutellum is small. Dorsum of epinotum shorter than in the £ 
Wings pale brownish yellow, stigma and nervures pale brown. 
Other characters as in the £ . 

$ (hitherto undescribed). 6-5 mm. Moderately shining. Pale 
brownish yellow, head dark brown, scutellum and base of epinotum 
pale brown, mesonotum with a Y-shaped brownish area. Covered 
with a rather dense pilosity, composed of short stiff dark hairs on 
the mesonotum, of longer and paler hairs elsewhere. Legs and 
antennae clothed with a dense pubescence, somewhat erect on the 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 105 

antennae. Head and thorax shallowly and irregularly rugoso- 
punctate, epinotum shallowly and transversely striate, abdomen with 
very minute piligerous punctures. Head much wider than long. 
Eyes very large, occupying three-quarters of the sides of the head, 
ocelli large and situated on a raised area. Clypeus flat at the sides, 
convex in the middle, anterior margin feebly convex. Mandibles 
small and atrophied. Scape short, twice as long as the 1st joint 
of the flagellum, half as long as the 2nd, flagellum filiform. The 
antennae are long, reaching back almost to the apex of the abdomen. 
Pronotum covered by the mesonotum. The latter is very convex 
from front to back, and as long as wide ; Mayrian furrows and 
parapsidal sutures moderately clear. The scutellum small and not 
much raised. Epinotum and petiole similar to that of the ? , but 
the teeth of the epinotum less pronounced. Abdomen elongate, 
1st segment longer than the 2nd ; pygidium sub-acute, not spined ; 
cerci present. Legs long and slender. Wings larger than in the 
5 and of a lighter colour. The projection of the ventral lamella is 
triangular. 
Bulawayo. (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 

A. punctaticeps, Mayr. (Plate III., fig. 26). 
Annalen K.K.N.H. Museums, Wien, vol. 16, p. 4, $ , 1901. 
" $ . 3 - 7-3 - 8 mm. Moderately shining, more or less reddish 
yellow. A long erect and sparse pilosity on the abdomen ; the 
moderately short pubescence is somewhat erect, thickest on the 
antennae and legs, less abundant on the mandibles, head, and abdo- 
men, scanty on the thorax. The mandibles are about half as long as 
the head, with piligerous punctures, narrower at the base than at 
the apex, the lower inner margin (i.e. when the mandibles are 
directed forwards), is feebly and finely denticulate; the angle corre- 
sponding to the anterior end of the upper and lower inner margins, is 
strongly rounded off; the apex of the mandible ends in two medium- 
sized teeth, directed inwards, the lower one bearing a smaller tooth 
at its base ; the outer margin of the mandibles between the 1st 
and 2nd fourths of its whole length, is distinctly although feebly 
concave, beyond that the margin is slightly convex. The head is 
shaped like that of Ghiliani, Spin., but the posterior margin is less 
emarginate ; it is fairly abundantly punctured with rather smooth 
shining interspaces ; from each puncture proceeds a short hair ; the 
sides of the head behind the eyes, are very smooth, very shining and 
sparsely punctured. The smooth triangular clypeus is wider than 



106 Annals of the South African Museum. 

long and is raised over the base of each mandible into a small hump, 
between these humps it is not emarginate. The scape reaches back 
nearly to the occiput, the 2nd-7th joints of tbe flagellum as long as, 
or hardly so long as broad. The antennal hollows are fairly deep, 
moderately wide and as long as wide ; they are not limited externally 
by the eyes, since their external margin is separated from them by a 
distance almost equal to the diameter of the eye itself. The eyes 
are small. The continuation of the antennal hollows becomes indis- 
tinct on the vertex before reaching the narrowed portion of the 
head. . . . The thorax is smooth, with a few piligerous punctures. 
The mesonotum is wider than long. The epinotum has two small, 
broad, and very obtuse teeth ; the transversely convex dorsum is 
evenly merged into the sides, as is also the smooth and very shining, 
steep declivity. Both the transverse suture of the thorax are 
distinct. The node of the petiole is higher than broad, rounded 
above. Abdominal constriction moderate. 
Port Elizabeth. (Brauns.) " 

A. talpa, Porel. 

Eev. Suisse Zool., vol. 9, p. 351, $ , 1901. 

" $ . 3"5-3"9 mm. Closely related to my ops, Emery, from which 
it differs by its less shortened head and by its longer and thinner 
mandibles. The very small eyes have only 4 or 5 facets. The 
mandibles, as long as half the head, have the internal margin simple, 
ending in an obtuse angle, and with 3 teeth at the apex, the 
median tooth springing from the lower one. The head is a little 
longer than wide, moderately excavated posteriorly, slightly de- 
pressed, and without a fronto-occipital groove, and with the posterior 
lateral fossettes very feeble and shallow. Clypeus emarginate and 
bilobed. Frontal sinus very short. The scapes almost reach back 
to the occiput. Mesonotum transverse ; the two thoracic sutures 
strongly impressed ; dorsum of thorax barely convex. Dorsum of 
epinotum longer than the declivity ; the latter with two large obtuse 
teeth or tubercles above. Node of petiole fairly high, narrow and 
rounded above. Abdomen truncate and projecting slightly forwards 
in front. Abdominal constriction feeble. Head smooth, shining 
and evenly punctured with strong and numerous punctures. There 
are some very short striae on the frontal carinae. Dorsum of 
epinotum reticulate and sub-opaque. All the rest shining, sparsely 
and finely punctured. Erect pilosity almost wanting, except at the 
apex of the abdomen. Pubescence very distinct, fairly long, yellow, 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 107 

sparse, and covering the whole body, but very scanty on the vertex 
and front of the head. Slightly reddish, yellow. Natal. (Haviland.) " 

A. Levaillanti, Emery. (Plate III., figs. 25, 25a, 25b.) 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 21, $ , 1895. 
£. 5 - 2-6 mm., excluding the mandibles. Head, antennae, man- 
dibles, thorax, petiole and legs a rich dark red ; 1st abdominal 
segment castaneous red, the rest piceous or black. Whole body, 
antennae and legs covered with a fine and rather long pubescence, 
evenly distributed but not dense, a few long hairs on the apex of 
abdomen. Head and thorax finely striate. On the head the striae 
radiate from the frontal carinae diagonally to the sides. The striae 
on the pronotum are longitudinal, on the mesonotum and epinotum 
transverse ; the striae on the latter are less regular. The 1st 
abdominal segment is very shallowly and evenly punctured, the 
interspaces microscopically rugulose. The 2nd segment with very 
shallow punctures. Second-5th abdominal segments slightly shining, 
the rest of the body dull. Head deeply emarginate posteriorly, the 
portion in front of the eyes about three- quarters as long as the 
region behind. Posterior angles of the head very round. Between 
the posterior angles and the eyes, the sides of the head are slightly 
concave, very convex round the eyes, and moderately so between the 
eyes and the base of the mandibles. The sides of the head are 
hollowed out between the posterior angles and the eyes; the antennal 
hollows are rather wide, smooth and shining. Clypeus produced 
triangularly backwards between the frontal carinae, and raised into 
a little hump above the base of each mandible. The sides of the 
head between the eyes and the mandibles smooth, shining, slightly 
and obliquely excavated. Mandibles two-thirds as long as the head, 
widening towards the apex ; the latter is incurved at right angles to 
the basal portion and bifid, forming two sharp teeth, the lower one 
with a smaller tooth at its base. The inner margin of the mandible 
is very finely denticulate, a deep notch separating it from the 
incurved apical portion. Eyes rather large, margined all round by 
a shining, narrow groove. Scape of antenna reaches back to the 
occiput, flagellum filiform, slightly incrassate towards the apex, all 
the joints longer than wide. Pronotum much narrower than the 
head, a little wider than long, rounded at the sides and above. Pro- 
mesonotal suture distinct, meso-epinotal nearly obsolete above. 
Epinotum shorter than the pro- and mesonotum together. Dorsum 
of epinotum wider at the apex than at the base ; the declivity is 



108 Annals of the South African Museum. 

almost vertical, transversely striated, and has the lateral margins 
raised. The node of the petiole is higher than the epinotum, vertical 
in front and behind, rounded above, the sides convex. Seen from 
above, it is a little wider than long, concave, and angulate on each 
side of the base. The ventral lamella is produced into a large trun- 
cated projection pointing forwards. First abdominal segment cam- 
paniform, as long as the 2nd segment, the constriction between them 
strong. The dorsum of the epinotum at the apex is more or less 
impressed in the middle, and the apex of the declivity has an obtuse 
median carina. 

? 6"7 mm., excluding the mandibles. Similar to the £ , 
but larger and winged. The head is less deeply emarginate 
posteriorly ; the meso- and metanotum longitudinally striate ; the 
mesonotum is widest in front, wider than long, and as long as the 
pronotum. Dorsum of epinotum short, not longer than the pro- 
notum. The abdominal segments are wider than in the $ . For the 
rest, as in the $ . 

S. Ehodesia. (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 

Genus ODONTOMACHUS, Latreille. 

Hist. Nat. Crust. Insect., vol. 13, p. 257, 1805. 

Characters. 
$ . Antennal hollows confluent behind the frontal carinae, and 
separated by two raised, rounded ridges from the deep and oblique 
post-ocular hollows. The upper tooth of the mandible is generally 
blunt, the apical and sub-apical usually acute. The internal margin 
of the mandible more or less strongly denticulate. Node of petiole 
spined above, the spine pointing backwards. 
? . Winged, with larger eyes, and with ocelli. 
$ . Mandibles very small. Antennae very long, scape very short; 
Its joint of flagellum wider than long. Node of petiole pointed above 
but not spined. Abdominal constriction moderately distinct. Pygidium 
spined. 

0. haematoda, Linn. 
Syst. Nat. (Ed. 10), vol. 1, p. 582, $ , 1758. 
De Geer (Formica maxillosa), Mem. Hist. Ins., vol. 3, p. 601, 
? , 1773. F. Smith, Cat. Hymen. Brit. Mus., vol. 6, p. 76, 
<? , 1858. ? 
£ . 9 - 5 mm., excluding the mandibles. Head and mandibles dark 
castaneous brown, thorax and petiole more or less castaneous, 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 109 

abdomen black, legs and antennae brown, the tarsi and articulations 
lighter. Head, antennae and legs with a very fine, dense silky pubes- 
cence ; on the thorax the pubescence is much sparser, and on the 
abdomen it is longer but very scanty. Pilosity slight ; a few long 
hairs on the pronotum, the lower surface of the mandibles and the 
apex of abdomen. The head is very evenly and finely striate, the 
striae diagonal. The pronotum has stronger and concentric striae ; 
the mesonotum is transversely, and the epinotum semicircularly 
striate, the striae being stronger on the epinotum than on the thorax. 
Mesopleurae smooth. Abdomen smooth and shining. The anterior 
portion of the head in front of the eyes is much less than half as 
long as the portion behind the eyes. Posterior margin of the head 
very slightly emarginate. Between the postocular hollow and the 
posterior angle of the head, there is a shallow and ovoid depression. 
The antennal hollows are wide, deep, smooth and shining in front of 
the eyes, dull and shallow behind them. A deep furrow reaches 
from the occiput to the confluence of the antennal hollows. Clypeus 
narrow, raised on each side above the base of the mandibles. The 
latter are half as long as the head, shining and shallowly punctured, 
with the teeth all blunt, and the inner margin feebly serrated. Scape 
and flagellum very slender and filiform. The thorax is much 
narrower than the head. Pronotum narrowed in front, convex above 
and at the sides, and wider than long ; anterior half of mesonotum 
slightly raised and submarginate. Epinotum about as long as pro- 
and mesonotum together. The declivity is very steep, -but rounded 
above and merges gradually into the dorsum. Abdomen pyriform ; 
1st segment twice as long as the 2nd. Legs slender. 

5 . 10 - 5 mm., excluding the mandibles. Similar to the $ , but 
winged. The pronotum is shorter than the mesonotum, which is 
longitudinally striate. The abdomen is wider than in the $ . Wings 
brownish yellow, nervures and stigma pale brown. 

" $. 6 - 7-7 mm., the characters of the genus. Tegulae raised, 
thick at the base, acuminate at the apex. Moderately thickly 
pubescent. Clypeus smooth and shining. The other parts of the 
head, and also the thorax unevenly wrinkled The pilosity similar 
to that of the £ . Petiole and abdomen shining, and very feebly 
sculptured. Colour totally yellowish brown, somewhat testaceous ; 
legs and antennae a little lighter colour." 

Bulawayo. S. Ehodesia. (P.M., S.A.M., G.A. colls.) 



110 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Sub-Family DOEYLINAE. 

The members of this sub-family are commonly known as Driver 
or Legionary Ants. The males, which are winged and provided with 
eyes, are frequently taken at lights ; on the other hand, the workers 
are blind, with the exception of some species of Eciton, in which 
there is a pair of single-faceted eyes, and the females (excepting one 
species of Eciton) are both blind and wingless. The members of 
the genus Dorylus are almost entirely subterranean in their mode 
of life, rarely coming to the surface except in dull, cloudy weather. 
The species of the sub- genus Anormna, which live in the more 
tropical and forested regions of Africa, and to which the term Driver 
Ants was originally applied, and the Ecitini of South America, are, 
however, usually seen above the surface, although, should the rays of 
the sun prove too powerful, they will construct temporarily tunnels 
with particles of earth held together by their saliva. The species of 
Aenictus are not so shy of the light, and may be seen foraging about 
even in bright sunlight. 

It is probable that all, or at least the majority, of the species are 
carnivorous, although D. orientahs has been shown by Green to feed 
also on tubers and the bark of trees. Hitherto, as far as I am aware, 
none of these ants has been known to tend other insects, such 
as Aphids, Coccids, and Membracids, for the sake of their sweet 
secretions ; but Mr. E. Jack, Government Entomologist for 
S. Rhodesia, has recently informed me that a species of Dorylus 
(of which he kindly sent me examples, — D. fulvus, race rhodesiae, 
Forel) was found by him in large numbers, and apparently tending 
Membracid larvae which were feeding on the roots of maize. 

As far as is known, the members of this sub-family do not as 
a rule make permanent nests. This course is determined by their 
exceedingly predatory habits, which compel the adoption of a migra- 
tory form of life together with the formation of temporary nests in 
localities which are sufficiently productive of animal life to detain 
them for any length of time. Ranging far and wide in search of 
prey, which consists of any animal they are strong enough to over- 
power, these ants must sooner or later exhaust the areas round their 
nests, and are forced to remove the latter to new and more produc- 
tive hunting-grounds. Space does not permit of a lengthy descrip- 
tion of the migrations and other habits of the Dorylinae in this paper, 
and the reader should consult the writings of Bates, Belt, Smeath- 
man, and others who have dealt with the subject in some detail. 

Some very remarkable myremecophilous insects have been found 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Ill 

marching with the migratory columns of the Driver Ants,* but as 
far as I am aware, the queens of the ants themselves have never 
been so found, although the males have been obtained occasion- 
ally under such circumstances. 

The three castes in this sub-family are so entirely different from 
one another, that they were for a very long time classed under 
different genera, and even under different families. The queens 
are, moreover, excessively rare and known only in a few species, 
and the males have been taken but rarely in company with their 
workers, so that the resulting confusion in the classification of 
the group has been and continues to be very great. 

There is a great general similarity amongst the workers of the 
genus Dorylus, which becomes even closer within the limits of each 
sub-genus. In the male sex, for lack of more patent distinctions, the 
chief diagnostic characters are based on the structure of the geni- 
talia ; but even there a beginner may very well have difficulties 
in appreciating the subtle distinctions which separate the different 
species. In fresh specimens the genitalia can be extracted very 
easily, by squeezing the abdomen near the apex until they are 
slightly extruded, when, with a pair of forceps, they may be 
more fully drawn out. 

The queens of the Doryli are excessively rare, having been 
described for only seven out of thirty-two known species. It is 
probable that the total number of specimens of that sex in collections 
barely exceeds a dozen. Unless the collector is so fortunate as to 
discover the site of a nest of these insects he is hardly likely ever to 
see a female specimen alive. Dr. Pe>inguey informs me that one of 
the two females of Dorylus helvolus in the collections of the South 
African Museum was obtained by him by placing a raw leg of mutton 
in a manure heap in which he had previously noticed numerous 
workers of the species (probably searching for the beetle larvae in 
the heap). On examining the meat a little later the queen, together 
with many workers, was found in it. 

The female of Bhogmus fimbriatus in the collection of Dr. H. 
Brauns, of Willowmore, Cape Province, was found by Mr. G. A. K. 
Marshall at Salisbury, S. Ehodesia. Mr. Marshall had his atten- 
tion drawn to a hole out of which numerous males of the ant had 
been seen to emerge, and by digging carefully and by following the 
track of the larger tunnels over a considerable distance he was. 

* See " Ants and their Guests," by Father P. Wasmann, S.J., translated and 
published in the Smithsonian Report, 1912, p. 455. 



112 



Annals of the South African Museum. 



rewarded by finding the nest, which contained the queen and 
many males, workers and worker-larvae. 

The males doubtless find their way to the females by means 
of their olfactory senses, and possibly the workers make wide 
tunnels opening to the exterior at certain seasons so as to enable 
the males from other colonies to obtain access more easily to 
the virgin queens hidden under the soil. Yet one must suppose, to 
judge by the very large numbers of males which are produced, 
that the object of cross-fertilization is not easily accomplished. 





Genital armature of Dorylus fulvus, race badius. 

Is' basal portion of stipes. 
Outer paramera \ s stipes. 

[v volsella. 
Inner paramera or sagittae = sg. 

Fig. 4 : subgenital plate ; this, when extended, lies in a ventral position to the 
genital armature. 




Anterior Wing of Dorylus fulvus, race badius. 

Cells: r = radial, c = cubital or submarginal, d 1 = discoidal, d 2 = 2nd discoidal, 

m = median or upper basal, sm = submedian or lower basal, x = costal. 
Nervures : 1 = costal, 2 = subcostal, 3 = cubital or median, 4 = recurrent, 5 = anal. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of fiouth Africa. 113 

V 
Key to the Tribes of the Dorylinae. 

A. $ 2/. . Pygidium tridentate, with a median impression ; maxillary and labial 
palpi 2-jointed ; cheeks without a longitudinal carina ; 1st abdominal segment 
not separated from the 2nd by a constriction. 

? . Cloaca open, leaving the sting uncovered ; hypopygium forked and extending 
considerably beyond the pygidium ; thorax unsegmented. 

$ . Stigma of anterior wing very elongate and narrow ; radial cell open and 
elongate, one closed cubital cell; genital armature retractile. . Dorylini, Forel. 

B. 5 Tj. . Pygidium simple ; maxillary palpi 2- or 3-jointed, labial palpi 2-jointed ; 
cheeks longitudinally carinate ; a constriction usually separates the 1st and 
2nd abdominal segments, almost making the petiole 2-jointed. 

$ . Cloaca covered by the pygidium ; hypopygium not considerably extended. 
$ . Stigma of wing very narrow ; radial cell elongate, one or two closed cubital 
cells ; genital armature retractile Ecitini, Forel. 

C. $ • Pygidium simple ; maxillary and labial palpi 1-jointed ; cheeks not 
carinate ; petiole 2-jointed. 

? . Cloaca open, leaving the sting uncovered ; hypopygium lobed and extending 
beyond the pygidium ; thorax with a suture behind the anterior pair of legs, 

whichis effaced on the dorsum. 

cf . Anterior wings without stigma or nervures. Genital armature extended, 

not retractile Leptanillini, Emery. 

The Dorylini is the only tribe represented in South Africa ; it is 
totally absent from America. The Ecitini, excepting Aenictus and 
Aenictogeton, are confined to America, chiefly South America ; and 
the Leptanillini have so far been found only in North Africa, Singa- 
pore, Corsica, and Sardinia. The Tribe Dorylini comprises a single 
genus Dorylus, Fabr., and is divided into six sub-genera. 



Genus DOEYLUS, Fabr. 
Ent. Syst., vol. 2, p. 194, 1793. 
Characters. 
$ 1/ . Owing to the extreme polymorphism exhibited in this 
genus no distinct line of demarcation can be drawn between the 
g and the 1/ . The £ occurs in all sizes, the largest being regarded 
as 3/ . Three chief types may, however, be distinguished, but con- 
nected by intermediate forms. (In the descriptions of the species 
only these three chief types will be dealt with in extenso.) 

1. Very large individuals or soldiers. 

In these the head is enormous, and wider or not less wide in 
front than behind ; the mandibles have fewer teeth than in the £ ; 
the clypeus is not very protuberant ; the antennal joints are of the 
normal number, 9 to 12 according to the species. 

2. Medium-sized individuals or large workers. 



114 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Head smaller, but not narrower in front than behind ; clypeus 
more protuberant ; antennal joints of the normal number. 

3. Very small or pigmy workers. 

Head narrower in front than behind ; clypeus strongly pro- 
tuberant ; antennal joints reduced in number, but not less than 7. 

All three forms are totally devoid of eyes. The frontal carinae 
are near together and vertical ; pro-mesontal suture distinct, meso- 
epinotal obsolete. Bpinotum without spines. Petiole nodiform. 
Pygidium impressed and ending in three points. Posterior tibiae 
with a pectinate calcar. 

? . Apterous ; without eyes or ocelli. Head with the occipital 
portion gibbous and divided by a median groove. Clypeus as in 
the 2£ . Frontal carinae not close together. Mandibles narrow and 
■edentate. Antennae with 11 joints, or 12 in sub-genus Dichthadia. 
Thorax segmented, mesonotum not differentiated into scutum and 
scutellum, Petiole broad, its posterior angles more or less produced 
into blunt points. First abdominal segment shorter, than the 2nd. 
•Cloaca open ; the hypopygium extends beyond the pygidium. 

$ . Antennae 13-jointed, scape one-quarter or one-third as long 
as the flagellum. Mandibles edentate ; clypeus short and pro- 
longed between the frontal carinae, which are short and divergent. 
The scutum of the mesonotum overhangs the pronotum. All the 
femora flattened, the tibiae short. Eyes and ocelli very large. 

Petiole nodiform or saucer-shaped, the concavity directed behind. 

Genital armature totally retractile ; lacinia absent, sub-genital 
plate deeply cleft. 

The Dorylini are found in Africa, Asia, and the Malay Arcbipelago. 
They do not occur in Madagascar. 

Key to the Sub-Genera. 
% % or 1/1/. 
(2). 1. Antennae 12-jointed in the U, and in the large and medium-sized $ . 

Dichthadia, Gerst. 
(1). 2. Antennae with less than 12 joints. 
(10). 3. Antennae 10- or 11-jointed. 
(7). 4. Pygidium with a semi-circular impression, the margins of which are 

sharp (see Plate IV., fig. 38a). Antennae 11-jointed. 
(0). 5. Antennae short and thick, all the joints of the flagellum except the last, 

much wider than long Dorylus, Fabr. (s. str.) 

(5). 6. Antennae elongate, at least some of the joints of the flagellum longer than 

wide Anomma, Shuckard. 

{4). 7. The impressed area of the pygidium without sharp margins (see Plate IV., 

fig. 31a). 
(9). 8. Sub-apical tooth of mandible simple; antennae 11-jointed. 5 max. 

13 mm. long Typhlopone, Westwood. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 115 

(8). 9. Sub-apical tooth of mandibles double, or truncate. 5 max. 8 mm. long. 

Rhogmus, Shuckard. 
(3). 10. Antennae 9-jointed A laopone, Emery. 

9 ?. 

(2). 1. Antennae 12-jointed Ditcht hadia, Gerst. 

(1). 2. Antennae 11-jointed. 

(4). 3. Hypopygium in the form of a cleft plate, narrowed behind. 

Dorylus, Anomma, and Rhogmus. 
(3). 4. Hypopygium wide, forming two lobes, divergent behind. 

Alaopone, Emery. 

$ <?• 
(2). 1. Mandibles wide at the base and prolonged into a point, with the inner 

margin deeply excised Dichthadia, Gerst. 

(1). 2. Mandibles otherwise formed. 

(6). 3. Petiole wider than long, the posterior face concavely excavated. 

(5). 4. Mandibles less than 4 times as long as wide Dorylus, Fabr. 

(4). 5. Mandibles more than 4 times as long as wide. . .. Anomma, Shuckard. 
(3). 6. Petiole nearly square, or round. 

(8). 7. Mandibles about three times longer than wide . . Typhlopone, Westw. 
(7). 8. Mandibles much shorter. 

(10). 9. Wings with a 2nd recurrent nervure Rhogmus, Shuckard. 

(6). 10. Wings without a 2nd recurrent nervure Alaopone, Emery. 

The sub-genus Dichthadia is confined to Burma and the Malay 
Archipelago. Dorylus, Anomma, and Rhogmus are entirely African ; 
Alaopone and Typhlopone are almost entirely confined to Africa, but 
have one species each in the Asiatic region. 

In the South African region, Anomma is apparently absent, 
although it might be expected to occur on the East Coast from 
Beira to Delagoa Bay. 

Sub-Genus DORYLUS, Fabr. (sensu stricto). 
Ent. Syst., vol. 2, p. 194, 1793. Emery, Zool. Jahrb. Syst., vol. 8, 

p. 701, 1895. 
Key to the % % and % 1/ of the Sub-Genus Dorylus. 

(2). 1. Sides of the head distinctly convergent posteriorly; puncturation of the 
vertex of the head rather sparse and shallow, the sides of the head in 
the smallest $ 5 quite smooth braunsi, Emery. 

(1). 2. Sides of the head not distinctly convergent posteriorly. 

(4). 3. Sides of the head almost parallel in the 2/ ; puncturation of the vertex 
stronger and more abundant helvolus, Linn. 

(3). 4. Sides of the head less parallel in the %, the head being slightly narrower 
behind than in front ; puncturation of the vertex sparser and feebler. 

{6). 5. Petiole not much wider behind than in front ; maximum length 11 mm. 

affinis, Shuckard. 

(5). 6. Petiole wider posteriorly ; maximum length 8*5 mm. . . brevipennis, Emery. 
5 unknown furcatus, Gerst. 



116 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Key to the $ $ of the Sub- Genus Dorylus. 

(4). 1. Scape about as long as the first 6 or 7 joints of the flagellum, and shorter 

than half the flagellum. 
(3). 2. Mesonotum wider (5 mm.) ; lateral margins of the stipites, seen from above, 

sinuate, narrowed at about the middle helvolus, Linn. 

(2). 3. Mesonotum narrower (4 mm.) ; lateral margins of the stipites not sinuate, 

but forming an even convexity from base to apex . . . . affinis, Shuckard. 
(1). 4. Scape shorter than the first 5 joints of the flagellum ; mandibles decidedly 

small brevipennis, Emery. 

S unknown furcatus, Gerst. 

3 unknown braunsi, Emery.. 



D. helvolus, Linn. (Plate IV., figs. 33, 33a, 336, 34, 34a). 

Mus. Ludov. Ulrich., p. 412, $ 1764. Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. 1, 
968 (Mutilla) £ , 1767. Emery, Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital., vol. 19, 
p. 350, 8 ? $ , 1887. Trimen, Proc. Ent. Soc, London, p. 24,. 
?, 1880. 

2f. or $ maxima. 8 mm. Castaneous, mandibles and anterior 
portion of head and apical segments of abdomen, darker. Legs 
very scantily pubescent, flagellum moderately pubescent, a few 
long hairs on the petiole and abdominal segments. Whole body, 
except the posterior face of the node and the flagellum, very shining, 
evenly and distinctly punctured. The punctures are larger and 
deeper on the head and thorax, shallower and smaller on the petiole 
and abdomen. The petiole is reticulate-punctate on its posterior 
face ; from each puncture arises a pale, microscopic hair. 

Head at least one-quarter longer than it is wide, parallel-sided, 
posterior angles rounded but very prominent, owing to the deep and 
almost angular occipital emargination. Mandibles scarcely longer 
than half the width of the head, very blunt at the apex, and with 
a blunt tooth near the middle of the internal margin. Clypeus 
almost linear, except in the middle, where it is slightly and triangu- 
larly extended between the frontal carinae, and produced into a. 
small platform on the anterior margin. The frontal carinae short 
and narrow, free and raised at the sides into a lobe which ends pos- 
teriorly in a sharp spine. Scape of antenna incrassate and flattened 
towards the apex, about two-thirds as long as the flagellum ; the 
latter 10-jointed, all the joints except the last wider than long. 
The scape and flagellum together are about three-quarters the 
length of the head. 

Pronotum rounded in front, narrower behind than in front. Pro- 
mesonotal suture well defined ; meso- and epinotum rather flattened 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 117 

above, declivity of the epinotum vertical and very short. Node of 
petiole quadrate-globose, slightly wider behind than in front, the 
central lamella produced in a wide angle. First abdominal segment 
narrow at the base, 2nd and 3rd segments sub-equal, and a little 
longer than the 1st, 4th segment a little shorter than the preceding, 
■5th segment widely and semicircularly excavated apically, the dorsal 
boundary of the excavation forming a sharp edge, ending on each 
side inferiorly in a short tooth. 

$ minor. 5-6 mm. This differs from the $ max. in the fol- 
lowing characters. The colour is slightly lighter, and the head is a 
little narrower behind tban in front, and is only arcuately emarginate 
behind. The apex of the mandible is not blunt, but ends in two 
sharp teeth, the lower tooth being the larger ; the tooth on the inner 
margin is also acute. The pubescent hairs on the body are longer. 

£ minima. l - 7-2 mm. Colour pale dirty yellow. Flagellum 
'9-jointed. Pilosity and pubescence stronger than in the £ minor. 
Mandibles without a tooth on the internal margin, and with the 
upper apical tooth almost obsolete, making the mandible an elongate 
triangle. 

$ . 25 mm. long. Thorax 8 mm. long, 4*5 mm. wide; head 
1*5 mm. long, 4*3 mm. wide; abdomen 13 - 5 mm. long. Head 
reddish brown, mandibles, antennae, and legs ferruginous ; thorax, 
petiole, and abdomen dark brownish yellow, the pronotum and 
petiole with a rather castaneous tint. The whole body, except 
the legs, mandibles, and antennae covered with a close and fine 
yellow pubescence. Head, thorax, coxae and petiole with long, 
silky, and pale yellow hairs. The apical abdominal segment has 
similar hairs, but shorter. Head behind the eyes rather shining, 
the rest of the head, and the body, impunctate and dull, all the legs 
smooth and shining. Head much wider than long, a very little 
wider than the thorax. Front of the head somewhat raised in the 
middle, leaving a broad but shallow depression on each side, reaching 
to the eyes. Frontal carinae obsolete. Eyes moderately large; 
ocelli on a raised area, the vertex concave between the posterior 
ocelli. The scape extends back as far as the anterior ocellus, 
flagellum two and a half times as long as the scape ; 1st and 
2nd joints not longer than wide, the rest longer than wide ; the 
2nd joint is pubescent and dull below. The mandibles are flattened, 
widest at the base, thinning after the basal third, the apex rounded. 
When the thorax is looked at from above, the pronotum is not 
visible, as it lies entirely below the mesonotum ; the latter is half 
as long again as wide, the parapsidal sutures distinct ; the scutellum 



118 Annals of the South African Museum. 

is one-third as long as the mesonotum ; the epinotum is rounded, 
its dorsum shorter than the scutellum. The node of the petiole is 
wider behind than in front, rounded above and at the sides, the 
ventral lamella densely fimbriated and produced into a triangle, 
blunt at the apex. First to 5th abdominal segments wider than long, 
each segment a trifle longer than the preceding, 6th segment longer 
than wide, wider at the base and narrowing towards the rounded 
apex. Genital armature castaneous and very shining. Seen from 
below, the external margins of the volsella are shallowly concave 
from base to near the apex, and fringed with long hairs; stipites 
strongly convex above. Wings slightly yellowish brown, nervures 
brown. 

? . Two specimens of this sex, belonging to the South African 
Museum, have been examined. One is preserved dry, the other in 
spirit. The former appears to have retained the natural proportions 
more truly than the other, and the following description is based 
on the dry specimen, except where the other is specifically 
mentioned. 

Length, from apex of opened mandibles to apex of hypopygium, 
39 mm. ; length of head, from anterior margin of clypeus to the 
occipital margin, 3'7 mm. dry specimen, 3'8 mm. spirit specimen ; 
length of thorax 5 mm.; width of thorax, 4 - 5 mm. dry specimen, 
5 mm. spirit specimen; length of abdomen from base of 1st segment 
to apex of pygidium, 25-2 mm. 

The colour is much lighter in the spirit specimen, in which also 
the thorax is not much darker than the abdomen. In the dry speci- 
men the abdomen is pale castaneous or a pale burnt-sienna, the head 
and thorax dark castaneous red, mandibles piceous in their inner 
margins, the hypopygium piceous on the external margins. The 
sides of the hypopygium rather dull, the rest of the insect very 
smooth and shining, and sparsely punctured with very small 
punctures. The punctures on the head and pronotum are a little 
larger than elsewhere ; the sides of the pronotum posteriorly closely 
punctured, sub-opaque. Head one and three-fifths as wide as long, 
as wide in front as behind, sides convex, posterior margin moderately 
and angularly emarginate, posterior angles rounded but prominent. 
The dorsum of the head, seen from the side, is slightly flattened, 
the median groove arising from the occipital margin is almost 
obsolete above ; there are three very small depressions above, 
marking the position of the atrophied ocelli. Clypeus depressed 
above the anterior margin, which is straight ; frontal carinae short, 
raised in front, divergent behind, between them lies a round depres- 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 119* 

sion continuous with the posterior margin of the clypeus. Mandibles 
curved strongly inwards, half as long as the head, narrowing towards 
the apex, which is acute ; the inner margin is feebly convex in the 
middle, and concave on each side of that point. Antennae 11-jointed,, 
scape as long as the flagellum less the apical joint ; the latter is> 
longer than wide, and as long as the two preceding joints together ;, 
the 1st joint as wide as long, the rest wider than long. Pronotum 
wider than long, about as wide as the head between the posterior- 
angles, the sides convex, the anterior portion somewhat produced to' 
form a neck, the pro-mesonotal suture well defined. Mesonotum 
as long as wide, separated from tbe epinotum by a metanotal region 
which is one-sixth as long as the mesonotum. The impression 
between the meso- and metanotum is deeper and more distinct at 
tbe sides. The lateral margin of the thorax, between the meta- and 
epinotum is distinctly excised. The epinotum is nearly twice as 
wide as long, on each side posteriorly just above the very short 
declivous portion there is a pronounced angle ; the margin between 
these angles is roundly produced in the middle. Seen from above, 
the anterior margin of the petiole is shallowly concave in the middle. 
The petiole widens behind, and the posterior angles are produced 
backwards and somewhat outwards into sub-acute teeth ; the pos- 
terior margin is convex. The petiole is rather flattened above, and 
twice as wide (across the base of the teeth) as it is long. 

The lst-4th abdominal segments are wider at the apical margin 
than at the base, and considerably wider than long. The 5th seg- 
ment is widest at the base and narrows towards the apical margin, 
which ends in two short sub-acute teeth, separated by a semicircular 
excision. 

The hypopygium is bifurcate along its apical third, the excision 
between the branches of the fork being narrow and wider at the 
base. At the base of the hypopygium the external margins are 
curved upwards on each side so as to form a flap, which is pro- 
longed on its upper margin into a compressed tooth-like process, 
rounded at the apex and directed backwards. Internal to the flaps, 
and at about two-thirds of the distance from the external margins, 
there is on each side a longitudinal raised ridge, which ends abruptly 
a little before the base of the apical forks. 

The apical joint of all the tarsi is wanting in both specimens. 

This species has been recorded from the larger part of the South 
African region. In S. Ehodesia it is common, and more frequently 
met with than any other species of the genus. (S.A.M., E.M., 
G.A. colls.) 



120 Annals of the South African Museum. 

D. beaunsi, Emery. 
Zool. Jahrb. Syst., vol. 8, p. 718, % % , 1895. 

This species is exceedingly similar to helvolus, differing from it 
chiefly in the shape of the head, which in the 1/ 1/ and larger $ $ 
is distinctly wider in front than behind, the sides converging 
posteriorly, so that the occipital margin is rendered shorter. The 
puncturation of the vertex is also shallower and sparser in all the 
£ $ , but in specimens determined as Braunsi for me by Dr. Forel, 
I do not find that the smallest workers (2*8 mm.) have the sides of 
the head entirely smooth as described by Prof. Emery. The 1/ 2/ 
do not exceed 8 mm. in length. The colour, especially of the larger 
forms, is slightly darker than in helvolus ; otherwise similar to that 
species. 

Bulawayo. (E.M., G.A. colls.) 



D. affinis, Shuckard. (Plate IV., fig. 35.) 

Ann. Nat. Hist., vol. 5, p. 316, $ , 1810. 

Mayr (Typhlopone oraniensis, var. brevinodosa), Verh. Zool. Bot. 
Ges. Wien, vol. 12, p. 737, % , 1862. Emery, Mem. Accad. 
Sc. Bologna, Ser. 5, vol. 9, p. 421 ; 2/ , g , 1901. 

The g S of this species are very similar to those of helvolus and 
brevipennis ; helvolus is more strongly and closely punctured on the 
head, and does not reach to such a large size in 1/ or £ maxima. 
From brevipennis, the workers of this species can be distinguished 
only with difficulty, the main distinction being the shape of the 
petiole, as given in the key above. 2/ or g maxima. 10-11 mm. 
Head, from 3 - 3 mm. long x 2*6 mm. wide, to 3 - 7 mm. long x 
2 - 8 mm. wide. The colour is like that of helvolus ; the abdomen is 
lighter than the thorax. Head shining, mandibles finely reticulate 
and sparsely punctured ; dorsum of the pro- and mesonotum smooth, 
epinotum reticulate and dull, the opacity being due to a microscopic 
rugulosity. The puncturation on the thorax is shallower and less 
abundant than on the head. The petiole is duller than the thorax, 
and the puncturation feebler and less regular. The abdomen is 
shining, shallowly and sparsely punctured. All the punctures bear 
short hairs, intermixed with which on the abdomen are some longer 
semi-erect hairs. There are a few pilose hairs on the ventral surface 
of the abdomen, the clypeus, mandibles and pygidium ; the hairs on 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 121 

the legs are comparatively longer and more abundant than in 
helvohis. 

The head is sub-rectangular, the posterior margin deeply excised, 
the sides more or less feebly bisinuate. The mandible is acute at the 
apex, with a pre-apical tooth at about the middle of the inner 
margin, and a rudiment of a sub-apical tooth. The frontal carinae 
are a little separated in front, but converge abruptly above the 
antennal sockets, and each ends in a sharp spine pointing obliquely 
backwards. 

The petiole is wider than long, widest posteriorly ; it is com- 
paratively larger than in helvohis. The tooth-like projections of 
the pygidium are not quite so prominent, otherwise similar to 
helvolus. 

$ minor. 8-5'5 mm. Head, 2*6 mm. long x 2 mm. wide, to 
1*7 mm. long x 1'4 mm. wide. The posterior margin of the head 
is less deeply excised, the sub-apical tooth of the mandibles larger, 
nearly equal to the pre-apical. The puncturation is finer, and the 
pubescence a little more distinct, and the colour lighter than in 
the 1/. 

$ minima. 3"5 mm. or less. In these the anterior margin of 
the clypeus is more projecting, the frontal carinae are closer together 
and less acute posteriorly, or in examples 3 mm. long, with the 
spinous processes entirely obsolete. Antennae with 7-8 joints, all 
the joints of the flagellum, except the 1st and last, much wider 
than long. The whole body is shining, and the colour dirty 
ochreous. 

$ . 22'2 mm. This is exceedingly like that of helvolus, differing 
practically only in the following characters. 

It is a little smaller than helvolus, and the mesonotum is rather 
narrower; according to Emery, the mesonotum is also more densely 
clothed with both long and short hairs, but this character is perhaps 
rather difficult to appreciate. The strongest distinction lies in the 
shape of the stipites, seen from above. In this species the stipites 
narrow gradually from base to apex, so that the lateral outline forms 
a continuous curve ; in helvolus the stipites are narrowed in the 
middle and widen out again beyond it, so that the profile is sinuate. 
$ unknown. I am not aware of this species having been recorded 
so far, from the region dealt with in this work, but have in- 
cluded it as it may perhaps be found in the future within the 
more northern parts of S. Ehodesia. It is a more northern 
species, but has been recorded from the southern Belgian Congo. 

(G.A. coll.) 



122 Annals of the South African Museum. 

D. beevipennis, Emery. 

Zool. Jahrb. Syst., vol. 8, p. 721, $, 1895. Mem. Accad. Sc. 

Bologna (5), vol. 9, p. 424, g , 1901. 

" $ . A small species, of a somewhat stumpy build. Particu- 
larly noticeable on the head are the small and but slightly projecting 
eyes, which are separated from the base of the mandibles- by a 
distance about equal to the thickness of the scape. The mandibles 
are plainly smaller than in affinis. The antennae are long, the 
scape shorter than the first 5 joints of the flagellum, or about as long 
as one-third of the latter. Tborax stout, petiole as in affinis. 
There are some erect hairs on the pronotum ; on the mesonotum 
and scutellum only a long, adpressed pubescence, which is hardly 
glossy and does not conceal the chitin. Colour brownish yellow, 
head excepting the mandibles dark brown ; on the mesonotum in 
front there is a short median band of darker colour, and also two 
lateral bands which do not reach the anterior margin ; the femora 
and petiole brown ; the margins of the abdominal segments 
brownish. Wings noticeably short, glassy and with brown 
nervures ; the transverse nervure joins the middle of the root of the 
cubital. The genital organs are constructed much as in affinis, but 
the outer parameres seen from above are markedly broad, not 
excised at all laterally. Length, 20-21 mm. ; head and thorax, 
8 mm. ; width of thorax, 4 mm. ; anterior wings, 12-5 mm." 

$ 8"5 mm. This worker is deceptively like that of affinis, 
differing only in its smaller size in the major forms, and in 
having the petiole shorter and wider behind than in that species. 

The type species has not been recorded from this region, but 
I quote the description for the purpose of making clear the com- 
parisons in the account of the following variety, which was 
originally found at Salisbury, S. Rhodesia. 

Var. Makshalli, Emery. 
Mem. Accad. Sc. Bologna (5), vol. 9, p. 425, g $ , 1901. 
$ . 19 mm. Width of thorax 4 mm. This differs from the type in 
having a stouter and darker thorax, castaneous brown, and the nearly 
black head ; the sides of the thorax are lighter ; the longitudinal 
lateral fascia and the spots on the anterior part of the mesonotum 
less clearly defined, on account of the darker ground-colour. 

£ max. 8 - 5 mm. Head, 2-8 mm. long x 23 mm. wide. The 
colour is a little darker than the type species, and the puncturation 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 123 

of the petiole, which is less shining, is more abundant. Otherwise 
like the type. 

Eace Zimmeemanni, Santschi. 
Eev. Suisse Zool., vol. 18, p. 738, 1/, 2 , $ , 1910. 

11 8 mm. Colour, puncturation and general characters exceed- 
ingly similar to those of helvolus. The sides of the head are, how- 
ever, slightly sinuate ; the teeth of the mandibles more acute, and 
the petiole a very little wider. The ventral lamella of the petiole is 
produced behind into a sharp spine, pointing downwards (the lamella 
is truncate in helvolus 1/). 

£ media, 6-34 mm. These do not appear to me to present any 
appreciable differences sufficient to distinguish them from workers 
of helvolus of the same size ; the ventral lamella is not spinously 
produced as in the %. Of the smallest £ $ (2 mm.) described by 
Santschi, I have seen no examples ; they have 8-jointed antennae. 
My specimens have been named for me by Dr. Forel, but I must 
confess that to me they appear so exceedingly similar to helvolus, 
as to be almost indistinguishable, except in the character of the 
ventral lamella in the 7/. 

"J 19-20 mm. Yellowish brown. Head, mandibles, and femora 
brown-black. There are two short brownish bands on the middle 
of the mesonotum anteriorly. Laterally, a band twice as long as 
the preceding covers the parapsidal sutures. There is also a long 
band on the posterior margins of the abdominal segments. The 
petiole is entirely yellowish brown except the portion articulating 
with the abdomen, which is blackish brown. Antennae and legs 
dark reddish brown. Pilosity rusty on and below the head, rather 
sparse on the front of the pronotum, more abundant on the epinotum 
and petiole. The rest of the body is covered with a fairly dense 
pubescence, fairly long on the thorax, but shorter on the abdomen. 
The head is small, as in moestus, but a little wider. The eyes are 
dull and small, with distinct facets. The distance between the 
lateral ocelli much shorter than that separating them from the eyes. 
Mandibles wider than in the type, the outer edge less emarginate, 
straighter. The scape is as long as the first 6 joints of the flagellum 
taken together ; 2nd joint of flagellum pubescent beneath, hardly 
longer than half the succeeding joint. Length of thorax, 7 mm. ; 
width in the middle, 4 mm. Length of the front wing, 145 mm. 
Petiole narrower than in affinis, wider than in moestus. Abdomen 
3 - 8 mm. wide, cylindrical. Genital armature brownish, 5 mm. long 
by 3 mm. wide. The extremity of the stipites is narrower than in 



124 Annals of the South African Museum. 

the type and rather densely fringed. The volsella is a little longer ; 
otherwise like the type. Madingou, French Congo." 
Hillside, Bulawayo, g $ only. (E.M., G.A. colls.) 

D. puecatus, Gerstaecker. 

Stettin Ent. Zeitschr., vol. 33, p. 267, $ , 1872. Emery, Bull. Soc. 
Ent. Ital., vol. 19, p. 319, ? , 1887. 
" ? . 34 mm. Abdomen, 26 mm. Colour light rusty red, . . . 
smooth and shining. Antennae with 10-jointed flagellum. Head 
quadrate but rounded, the median dorsal groove is deepest behind, 
and very shallow on the vertex. The frontal carinae almost reach to 
the anterior margin of the clypeus, which lies between them in the 
shape of a small triangle. On the anterior portion of the vertex, the 
median groove forms an oval, well-defined and strongly punctured 
pit [i.e. the depressed area between the frontal carinae. — G. A.]. 
The posterior corners of tbe head are obtusely triangular and pro- 
duced backwards. The upper surface of the head is finely but 
distinctly punctured, more sparsely so behind than in front, the 
latter region being slightly dull owing to an exceedingly fine sub- 
puncturation. . . . The prothorax is wider at the shoulders than at 
the posterior margin. . . . The mesothorax is flattened, very 
shallowly impressed in the middle in front, punctured like the 
prothorax, but more strongly than the head, nevertheless distinctly 
shining. The metathorax is also depressed, with a transverse 
groove on the compressed anterior portion, and the posterior part 
is slightly swollen on each side; the segment is more finely and 
sparsely punctured than the pro- or mesothorax. The femora and 
tibiae are punctured ; the last three joints of the tarsi wanting in all- 
the legs. First abdominal segment wider than long, trapezoid, 
3rd-6th segments longer and wide and parallel-sided. Hypopygium 
two and a half times longer than wide, with a transverse furrow- 
shaped impression along three-fifths of its length on each side; 
narrowed posteriorly and forked in the middle of the posterior 
margin by a deep oval excision, the two arms of the fork long and 
obtusely triangular, and flat. The surface of the hypopygium, 
excepting its base, is finely punctured, between the lateral furrows 
and the median excision fairly densely punctured. The 5th dorsal 
segment is longer than the 4th, but ends before the fork of the 
hypopygium, its posterior margin on each side wide and flat, in the 
middle narrow and deeply emarginate, so as to form on each side of 
the emargination a triangular and projecting point. At the base of 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 125 

the hypopygium, and on each side of the genital orifice, is a raised 
lamella which is vertically truncate posteriorly. The outer margins 
of the hypopygium at its base are also raised and curved, so as to 
form a shorter and more obtuse lappet on each side. Cape." 

I have copied the author's description, excluding only those 
remarks in which comparison is made with the Indian D. laevigatus 
(glaberrimum). The above description of furcatus was published as 
far back as 1872, and as far as I am aware no species of Dorylus 
with unattached $ £ , to which this 5 might be ascribed, is known 
from the Cape even now. Without having seen the original 
specimen it is not possible to form any definite conclusion, yet a 
comparison made between the above description and a helvolus ? , 
in the collection of the South African Museum (described p. 118, ante),, 
suggests to my mind a strong probability that Gerstaecker's species 
is only an individual aberration of helvolus, or at the most only a 
variety of that species. 



Sub-Genus TYPHLOPONE, Westwood. 

Introduction Class, Insects, vol. 2, p. 219, 1840. Emery, ZooL 
Jahrb. Syst., vol. 8, p. 701, 1895. 

D. (Typhlopone) fulvus, Westwood. 

hoc. cit. £ . Emery, loc. cit. $ . Shuckard (D. juvenculus), Ann. 

Nat. Hist., vol.5, p. 319, $. 

The type species appears to be confined to the northern portion of 
Africa, and is replaced in equatorial and S.E. tropical Africa by the 
following race, which has not been recorded to my knowledge from 
temperate South Africa. 

The sub-genus includes only this species and D. labiatus of the 
Indian region. 

Pace Badius, Gerstaecker. (Plate IV., figs. 31, 31a, 32, 32a, 32/;.) 

Monatsber. Akad. Wiss., Berlin, p. 261, $ , 1858. Ditto, Peter's- 
Eeise, n. Mossamb. Zool., vol. 5, p. 499, $ , 1862. 
% or £ maxima. 13 mm. Head 3 - 2 mm. long x 2-8 mm. wide. 
Mandibles piceous brown, scape of antenna, head and thorax dark 
castaneous red, but getting gradually lighter from the head to the 
petiole ; abdomen dark brownish yellow, or ochreous with a slight 
reddish tinge ; legs ferruginous ; flagellum dark brown above, lighter 
underneath. Head, thorax and abdomen very shining, except the 



126 Annals of the South African Museum. 

anterior third of the head, the vertical anterior face of the pronotum, 
the mesopleura, the petiole and the epinotum, which are duller, 
owing to a rugulosity of the surface which is almost microscopic on 
the head, but somewhat stronger on the other parts. Head sparsely 
punctured, with small, discrete and shallow punctures ; scape of 
antenna more coarsely punctured. Pro- and mesonotum sparsely, 
but much more coarsely punctured than the head. Epinotum and 
petiole very shallowly and more closely punctured, the punctures 
being smaller than on the pronotum. Abdomen finely and sparsely 
punctured. A short, yellow pubescent hair is inserted in each 
puncture, those on the head being very fine. 

Head very slightly narrowed posteriorly, the sides are almost 
parallel, posterior margin shallowly arcuate. Mandibles sub- 
nitidulous, striato-punctate, the apex sub-acute, the pre-apical tooth 
small and blunt, the sub-apical very obtuse or represented only by a 
swelling on the margin. The frontal carinae are considerably raised, 
divergent and vertical in front, and project distinctly over the very 
short clypeus ; they are angularly bent just above the antennal 
sockets, so that their posterior half is horizontal. Between them 
posteriorly is a very smooth and shining oval area, which is con- 
tinued into a moderately deep groove with rounded margins which 
becomes very faint on the vertex, and again deepens towards the 
occipital margin. The frontal carinae are not spinously produced 
backwards as in helvolus and affinis. Antennae 11-jointed; the 
scape is strongly incrassate towards the apex, and not longer than 
the first 7 joints of the flagellum. The 1st joint of the fiagellum 
very short and about as long as wide, all the other joints except the 
apical much wider than long ; all the joints closely punctured and 
densely pubescent beneath. Prothorax narrowed and depressed 
anteriorly to form a short neck ; it is widest behind this part and 
narrows towards the mesonotum, from which it is separated by a 
distinct and angular suture. The mesonotum widens posteriorly, where 
it is two-thirds wider than long. The epinotum is widest at its base 
(on each side of which lies a prominent stigmatic orifice), and narrows 
but slightly towards the short and vertical declivity; the brow of the 
latter is considerably rounded above and at the corners. The dorsum 
of the epinotum has a longitudinal median impression. Seen from 
the side, the dorsum of the whole thorax is flat and rather distinctly 
delimited from the sides, which are vertical or nearly so. The node 
of the petiole is almost sub-quadrate, or a little wider behind than in 
front, as long as, or only very little longer than wide, all the angles 
strongly rounded ; the ventral lamella is produced into a triangular 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 127 

projection. The abdomen widens gradually towards the apical 
margin of the 3rd segment, all the segments wider than long. The 
pygidial area of the 5th segment is dull and only shallowly impressed, 
forming a more or less oval fovea, not semicircular or bounded by a 
sharp raised margin, as in the sub-genus Doryhts. By this character, 
and also by the longer petiole and the frontal carinae without spines, 
all the workers of this species can be distinguished at a glance from 
those of the sub-genus Dorylus. 

$ minor. 8-3 mm. In these the colour is much lighter, or more 
or less reddish yellow. Antennae 11-jointed as in the maxima. 
Proportionately the head is wider in front than in the £ maxima. 
The puncturation is finer and the pubescence is more apparent. 
In the smaller forms the frontal carinae project further forwards 
and are more convergent posteriorly, or even meet to form a single 
lamina. The median impression on the head is much shallower 
and shorter, or almost obsolete. The mandibles are more shining, 
with three teeth more acute and distinctly defined. 

$ minima. It is probable that there are some of this class, and 
measuring less than the smallest of the minor class. I do not, how- 
ever, possess any smaller than 3 mm., nor do I know of any workers 
of a smaller size of this race having been described by any author. 

$. 33 mm. Thorax 10-2 mm. long x 5-8 mm. wide; petiole 
2*8 mm. long x 4 mm. wide ; length of front wing, 22 mm. Head 
in front and above, dark brown, occipital surface of the head, 
antennae, mandibles and all the legs ferruginous or castaneous red. 
Thorax, petiole, and abdomen pale yellowish red, the 6th dorsal seg- 
ment and the margins of all the abdominal segments darker. The 
thorax is somewhat more yellowish than the abdomen. The anterior 
part of the head between the anterior ocellus and the clypeus clothed 
with long, curved, silky yellow hairs ; a tuft of similar hairs on the 
clypeus and the base of the mandibles. The front of the head 
is densely clothed with a short brownish-yellow pubescence, the 
posterior portion, behind the eyes and ocelli, glabrous. The thorax 
and petiole with a rather long, very dense, decumbent, yellowish 
or golden pubescence ; the pubescence of the abdomen is much 
finer, and has a silky sheen, the margins of all the segments with 
longer hairs, and the 6th segment densely clothed with long silky 
hairs. The metanotum is sparsely clothed with short stiff hairs ; 
the brow of the epinotum, the posterior dorsal margin of the petiole, 
and the space between the ventral lamella and the 1st abdominal 
segment and all the coxae fringed with long golden hairs. The 
whole body is sub -opaque and microscopically rugulose, except the 



128 Annals of the South African Museum. 

occipital part of the head, the 6th dorsal abdominal segment, and the 
legs, which are smooth and shining. 

The head is much wider than long ; seen in profile, rather biconvex. 
The anterior margin of the clypeus is obtusely angulated ; from the 
posterior margin to the anterior ocellus there is a narrow impressed 
line, between which and the inner margins of the eyes the surface 
of the head is feebly convex on each side. Seen from the front, 
the dorsal profile of the head is very convex, the convexity being 
broken by a slight depression between the two posterior ocelli. 
The latter are very convex, prominent and large. The scape narrows 
towards its apex, and when directed upwards the apex just reaches 
the level of the top of the head ; it is as long as the first 7 joints 
of the flagellum. The latter is 12-jointed, all the joints, except the 
first, longer than wide. The first joint is glabrous and shining below, 
the remaining joints pubescent and very finely punctured all over. 
The whole thorax is somewhat globose, and its dorsum raised much 
above the level of that of the head and abdomen. Seen from above 
only a narrow portion of the pronotum is visible, but a,t the sides it 
can be seen as a large triangular piece between the mesonotum and 
the mesopleuron. The mesonotum is convex in front and at th& 
sides, slightly flattened posteriorly, and about one-fifth longer than 
wide ; anteriorly and on each side of the middle there is a well- 
defined impressed line, which ends abruptly at about the anterior 
4th of the mesonotum. The parapsidal sutures are distinct. The 
scutellum is flat in front, convex behind and at the sides, and has 
a wide median groove on its posterior half. The metanotum is very 
short ; seen from the side very convex. The epinotum at the brow 
of the declivity is nearly four times as wide as long. The petiole is 
moderately convex above and at the sides, and one-third wider than 
long. The ventral lamella is produced into a blunt angular projec- 
tion, truncated behind and in front. Abdomen cylindrical, all the 
segments decidedly wider than long. The 6th segment is narrowed 
towards the apex, which is rounded. The stipites, seen from above, 
are slightly divergent at their apices, and densely fringed with golden 
hairs ; the volsellae are long, and reach almost to the apex of the 
stipites. All the femora are compressed and flattened from front to 
back, and much wider at the base than at the apex. Wings with a. 
slightly yellowish tinge, the nervures dark brown. 

The 3 $ of this species are exceedingly common at light during 
the rainy season in South Ehodesia ; the £ £ , however, do not 
appear to be so frequently met with as helvolus. 
? unknown. (G.A., E.M., S.A.M. colls.) 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 129 

Eace Ehodesiae, Forel. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. Ill ; $ , 1913. 

The largest £ , 8-5 mm., of this race is smaller than that of the type, 
and the smallest examples, 3 mm., hitherto found, are probably not 
the minimum size. 

This race differs from the type and from baclius by its lighter, or 
more straw-yellow colour. The head is shorter and more feebly 
emarginate posteriorly, and hardly more than one-sixth longer than 
wide. The node is as wide as long. 

Hab. Bulawayo. (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 

Sub-Genus BHOGMUS, Shuckard. 

Ann. Nat. Hist., vol. 5, p. 323, 1840. Emery, Zool. Jahrb. Syst., 

vol. 8, p. 702, 1895. 

D. (Sub-G. Ehogmus) Fimbriatus, Shuckard. 
(Plate IV., figs. 36, 36a.) 

Ann. Nat. Hist., vol. 5, p. 325, $ , 1810. Emery, Zool. Jahrb. 

Syst., vol. 8, p. 736, g , 1895. Brauns, Zeitschr. f. Hymen 

u. Dipt., vol. 3, p. 294, ? , 1903. 

This species is the only representative of the sub-genus in South 

Africa. The variation in the worker caste is more complicated than 

in the other species of the genus, owing to the fact that there is not a 

gradual differentiation between the largest and the smallest forms. 

There are practically four groups, having either 11, or 10, or 9, 

or 7-8 jointed antennae, each group having its maxima and minima 

forms, with the shape of the head varying according to the size 

of the insect. 

The forms with 11-jointed antennae vary in length from 8 to 3 - 5 mm. 

10 „ „ 3-1 to 2-7 mm. 

,, 9 ,, ,,3 to 2-6mm. 

7-8 ,, ,, 2-2tol-7mm. 

The ^ ^ of this species may be distinguished from either helvolus 
or affinis by the absence of the spiniform posterior projections of the 
frontal carinae, and also, in the largest examples, by the denser 
puncturation and the dull thorax, which is finely but distinctly 
rugulose. From fulvus, race badius, which this species resembles 
in the indistinct pygidial impression, it may be distinguished in the 
larger forms by the dull thorax, and in the smaller by the much 
stronger puncturation. 

9 



130 Annals of the South African Museum. 

# maxima. 8 mm. Head, flagellum and thorax castaneous red, 
the head a little darker than the thorax, and the petiole lighter, 
abdomen, legs, and scape reddish yellow. The anterior third of 
head is finely punctured, microscopically rugulose and dull, the rest 
of the head above and at the sides is closely and strongly punctured, 
the space between the punctures smooth and shining. The frontal 
carinae are finely rugoso-punctate, the mandibles sparsely punctured, 
smooth and shining. The pro- and mesonotum with larger but 
shallower punctures than on the head, the epinotum very faintly 
punctured ; the whole thorax is transversely rugulose and sub- 
opaque, the rugulosity on the epinotum being stronger, so that that 
segment is entirely dull. The petiole is very finely rugoso-punctuate 
and dull. The scape of the antenna, the abdomen and the legs 
shining, finely and sparsely punctured. The pubescence is very 
short and scanty on tbe abdomen, and almost entirely absent on 
the head and thorax ; there are a few long hairs on the clypeus and 
pygidium, and two or three on each side of the posterior angles 
of the node. The head is as long as wide, widest in front, narrowing 
only slightly towards the posterior angles, the posterior margin 
shallowly emarginate. The posterior margin of the pronotum is 
arcuate, not angularly emarginate as in badius. The node of the 
petiole is one and a quarter times wider than longer. The median 
impressed line is shallow in front of the head and on the vertex, 
moderately deep posteriorly. The sub-apical tooth of the mandible 
truncate. Antennae 11-jointed. 

$ . Antennae 11-jointed, 5-3 - 5 mm. These differ from the 
maxima by having the head proportionately shorter, and wider 
anteriorly. The colour is also lighter ; the anterior third of the 
head is less dull, and the thorax is more shining ; the pubescence of 
the head and thorax more distinct. 

$ . Antennae 10-jointed, 3"l-2-7 mm. The head is only a little 
less wide than in the smallest of the forms with 11-jointed 
antennae. The puncturation is, relatively to the size of the body, 
much coarser. 

£ . Antennae 9-jointed, 3-2 - 6 mm. In the smaller of these 
the head resembles the preceding group ; in the larger on the 
contrary, the head is narrower in front than behind, its sides 
are distinctly convex, and the clypeus projects further forwards. 

£ . 8- or 7-jointed, 2-2-l - 7 mm. In the larger of these, the 
projection of the clypeus is even more pronounced, but the head is 
only very slightly narrowed in front ; on the other hand, in the 
smaller forms, the head is very plainly narrower in front than 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 131 

behind, and the clypeus projects considerably forwards, the 
puncturation and pubescence is also more pronounced. 

? . 50 mm. Head 4 mm. long x 5 mm. wide; thorax 6*5 mm. 
long; abdomen 30 mm. long; free portion of hypopygium 7 mm. 
long. Head, thorax, petiole and dorsal surface of abdomen ferru- 
ginous, ventral surface of abdomen and legs, ferruginous-flavous, 
hypopygium castaneous ; node and 1st abdominal segment some- 
what darker. Head a little wider than the posterior margin of the 
petiole, much wider than the thorax, wider than long. Sides of the 
head sinuate in the middle, occipital margin widely but shallowly 
emarginate. A deep median groove extending from the posterior 
angle of the clypeus to the occiput, divides the dorsum of the head 
into two halves. The anterior face of the head, above the antennal 
sockets, moderately excavated. Clypeus flat, with a slight emargina- 
tion in the middle of the anterior margin, angularly produced behind 
between the frontal carinae. The latter are tumid and not distinct. 
The antennae do not reach the occipital margin ; the scape as long 
as the flagellum. The latter 10-jointed, the 1st joint slightly longer 
than broad, the 2nd-9th joints wider than long, the apical twice as 
long as wide. Mandibles about three-fifths as long as the head, 
curved inwards, the inner edge bounded by a raised line, the apex 
acuminate. Dorsum of thorax rather flattened, the sides of the 
pronotum rounded, of the meso- and metanota sloping inwardly. 
Epinotum a little wider than the pronotum, the declivity obsolete. 
The petiole is roughly semicircular, the anterior margin sinuate, the 
lateral angles considerably rounded ; anteriorly there is a slight 
median impression above ; the posterior margin is convex, except 
laterally behind the posterior angles, where there is a concavity on each 
side. The posterior angles of the node are prominent, the apices 
obtuse. Pirst-3rd abdominal segments sub-equal in length, 4th 
and 5th sub-equal, both slightly longer than the 3rd, all the 
segments wider than long. The hypopygium differs very consider- 
ably from that of helvolus. The median apical incision is indeed so 
deep that, when seen from above, the organ may be described as 
consisting of a short basal portion, carrying two lateral projections 
which curve downwards and slightly inwards, and are rapidly 
narrowed towards their apices. The upper surface of these 
projections are longitudinally hollowed out, the external edge of the 
excavations so formed being less sharp than the internal. The 
left-hand fork or projection has at its base a smaller excavation, 
which is only feebly indicated in the right-hand fork. All the 
legs have 5 joints to the tarsi, these are shorter than the tibiae. 



132 Annals of the South African Museum. 

The head is dull, microscopically punctulate, with a few larger 
punctures interspersed. The thorax is sub-nitidulous, moderately 
and finely punctured, also with a few larger punctures interspersed. 
The petiole is punctured and shining. The abdomen is very 
shining, the dorsal surface very sparsely and finely punctulate. 
The hypopygium is more or less rugulose and dull, the projections 
somewhat shining externally. 

The above description is drawn from the specimen in the 
collection of Dr. H. Brauns, Willowmore. Tbis specimen was 
taken from the nest by Mr. G. A. K. Marshall at Salisbury, 
S. Ehodesia. 

" $. 37 mm.; alar expanse, 46 mm. Eufo-testaceous, very pilose 
upon the face, the thorax above and beneath, the coxae, also the 
petiole below, the margins of the terminal segments above and 
of the two last beneath, which are densely fringed. The head black 
upon the vertex and behind ; face convex, sulcated in front of the 
anterior ocellus ; the ocelli large, disposed in an equilateral triangle 
on the vertex ; with about the diameter of one intervening between 
the anterior ocellus and the posterior pair; antennae slender, 
setaceous, the scape one-fourth the length of the organ ; mandibles 
broad, nearly triangular, very slightly curved, the inner edge acute. 
Thorax gibbous in front and at the scutellum ; prothorax very 
distinct, and metathorax slightly produced and rounded posteriorly ; 
wings sub-hyaline, their nervures robust and brown, the radial lost- 
in a large dilated dark patch at the commencement of the marginal 
cell ; the cubital slightly undulated, the first recurrent inserted just 
beyond the middle of the first sub-marginal cell (cubital), and the 
2nd recurrent half-way between the first and the termination of the 
cell, and diverging obliquely towards the edge of the wing ; legs 
castaneous, the femora elongate, ovate, compressed, their outline 
slightly rounded above and below. Abdomen opaque, clavate, the 
petiole transverse and quadrate convex, fringed at its apex, and very 
pilose beneath, where it is slightly longitudinally carinated, not so- 
wide as the 2nd segment [i.e. 1st abd. segment, mihi, G.A.] which 
viewed above is nearly quadrate, the remainder all transverse ; of 
these the penultimate and terminal are the largest, the latter deeply 
emarginate in the middle, fimbriated along the edge, as are also the 
two last ventral segments, the terminal of which is semicircular, and 
the penultimate nearly quadrate." 

As I have had only a considerably damaged specimen before 
my eyes, I have preferred to copy Shuckard's original description. 
The S of this species is easily distinguished from all our other 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 133 

■species by the very globose thorax, which, with the petiole, is 
-densely clothed with long, golden, erect hairs, and by the shape of 
"the abdomen, in which the apical segments are much wider than 
the lst-3rd, and by the dense dark golden fimbria of the last two 
-segments. 

(E.M., G.A. colls.) 

Sub-Genus ALAOPONE, Emery. 

Ann. Mus. Stor. Nat. Gen., vol. 16, p. 274, 1881. Zool. Jahrb. 

Syst., vol. 8, p. 702, 1895. 

There are but three species of this sub-genus recorded from the 
iSouth African region, all known only in the male sex. 

D. (Sub-G. Alaopone) attenatus, Shuckard. 

" $ . 22 mm. Alar expanse 31*5 mm. 

Pale reddish, testaceous, opaque, sub-pubescent, slender; head 
black, except the mandibles, which, as well as the scape of the 
antennae, are pitchy, the latter barely one-fifth the length of the 
organ, which is filiform and elongate ; ocelli posed in a triangle at 
the vertex, moderately large, with about the space of the diameter 
of one ocellus between the posterior and the anterior, in front of 
which the face (which is convex) is sulcated ; mandibles broad and 
very slightly curved, their inner edge acute, with an obtuse angula- 
tion at the base within. Thorax gibbous in front and at the 
scutellum, the latter transverse with a longitudinal impression in 
the centre ; metathorax produced slightly and rounded posteriorly ; 
wings obscure, their nervures reddish brown, the cubital slightly 
waved, the recurrent straight and inserted at less than two-thirds 
the length of the 1st marginal cell; legs castaneous, the femora 
■elongate ovate, their outline rounded both above and below. 
Abdomen obscure, the petiole quadrate, gibbous, the ventral portion 
very slightly obtusely portioned, the remaining segments transverse, 
the sexual organ protruding at the apex of the terminal segment and 
fringed. Gambia?" 

I have not met with this species in S. Ehodesia. It has been 
recorded from Capetown (teste Emery), German S.W. Africa, and 
Bechuanaland. (Schultze.) 

Var. acuminata, Emery. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 43, p. 462, $ , 1899. 
" $ . This differs from that which I consider as the type, by the 
form of the stipes in the genital armature. The two pieces of the 



134 Annals of the South African Museum. 

pair are near together and parallel in the new variety, whereas 
they are clearly divergent behind in the type. Moreover, each is 
obliquely truncated, so that the medial angle of its posterior extremity 
is acute and pointed. Otherwise like the type, but a little smaller. 
Orange Free State." 

D. (Sub-G. Alaopone) diadema, Gerstaecker. 

Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 261, $ , 1858. Forel, Ann. S. E. 
Belg., vol. 43, p, 309, $ , 1899. 

Gerstaecker's description of the species is so short as to be useless ; 
a more complete one has been made by Forel, which is as follows. 

" $ . 20-20*3 mm. The compound eyes are nearly smooth, the 
facets not forming separate convexities. Width of the head with the 
eyes, 3 - 3 mm. ; length of the head without the mandibles, 1*9 mm. ; 
maximum width of the thorax, 3 mm. ; maximum width of the abdo- 
men, 3 mm. ; width of the petiole 2-1 mm., length 2 mm. ; length 
of anterior wing 15 5 mm. 

Elongated like juvenculus (= fulvus). Mandibles thick, short, 
bevelled at the apex, smooth and shining. Labrum entire, as in 
helvolus and nigricans (bilobed in juvenculus). Mutual distance of 
the posterior ocelli a little greater than their distance from the 
compound eyes. The ocelli are not very large, much smaller than 
the interval which separates the posterior ones from each other. 
The frons gibbous, the frontal sinus of the usual shape, and extending 
from the frontal area to the anterior ocellus, without forming a deep 
impressed line such as is seen in juvenculus. The clypeus also is 
not sunken as in that species. Thorax fairly strongly narrowed 
behind, more so than in juvenculus. Petiole cubic and rounded, 
a little widened posteriorly, where it is wider than it is long, but the 
width in front is hardly equal to its length. Abdomen narrow and 
elongate, but slightly curved, as in juvenculus. The femora are 
widely dilated and flattened up to the tibial articulation, which is 
barely narrowed and not in the least rounded or thickened, as is 
the case in the other species. The femora are also shorter, being 
but a trifle longer than the coxae. The scape is barely longer than 
the first 4 joints of the flagellum. 

The head is closely punctured and dull, except the frontal area, 
which is smooth and shining ; the space between the punctures does 
not appear quite smooth. The thorax, petiole and abdomen are 
abundantly punctured and sub-nitidulous, the thorax is more shining 
than the petiole and abdomen. On the latter the punctures are 
fairly close, but without forming reticulations. The last abdominal 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 135 

segment is smooth and shining, without deep punctures. A yellowish 
and slightly erect pubescence is present all over, except on the head, 
where it is sparser, and on the legs and mandibles, where it is 
absent. On the abdomen it hides the puncturation to a certain 
extent. There is a yellow and rather woolly pilosity abundant on 
the coxae, base of the femora, clypeus, metanotum, petiole and 
extremity of the abdomen, and ventral surface of the thorax, very 
sparse or wanting elsewhere. Scapes, tibiae and mandibles smooth, 
shining and glabrous, except for a small row of little hairs on the edge 
of the tibiae. The colour is pale testaceous yellow. Head, mandibles, 
tarsi and a narrow border at the apical margins of all the abdominal 
segments, rusty red. A transverse brown streak on the vertex. 
Wings feebly tinged with brown, especially the radial cell which 
is dark brown. Described from the type." 

D. (Sub-G. Alaopone) montanus, Santschi, var. bondeoiti, Santschi. 

(Type) Eev. Suisse Zool., vol. 18, p. 750, $, 1910. (Variety) Ann. 
Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 56, p. 162, «? , 1912. 

" $ . 22-5 mm. Width of head, 3*8 mm.; width of thorax 1 mm.; 
width of abdomen 3 - 8-l mm. Length of front wing, 20 mm. Light 
testaceous yellow ; margins of abdominal segments narrowly reddish 
yellow. Head brownish black, slightly reddish in front. Mandibles 
and legs ferruginous. Wings slightly tinged with brown, stigma and 
nervures brown. Head finely punctured, dull ; frontal area, man- 
dibles, scape and first 2 joints of the flagellum, legs and last 
segment of abdomen smooth and shining. Abdomen and the 
thorax dull, as finely punctured as the head, but less densely, 
thorax slightly shining. A yellow and woolly pilosity is plentiful 
on the coxae, base of femora, sternum, the sides, the ventral surface 
of the petiole and last abdominal segment. On the dorsum of the 
thorax and petiole there is a more erect and silky pilosity, fine and 
fairly long. The pubescence is downy, short and dense on the head, 
denser on the abdomen, and less so on the thorax. Head slightly 
convex above, the frons prominent. The frontal sulcus extends 
to the anterior ocellus. The lateral ocelli separated farther from 
each other than from the eyes ; the latter shining, with indistinct 
facets. Frontal area wide and short. Clypeus feebly lobed in the 
middle. Mandibles short, as wide as half their, length, the internal 
margin as strongly excised as in diadema, with the apex bevelled 
off. There is a wide and shallow impression near their external 
angles. Petiole cubic, slightly rounded, a little narrower in front, 
wider than long. Abdomen almost cylindrical. The stipites of the 



136 Annals of the South African Museum. 

genital armature are roundly truncate at the apex, the external 
margins in their lower half are slightly concave. The volsellae are 
large and extend beyond the stipites. The internal paramera (sagittae) 
form two wide lamellae as in diadema, from which and from attenua- 
tus it may be distinguished by the genital armature. (Type Kili- 
mandjaro.) Variety, Transvaal." 

I have combined the two descriptions, since the variety differs 
from the type practically only in the larger head and mandibles, 
with the former more pilose, and in the stipites, which in the type 
are smaller and straight on the external margins. 

Teibe ECITINI, Forel. 

With only one genus in the South African region. 

Genus AENICTUS, Shuckard. 
Ann. Nat. Hist., vol. 5, p. 266, 1840. Smith, Journal Linn. Soc, 
Lond., vol. 2, p. 79 {Typhlatta), 1857. E. Andre, 2me Suppl. 
aux Eourmis, p. 2, 1885. Emery, Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital., vol. 33, 
p. 43, 1901. 

Characters. 

$ Monomorphic, or varying only in size (except E. mariae, 
Em.), and that within narrow limits. Clypeus in the form of a 
narrow band above the mouth. Frontal carinae vertical, close 
together, and curved round the antennal sockets. Mandibles 
dentate. Eyes absent. Antennae 10-jointed, the terminal joint 
not noticeably thicker than the rest. Thoracic sutures feeble, or 
obsolete. Epinotum unarmed. Tibiae with one rudimentary calcar. 
Abdomen short, more or less oval. 

? . (Known only in one species, abeillei, Andre, from North 
Africa.) Clypeus, frontal carinae and antennae as in the $ . 
Eyes absent. Mandibles narrow, edentate and acuminate. Thoracic 
sutures absent. Petiole 1-jointed and nodiform. First abdominal 
segment campaniform, not constricted from the following segment 
so as to form the 2nd joint of a 2-jointed petiole as in the $ . 
Abdomen elongate, cylindrical and pointed at the apex. Hypo- 
pygium projecting slightly beyond the pygidium. Middle and hind 
tibiae without calcaria. 

$ . Clypeus very short, insinuated between the frontal carinae . 
The latter short. Mandibles acuminate and edentate. Eyes and 
ocelli well developed, sometimes very large. Antennae 13-jointed, 
scape thick, flagellum thinning towards the apex. Mesonotum 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 137 

gibbous, overhanging the pronotum ; scutellum gibbous ; epinotum 
short. Legs slender, tibiae usually with a rudimentary calcar. 
Petiole 1-jointed, transverse, flattened or excavated above. Abdo- 
men cylindrical or clavate. Genital armature entirely retractile. 
Stipes large, covering laterally the volsella ; lacinia very small. 
Sub-genital plate forked, the branches linear, parallel and distant. 
Unlike the species of the sub-genus Dorylus, the workers of this 
genus do not so persistently avoid the light, and may be seen moving 
about in the open, usually in files, even in the bright sunshine. 
They are also far more nimble than those insects. Probably many 
species live an entirely subterranean existence, but all the species 
which are known to me from Ehodesia have been taken above the 
surface of the ground. 



Key to the $ $ of the Genus Aenictus. 



V 



{4). 1. Third and 4th joints of the flagellum, or at least the 3rd, distinctly longer 

than wide. 
(3). 2. Head distinctly wider in front than behind; dorsum of epinotum evenly 

and strongly reticulate-punctate eugeniae, Emery. 

(2). 3. Head not wider in front than behind, widest in the middle ; dorsum of 

epinotum unevenly and shallowly reticulate-punctate . . rotundatus, Mayr. 
(1). 4. Third and 4th joints of the flagellum as wide as, or wider than long. 
■(6). 5. Head wider in front than behind in the £ major, parallel-sided in the 

5 minor mariae, Emery. 

'(5). 6. Head not wider in front than behind, workers monomorphic 

steindachneri, Mayr. 

Without having seen the species, it is not possible for me to 
include rixator, Forel, in the above Key. It appears to differ from 
the % minor of mariae, Emery, only in having 3 instead of 4 teeth 
to the mandibles. 

A. eixatoe, Forel. 

In Emery, Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital., vol. 33, p. 48, $ , 1901. 

" $ . 1*9 mm. Mandibles narrow, their margins nearly parallel, 
■shining, feebly striate and armed with 3 teeth. Frontal carinae 
short, fused together posteriorly. Head rectangular, as wide behind 
as in front, feebly emarginate behind, and one-fifth longer than wide. 
'The scape hardly reaches back to the posterior two-fifths of the 
head, thickened along the apical two-thirds. Third to 6th joints 
of the flagellum wider than long. Meso-metanotal suture forming 
a distinct impression, but not constricted. Dorsum of epinotum 
eonvex in the middle, the declivity triangular, margined by a 
distinct ridge. Nodes of the petiole longer than wide, the 1st 
joint longer and a little wider than the 2nd, having below and right 



138 Annals of the South African Museum. 

in front a very short tooth, directed obliquely backwards. Very 
smooth and shining, including the petiole. Metathorax and sides 
of mesothorax fairly shining and reticulate. Piligerous punctures 
distinct but scanty. The pilosity is fine, yellowish, rather short and 
sparse, and nearly everywhere oblique. Of a dirty yellow colour, 
hardly brownish ; head and thorax rusty yellow or yellowish red. 
Natal. (Wroughton.) " 

A. rotundatus, Mayr. (Plate IV., fig. 37.) 
Ann. K.K.N.H. Mus. Wien, vol. 16, p. 1, g , 1901. 
$ . 2-3-3 "8 mm. Eeddish ochre, the basal segment of the abdo 
men above in some specimens, a little paler. Smooth, very shining and 
with a few small punctures on the head, pronotum and abdomen ; 
mesonotum, epinotum and petiole shallowly and rather unevenly 
reticulate-punctate and dull, but with a slight gloss on the dorsal 
surfaces. Fine pubescent hairs absent, except on the flagellum. 
There is a long, yellowish and rather sparse pilosity on the petiole 
and abdomen, and also, but less regular and scantier, on the head, 
scape and thorax. Head, excluding the mandibles, very little 
longer than wide in the larger examples, and about one-sixth longer 
than wide in the smaller, as wide behind as in front, widest in the 
middle, convex above and at the sides, very feebly emarginate 
posteriorly. The frontal carinae are fused together posteriorly, 
anteriorly they curve round above the very short clypeus, so 
as to form a semicircular rim round the antennal sockets. The 
mandibles are elongate triangular, narrowed at the base, dull, finely 
punctate-striate except along the masticatory margin, which is 
smooth and shining, and furnished with about 8 or 9 small teeth, 
and a large sharp apical tooth. The scapes of the antennae reach 
back as far as the posterior four-fifths of the head ; lst-3rd joints of 
the flagellum longer than wide, 4th, 5th, and 6th as wide as long, 
7th a trifle wider than long, 8th longer than wide, apical joint two 
and a third times longer than wide. Pro- and mesonotum together 
rather convex longitudinally ; laterally the thorax is moderately 
compressed, dorsally depressed between the meso- and epinotum. 
The dorsum of the epinotum is widest in the middle, and one and 
three-quarter times as long as wide ; it slopes downwards from the 
middle to the declivity. The latter is vertical, very short, one-third 
the length of the dorsum, and feebly margined all round. The 1st 
joint of the petiole is one-quarter longer than wide, very convex 
above, but slightly so at the sides ; the 2nd joint, seen from above, 
is narrower in front than behind, and as wide posteriorly as it is long. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 139 

The ventral lamella of the 1st joint is produced anteriorly into an 
angular projection pointing downwards, the 2nd joint is produced 
below and anteriorly into a blunt projection directed forwards. The 
1st abdominal segment as long as, or a little longer than wide, and 
as long as the remaining segments taken together. Legs long, the 
1st joint of the hind tarsi as long as the tibia. 

Bulawayo. Port Elizabeth. (Brauns.) 

(S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 

A. steindachneei, Mayr. 
Ann. K.K.N.H. Mus. Wien, vol. 16, p. 2, $, 1901. 

"This species differs from rotundatus in the following particulars. 

£ . The sides of the epinotum and also of the metasternum plenti- 
fully clothed with a baekwardly directed pubescence, whereas in 
rotundatus the epinotum has no pubescence and the sides of the 
metasternum only a scattered pubescence.* The 3rd-7th joints of 
the flagellum not longer than wide. The mesonotum, the dorsum of 
the epinotum and the 2nd joint of the petiole, smooth and shining, 
with a few piligerous punctures. The epinotum like that of rotun- 
datus, but the boundary between the dorsum and the declivity is 
placed rather higher up, and the declivity is bounded by a raised 
margin only at the sides (in a larger £ before me, a curved raised 
margin above is distinctly present). 

Eeddersburg, Orange Free State. (Brauns.)" 

A. eugeniae, Emery. (Plate IV., fig. 38.) 

Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 48, g , 1895. 

$ . 3 "7-4 mm. Larger and much darker than rotundatus, and 
varying less in size than that species. The colour is a bright 
castaneous red, lighter on the abdomen. The legs are yellowish red, 
the sides of the thorax below, and the mandibles, brownish red. 
This species closely resembles rotundatus, differing from it only in 
the following characters. The pilosity is less abundant, but more 
regularly distributed and longer. The head is distinctly wider in 
front than behind. The masticatory margin of the mandible is 
smooth and edentate, or, in some specimens with traces of three 
minute teeth behind the apical tooth, which is blunter than in 
rotundatus. The antennae are rather longer, the scape almost 
reaching back to the occipital margin, and all the joints of the 
flagellum are distinctly longer than wide. The thorax is rather 

* The specimens of rotundatus in my collection, determined for me by Dr. 
Forel, have no pubescence on the metasternum, only a few long hairs. — G. A. 



140 Annals of the South African Museum. 

narrower, and less compressed between the meso- and epinotum. 
The latter is strongly reticulate-punctate, as are also the sides of the 
mesonotum, the whole of the 1st joint of the petiole, and the sides of 
the 2nd. The puncturation is decidedly larger and more distinct than 
in rotundatus. The posterior corners of the pronotum also show a 
slight puncturation. The dorsal surface of the 2nd joint of the 
petiole is nearly smooth and rather shining. The limits of the 
dorsum and the declivity of the epinotum are clearly defined, as the 
brow forms a sharp overhanging edge, so that the declivity also 
appears somewhat concave. The 1st node of the petiole is a little 
narrower, more parallel-sided and less convex above than in 
rotundatus. Legs longer and more slender, the 1st tarsal joint of 
the hind legs as long as the tibiae. 

Bothaville, Orange Free State. (Brauns.) Makapan. (Simon.) 
Bulawayo. 

This species was taken on one occasion near Bulawayo in large 
numbers, marching in single file and carrying larvae from under one 
large stone to another. Amongst these workers there was found a 
monstrosity. This specimen has but one joint to the petiole, which 
is fused on the whole of its anterior surface to the epinotum, which 
consequently shows no declivity, and is moreover very lop-sided. 

(S.A.M., B.M., G.A. colls.) 

A. maeiae, Emery. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 48, £ minor, 1895. 

£ . This species varies in size between wider limits than either 
rotundatus or eugeniae, varying from 2 to 3 mm. The smaller forms 
also differ from the larger in tbe shape of the head, so that it is 
hardly correct to say that the workers of this species are mono- 
morphic. In the g major the colour is reddish ochre, or similar 
to rotundatus, in the $ minor it is paler or straw-yellow, except- 
ing the anterior margin of the head and the margins of the man- 
dibles, which are dark. The pilosity is similar to that of the 
preceding forms, but scantier. In the £ minor the whole body 
is smooth and shining ; in the $ major the sides of the mesonotum, 
and the epinotum, excepting a small smooth area in the middle 
of the dorsum, are dull and very finely punctured. 

The head is nearly parallel-sided in the £ minor, moderately 
convex in the £ major ; it is a little longer than wide, and shallowly 
emarginate posteriorly. The mandibles are shining, fairly strongly 
punctured, with 4 small but distinct teeth on the masticatory margin 
and a strong apical tooth. The antennae are much shorter rela- 



A Monograph of the Formiciclae of South Africa. 141 

tively than in the other species ; the scape does not reach back 
beyond the middle point of the head ; the 1st and 2nd joints of the 
flagellum are a little longer than wide, the 3rd-8th joints wider than 
long. The thorax is relatively shorter and wider than in the other 
species, and is hardly contracted or depressed between the meso- 
and epinotum. The dorsum of epinotum is fairly distinctly delimited 
from the declivity in the $ major, but in the g minor the declivity 
has a rounded brow and merges gradually into the dorsum. The 
petiole is not notably different from that of rotundatus. The 1st 
segment of the abdomen is one- third longer than the remaining; 
segments taken together. The legs are shorter and stouter than 
in rotundatus or eugeniae. The 1st tarsal joint of the hind legs- 
only three-fifths the length of the tibia. 

Bulawayo ; not common. Makapan. (Simon.) 

(S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 

Var. natalensis, Eorel. 
In Emery, Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital., vol. 33, p. 49, g , 1901. 

" £ . 2-2 - 8 mm. Differs from the type by the colour of the head 
and thorax, which is brownish yellow and even rusty brown in the 
larger individuals. In the latter and $ media, the thorax is 
shallowly compressed, hardly so at all in the £ minima. Quite 
distinct from A. rixator by the triangular mandibles and the de- 
clivity of the epinotum, which is not marginate. The ventral lamella, 
of the 1st joint of the petiole is obtuse, thick, pointing downwards- 
and very distinct. The pilosity is longer. 

Natal. (Haviland.)" 

A. inconspicuus, Westwood. 
Trans. Ent. Soc. London, vol. 4, p. 237, $, 1847. 

" $ . This insect disagrees in one or two slight respects from Mr.. 
Shuckard's character of Aenictus, ... of these characters the most 
striking are the slightly opaque whitish wings, with the veins and 
stigma almost concolorous with the membrane of the wing ; the 
antennae gradually attenuated from the 4th or 5th joint, and the 
very clavate femora to all the legs. . . . Nigro cinereus, pubescens, 
antennis rufo-piceis, apicibus sensim acuminatis, articulo basalt 
nigro ; mandibulis longis, acutis, piceo-rufis basi nigris ; alls fere 
translucidis, venis stigmateque fere inconspicuis ; pedibus per- 
brcvibus, femoribus clavatis, pedunculo abdominis transverso, antice 
parum angustiori ; disco haud canaliculato . Long. corp. lin. 4 ;. 
expan. alar. lin. 6^. 

Habitat in Africa australe. Drege. (In Mus. W. W. Saunders.)" 



142 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Smith gives a rather clumsy illustration of this species in Cat. 
Hymen. Brit. Mus., vol. 7, plate 2, fig. 15a, which is of very little 
assistance in completing Westwood's very insufficient description. 
As far as one may judge by the description and the figure referred to, 
this insect bears a great resemblance to the species described below 
as tuberculatus, n. sp. I am inclined to suspect that the pale coloura- 
tion of the nervures and stigma is due to immaturity. 

J 

A. TUBERCULATUS, n. SD. 

V . L 

$ . 9 mm. Allied to buttgenbachi, Forel. Dark ochreous ; pro- 

notum except the margins, mesonotum except the portion border- 
ing the median and lateral sulci, scutellum except the extreme 
posterior portion, dark brown ; epinotum, petiole and abdominal 
segments above, especially the first two, -slightly browned; man- 
dibles and antennae ochreous ; head black. Scape, basal segments 
of flagellum, mandibles, front of the head, and the legs, with long 
pale pilose hairs, which are shortest on the head ; the rest of the body 
without pilosity, but covered with a close adpressed and yellowish 
pubescence. Head behind the eyes very smooth, shining and 
impunctate, the rest of the body closely punctured with small 
shallow punctures ; legs shining and sparsely punctured. Head 
two and a quarter times wider than long ; seen from above, it 
has the shape of a reversed triangle, with the eyes on each side 
of the base (which is straight), and the apex {i.e. the occipital region) 
broadly rounded. Front of the head below the eyes shallowly 
concave. The post-orbital dorsal surface is feebly convex, almost 
flat. The eyes are hemispherical, not large, less than half the 
length of the sides of the head. The ocelli are not raised, placed 
forwards just above the vertical face of the head ; the distance 
between the anterior ocellus and the line joining the posterior ocelli, 
less than its own diameter. Mandibles very long, as long as the 
distance between the inner margins of the eyes, narrowing towards 
the apex, which is acute ; a slight angle, hardly large enough to 
be called a tooth, separates the basal from the inner and concave 
margin. Scape half as long as the mandibles, two and a half times 
longer than its apical width ; flagellum thinning towards its apex, 
nearly four times longer than the scape, all the joints longer than 
wide. Pronotum very slightly exposed ; mesonotum rounded in 
front, somewhat flattened behind and above, in the middle, the 
parapsidal sutures and a median longitudinal sulcus well defined. 
The scutellum is very round posteriorly. Seen from the side, the 
face of the epinotum is vertical, slightly concave below. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 143 

The petiole is almost three times as wide as long ; the lateral 
margins are considerably raised, so that the dorsal surface of the 
petiole is strongly concave transversely ; it has also a median 
longitudinal impression. The sides of the petiole are moderately 
convex. The stipites are broadly truncate and rounded apically, 
their ventral margins are concave along the apical half ; the internal 
paramera are rounded at the apex, and at about one-third of their 
length from the apex there is on each side above a flattened and 
rather spatulate tubercle, directed outwards and slightly backwards ; 
below these, on the ventral margins of the paramera, and nearer the 
apex, there is a minute, acute triangular tooth on each side. The 
sub-genital plate is bifurcate, with the arms directed outwards at 
the apex and fimbriated for about half their length. The femora 
are round and thin at the base, strongly clavate apically. Wings 
clear, but slightly browned along the outer margins of the anterior 
pair, the nervures and stigma black ; the wings are long, extend- 
ing beyond the apex of the abdomen. 

The tubercles and teeth on the internal paramera are sufficiently 
distinctive of this species, which I am inclined to think will even- 
tually prove to be the $ of either eugeniae or rotunclatus, the only 
species which are common in the neighbourhood of Bulawayo. 

Habitat, Bulawayo. One specimen taken at light. In my collection . 

A. decolor, Mayr. 
Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, vol. 28, p. 668, £ , 1878. 
" Head smooth and without frontal sulcus. The very short declivity 
is separated from the dorsum of the epinotum by a sharp semicircular 
ridge. All the joints of the flagellum at least a little longer than 
wide. The mandibles longitudinally striate, smooth near the masti- 
catory margin. The sides of the meso- and metathorax longitudinally 
rugose. Eusty red ; antennae, abdomen, and legs yellow. Length 
33 mm." 

Sub-Family DOLICHODEKINAE. 

The members of this sub-family are only likely to be confused 
with those of the Camponotinae, from which they may be distin- 
guished by having the anal orifice transverse, and not circular. The 
petiole is 1-jointed, and the node, in all our South African species 
is small and much less conspicuous than in any of the Camponotinae. 
All our species are also very soft-bodied ants, the skeleton being but 
slightly chitinized. 



144 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Characters. 

$ . Monomorphic. Frontal area more or less distinct. Antennae 
12-jointed, 11-jointed in Semonius. Sting rudimentary, except in 
the Ceylonese genus Aneuretus. Middle and hind tibiae with one 
pectinate calcar, occasionally there is a small outer calcar. 

5 . Always winged ; like the worker except for the usual sexual 
differences. 

S . Clypeus prolonged backwards between the frontal carinae. 
Mandibles as in the £ , or short and narrow. Antennae 13-jointed, 
the scape is not longer than the second joint of the flagellum except 
in Tapinoma and Semonius. 

Nymphs never enclosed in cocoons. 

The classification of this sub-family, especially in the definition of 
the genera, is based largely on internal anatomical characters, such 
as the structure of the gizzard. As we have only three indigenous 
genera, including very few species, it has fortunately not been found 
necessary to burden the description of the genera with these difficult 
details, which can only be observed with the aid of fine dissections. 

All the workers of the Dolichoderinae possess anal glands which 
produce a secretion hardening on exposure to the air, and usually of 
an unpleasant odour. This secretion is used as a means of pro- 
tection, since its stickiness serves to clog the limbs of other insects 
which may attack these ants. 

All our species, with the exception of the introduced Iridomyrmex 
humilis, the "Argentine ant," are shy inconspicuous insects, 
forming only moderate-sized colonies. Iridomyrmex humilis, whose 
original home was probably in Brazil, is an ant which has recently 
spread through a large part of the globe. Its appearance in 
South Africa would appear to date from the time of the last Boer 
War, when it was probably introduced with forage. It is very 
common all over the Cape Peninsula, and in the neighbourhood 
of Gape Town it is not only a great pest in houses, but is also the- 
dominant species. Thus on the slopes of Table Mountain very few 
ants of other species are to be found below the 800-1,000 ft. level, in 
which area humilis is exceedingly plentiful ; above that level it is 
very rare, if not altogether absent, whereas other genera, e.g. 
Plagiolepis, Ocymyrmex, Tetramorium, are more commonly repre- 
sented. The astonishing paucity of species and genera at the lower 
levels of the mountain, and the absence of I. humilis in the higher 
is probably due to two causes, namely, the non-dolichoderine species 
cannot survive in competition with the Argentine ant, and the latter 
is unfavourably affected by the climatic conditions of the higher 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 145 

levels. How far the pest has spread in the South African Eegion I 
am not able io say, but the ant has been recorded as far east as 
Maseru in Basutoland. 

The sub-family is divided into 4 tribes, of which only one, 

Tapinomini, Emery, is represented in South Africa. 

v 
Key to the Genera of the Tribe Tapinomini, Emery. 

$ 5 and ? ? . 

(2). 1. Antennae 11-jointed Semonius, For el. 

(1). 2. Antennae 12-jointed. 

(4). 3. Scale of petiole distinct ; base of abdomen not slanting forwards, not over- 
hanging the petiole Iridomyrmex, Mayr (introduced genus). 

(3). 4. Scale of petiole rudimentary, base of abdomen slanting forwards and over- 
hanging the petiole more or less. 

(6). 5. Anal orifice apical; abdomen, when seen from above, with 5th segment 
visible Technomyrmex, Mayr. 

(5). 6. Anal orifice inferior, not apical ; 5th segment of abdomen not visible from 
above Tapinoma, Foerster. 

(2). 1. Anterior wings with 2 closed cubital cells . . . . Technomyrmex, Mayr. 

(1). 2. Anterior wings with 1 closed cubital cell. 

(4). 3. Scape not longer than the 2nd joint of the flagellum . . Iridomyrmex, Mayr. 

(3). 4. Scape much longer than the 2nd joint of the flagellum. 

(6). 5l. Scape as long as the first 3 or 4 joints of the flagellum taken together ; or if 

longer, then the head is wider than long Tapinoma, Foerster. 

(5). 6. Scape as long as the first 7 or 8 joints of the flagellum taken together ;. 

head not wider than long Semonius, ForeL. 

Genus IEIDOMYEMEX, Mayr. 
Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, vol. 12, p. 702, 1862. 

Characters. 

% . Monomorphic ; petiole with a distinct scale. 

$ . Considerably larger than the £ ; the radial cell of the- 
anterior wing is closed, 2 closed cubital cells and 1 discoidal cell. 

$ . Scape shorter than the 2nd joint of the flagellum. In our 
introduced species the mesonotum is very convex and prominent in 
front, completely hiding the pronotum ; the scutellum is also very- 
large and gibbous. (Plate IV., fig. 42.) 

I. humilis, Mayr. (Plate IV., figs. 41 and 42.) 
(Hypoclinca) Ann. Soc. Nat. Modena, vol. 3, p. 164, £ , 1868. Forel,. 
Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, vol. 58, p. 395, $, 1908. 
Newall, Journ. Econ. Entom., vol. 1, p. 28, ? , 1908. 

£ . 3-2-3-5 mm. Brown or blackish brown ; legs, antennae and 
mandibles paler. "Whole body covered with an exceedingly fine pale 

10 



146 Annals of the South African Museum. 

pubescence, which is longer on the abdomen. Impunctate, sub- 
nitidulous. Head somewhat triangular, much wider behind than in 
front, sides very convex, posterior angles strongly rounded, occipital 
margin feebly arcuate. Mandibles moderately long, triangular, the 
basal margin two-thirds as long as the masticatory, the latter with 
4 or 5 blunt teeth, and a large and sharp apical tooth. Clypeus 
feebly convex, the anterior margin slightly depressed and shallowly 
concave in the middle, posterior margin well defined. Frontal 
carinae short, flat and divergent behind. The scape reaches back 
beyond the occipital margin by one-fifth of its own length ; flagellum 
slightly thickened towards the apex, all the joints longer than wide, 
1st and 2nd joints sub-equal in length. Eyes large and flat, situated 
somewhat dorsally in the anterior half of the head. Pronotum 
narrower than the occipital margin of the head, moderately convex 
at the sides and above, and as long as wide. Pro-meso and meso- 
epinotal sutures well defined. Mesonotum longer than wide, and 
only a little more than half as wide as the pronotum, sloping 
towards the epinotum, from which it is separated by a wide and 
deep depression. Dorsum of epinotum distinctly convex trans- 
versely and longitudinally, about as long as wide, less than half 
as long as the mesonotum. The declivity is smooth and shining. 
The anterior face of the scale of the petiole is slightly convex, 
the posterior face flat and shining. The scale slants forwards 
and is widest in the middle, rounded above, and much wider 
than thick. Abdomen oval, all the segments wider than long. 
Legs slender. 

2 . 6 mm. Dark brown, abdomen almost black, legs, antennae 
and mandibles paler. Pubescence longer and denser than in the £ . 
Head, excluding the mandibles, a little longer than wide, narrower 
in front of the eyes than behind them, sides less convex than in the 
£ . Eyes large, occupying about one-third of the sides of the head ; 
ocelli small, situated near the occipital margin. Pronotum almost 
completely hidden above by the mesonotum ; the latter is very long, 
twice as long as wide, very convex in front, moderately so at the 
sides, and flattened posteriorly. The scutellum is about one-third 
the length of the mesonotum, widest anteriorly, and rounded 
posteriorly ; metanotum very short. The dorsum of the epinotum 
is twice as long as the metanotum, much wider than long, in- 
clined towards the declivity, which is nearly vertical, but not 
sharply defined. Seen from the side, the thoracic profile rises 
gradually in front towards the posterior margin of the scutellum, 
beyond which it sinks abruptly to the level of the metanotum. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 147 

The scale of the petiole is much wider than in the £ , and not 
so narrow above. Abdomen oblong. Wings slightly smoky, 
stigma and nervures dark brown. 

$ . 3-8-4-2 mm. Brown, antennae, mandibles and legs pale 
yellow, a transverse area between the mesonotum and scutellum 
dirty yellow. Pubescence as in the £ . The head is shaped like 
that of the 2 , but the posterior angles are less rounded. The eyes 
are very large, occupying more than half the sides of the head, their 
anterior margins being separated from the base of the mandibles by 
a distance equal to about half the length of the 1st joint of the 
flagellum. The mandibles are triangular, thin and very small. 
The antennae are short, filiform, not reaching back to the posterior 
third of the mesonotum ; the scape is flattened, and shorter than 
the distance separating the two posterior ocelli ; the 1st joint of the 
flagellum is a trifle more than half the length of the scape, the 
2nd joint is longest, and two and a third times as long as the 1st. 
All the joints longer than wide, diminishing in length successively 
towards the apical joint, which is a little longer than the preceding 
joint. Pronotum hidden by the mesonotum. The latter is very 
globose, convex transversely, and as long as wide. The Mayrian 
and parapsidal furrows but feebly indicated. The scutellum is 
raised considerably above the level of the mesonotum and epinotum, 
and is much more convex transversely than in the 2 . The dorsum 
of the epinotum is much longer than in the 2 , as long as the scutel- 
lum and as long as its apical width ; the declivity is vertical, with 
the brow distinctly rounded. The scale of the petiole is much wider 
than it is high, and more than twice as wide as long. Abdomen 
ovate, genitalia partially exserted. Legs long and slender. Wings 
as in the 2 • 

Capetown. Maseru, Basutoland ; (E. M. Sloley). (S.A.M., E.M., 
G.A. colls.) 

Genus TECHNOMYEMEX, Mayr. 

Ann. Mus. Stor. Nat. Genoa, vol. 2, p. 147, 1872. 

Characters. 

% . Anal orifice apical. 

2 . Not much larger than the $ . Anterior wings with 1 dis- 
coidal and 2 closed cubital cells. 

$ . Antennae filiform ; scape not longer than the first 2 joints 
of the flagellum. The cubital vein in the front wing is sometimes 
broken in the region of the 2nd cubital cell. Mesonotum not pro- 



148 Annals of the South African Museum. 

jecting above the pronotum. Petiole nodiform. Genital armature 
large. sj 

Key to the $ % of Technomyrmex. 

(4). 1. Species more or less yellowish. 

(3). 2. Clypeus with the anterior margin deeply excised in the middle. 

arnoldinus, Forel. 
(2). 3. Clypeus with the anterior margin only slightly excised. 

nigriventris, Santschi, race albinasu, Forel. 
(1). 4. Dark brown species albipes, Smith, race Foreli, Emery. 

T. aenoldinus, Forel. (Plate IV., figs. 39, 39a.) 
Deutsch. Ent. Zeit. Beiheft, p. 222, g , 1913. 

£ . 3-3-2 mm. Dirty brownish yellow, legs pale ochreous, apical 
abdominal segments, and sides of 1st and 2nd segments brown ; or 
thorax, legs and antennae yellowish brown, head pale brown, abdo- 
men wholly dark brown. Head, pronotum, and abdomen smooth 
and shining, mesonotum, dorsum of epinotum and mesopleura reticu- 
late and rather dull, declivity of epinotum shining and very finely 
transversely striate. Pubescence pale yellow, scanty on the body,, 
denser on the legs. The pilosity consists of dark, erect and bristly 
hairs, distributed in a peculiarly symmetrical manner as fol- 
lows : there are 2 such hairs on the posterior margin of the head,, 
the pronotum has a crescentic row of 6 hairs, parallel with its 
anterior margin, three on each side, the mesonotum has a pair on 
each side, and the margin of the declivity of the epinotum has. 
3 on each side and 1 in the centre. This arrangement of the pilosity 
is so distinctive in fresh specimens that it would alone serve to- 
distinguish the species from all our other Dolichoderinae. 

Head about one-quarter longer than wide, the sides moderately 
convex, the hind angles much rounded, the posterior margin straight- 
Eyes moderately convex, situated at about the middle of the sides 
of the head. Clypeus nearly flat, the anterior margin semicircularly 
and widely excised in the middle. Mandibles smooth, shining and 
sparsely punctured, the masticatory margin with about 7 small 
teeth anteriorly, and finely denticulated posteriorly. Scape of 
antenna reaches back a little beyond the occiput, 3rd-6th joints, 
of the flagellum as wide as long, the rest longer than wide. Pro- 
notum not so wide as the posterior margin of the head, quite one- 
third wider than long ; pro-mesonotal suture distinct ; mesonotum 
distinctly longer than wide, and as long as the pronotum. Meso- 
epinotal suture deep. The dorsum of the epinotum much wider 
than long, crescentic in outline when seen from above, and rising. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 149 

from the base towards its apical margin when seen from the side ; 
the declivity is very oblique, widest in its lower half, and two 
and a half times as long as the dorsum. Petiole long, without 
a scale, and completely hidden under the abdomen. The latter 
is oval, rather pointed at the apex, all the segments much wider 
than long. The darker variety differs only in colour from the 
type. 

Bulawayo, under stones, also in a hollow stem, in shady moist 
places. Durban ; (C. B. Cooper). 

(S.A.M., B.M., G.A. colls.) 



T. nigriventeis, Santschi, race albinasis, Forel. 

Santschi, in Forel, Schultze Forschungsreise Siid-Afr., footnote, 

p. 22, 1910. 

Type species. 

" $ . 2-2 - 8 mm. Pale testaceous yellow, the posterior region of 
the head, and often the shoulders and dorsum of the thorax more 
or less brownish, abdomen black. The hairs on the thorax are 
scanty, fairly short and yellow, they are longer and more abundant 
on the abdomen and around the mouth. The base of these hairs 
is often blackish. Pubescence fine, yellowish and moderately 
abundant all over, slightly lessening the shiningness of the abdomen. 
Head and thorax sub-opaque. The whole body microscopically 
reticulate-punctate. Mandibles smooth with a few piligerous 
punctures. Head a little longer than wide, slightly narrowed in 
front, the posterior angles rounded, the occipital margin feebly 
emarginate. The eyes are longer than one-fourth of the sides of 
the head, their anterior margins reaching the level of the antennal 
sockets. Clypeus with a wide but shallow median longitudinal 
groove which ends anteriorly in a distinct emargination. Man- 
dibles with about a dozen teeth, diminishing in size from the 
apical to the basal. The scape reaches beyond the occiput by 
about the length of the 1st joint of the flagellum, the median joints 
of the latter a little longer than wide. The meso-metanotum is 
rounded posteriorly in an even curve as far as the floor of the meso- 
epinotal suture ; the stigmata of the mesonotum do not project 
above its profile. The profile of the epinotum almost rectangular, 
with the dorsum about one-third the length of the declivity ; the 
latter flat and clearly margined. 

Brazzaville, French Congo." 



150 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Eace albinasis, Forel. 
Forel. loc. cit. p. 22, 1910. 

" $ . 1*7 mm. Smaller than the type species. Eyes a little 
smaller. Clypeus with the longitudinal groove hardly or not at 
all terminated by an emargination in front. As in the type, all 
the joints of the nagellum are at least a little longer than wide,. but 
the rather shorter scape projects backwards beyond the occipital 
margin by not more than its own thickness. Thorax noticeably 
shorter. Pronotum with more distinct anterior angles, one and 
a quarter to one and a third times wider than long. Mesonotum 
wider than long. The very short dorsum of the epinotum also wider 
than long (in the type species distinctly longer, and not wider than 
long). Declivity of epinotum only bluntly margined. At the sides 
below, the stigmata project out step-like (only slightly so in the type 
species). Legs a little shorter. The whole body shining and only 
very faintly reticulate, the thorax a little less shining. Pubescence 
scantier (it is fairly scanty in the type species). Pilosity equally 
distributed. Yellowish brown, thorax and 1st abdominal segment 
lighter, brownish yellow. Antennae, clypeus, mandibles and legs 
yellowish white. 

Table Mountain. (Schultze.) " 

T. albipes, Smith, race Fokeli, Emery. (Plate IV., fig. 40.) 

Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool., vol. 6, p. 38, g , (Tapinoma), 1861. 
Eace, Emery, Ann. Soc. Ent. Prance, vol. 62, p. 249, g , 1893. 
Eace, Forel, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 54, p. 446, 2 S , 1910. 

y . 2*2-2*5 mm. Dark brown, base and apex of the scape, the 
nagellum and the mandibles brownish yellow, legs pale yellow or 
with the tibiae and femora more or less brown. Head and thorax 
very finely reticulate-punctate, the puncturation is a little larger on 
the meso- and epinotum, abdomen microscopically rugulose. Whole 
body covered with a very fine and short whitish pubescence ; there 
are a few pilose hairs, less evenly distributed than in arnoldinus. 
The body sub-nitidulous, mandibles shining. Head a little longer 
than wide, wider behind than in front, sides convex, posterior margin 
shallowly arcuate. Clypeus with the anterior margin feebly 
emarginate in the middle. Mandibles with a few coarse punctures, 
the masticatory margin armed with numerous small teeth, the apical 
and sub-apical teeth the largest. The scape reaches back beyond the 
occipital margin by about the length of the 1st and 2nd joints of the 
nagellum ; 1st joint twice as long as the 2nd, the latter as wide as 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 151 

long, the rest longer than wide, apical joint as long as the two pre- 
ceding taken together. Frontal carinae rather wide apart and 
divergent posteriorly. Eyes comparatively large, situated in the 
front half of the head. Thorax very similar in shape to arnoldinus ; 
pronotum not so wide as the head, and not much wider than long, 
pro-mesonotal suture distinct. Mesonotum longer than wide, rising 
from in front towards the middle and thence sloping down to the 
meso-epinotal suture. Dorsum of epinotum about one-quarter to 
one-third the length of the declivity; the latter is widest below, 
rounded above, the lateral margins rounded but fairly distinct. 
Abdomen less convex transversely above than in arnoldinus, and 
less pointed towards the apex. Petiole oval, widest in the middle, 
and hidden by the abdomen which overhangs it. 

$ . 3 - 2 mm. The eyes occupy at least one-third of the sides of the 
head, ocelli small and set far back. Seen from above, the pronotum 
is almost hidden by the large mesonotum which is as wide as long, 
convex in front, flat or slightly concave in the middle behind ; the 
scutellum is about half as long as the mesonotum. The dorsum of 
the epinotum is almost obsolete, and the declivity less oblique than 
in the $ , and not so narrow above. Wings very pale, nervures 
almost colourless, stigma very faintly tinged with yellow. Other- 
wise resembling the $ , but the body is a little duller. 

3 . 3 mm. Colour of the $ , legs, antennae and mandibles 
yellowish, the femora darker except at the apex. Head much wider 
than long, and wider in front than behind, posterior margin slightly 
concave. The eyes large, occupying nearly the anterior half of the 
sides of the head ; ocelli larger than in the ? . Clypeus shorter than in 
the $ , more convex transversely, the anterior margin almost straight.. 
Mandibles large, coarsely punctured and shining, the masticatory 
margin distinctly dentate. The scape is not as long as the long 
diameter of the eyes, about as long as the 1st and 2nd joints of the 
flagellum together. Flagellum filiform, densely pubescent, 1st joint 
as wide as long, the rest longer than wide. The antennae extend 
back as far as the brow of the epinotum. The thorax is similar to 
that of the ? , but the mesonotum is a little wider, and the scutellum 
shorter and more prominent ; the parapsidal sutures well defined. 
The dorsum of the epinotum is longer and more convex transversely 
than in the ^ , and the slope of the declivity is less abrupt. The 
petiole is much rounder and wider above than in the $ or $ . The 
genital armature is very large, and more or less exserted. Wings as 
in the $ . 

Bulawayo ; common in moist places under stones, etc. Durban. 
(S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 



152 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Genus TAPINOMA, Forster. 
Hymen. Stud., vol, 1, p. 43, 1850. 

Characters. 

£ . Anterior margin of clypeus entire or excised, in some species 
with a deep median longitudinal groove. Mandibles multidentate. 
Petiole depressed, without a distinct scale ; basal segment of 
abdomen overhangs and more or less hides the petiole. Anal orifice 
usually inferior. 

? . Usually much larger than the $ ; anterior wirjgs with only 
1 closed cubital and 1 discoidal cell. 

$ . As a rule smaller than the £ . Mandibles generally well 
developed. Antennae filiform, scape long, usually as long as the 
first 3 joints of the flagellum taken together, 1st joint not much 
shorter than the 2nd. Pronotum not hidden by the mesonotum 
when seen from above. Petiole nodiform. Genital armature large. 
Wings as in the $ . 

Key to the $ $ of Tapinoma. 

(2). 1. Clypeus with a deep and abrupt median excision of the anterior margin, as 

deep as half the length of the clypeus 

Voeltzkowi, Forel, var. Rhodesiae, Forel. 
(1). 2. Clypeus with anterior margin shallowly emarginate. 

(4). 3. Dorsal profile of thorax almost horizontal gracilis, Forel. 

(3). 4. Dorsal profile of thorax distinctly convex. 

(6). 5. All the joints of the flagellum longer than wide, yellow species, 27-3 mm. 

luteiim, Emery. 
(5). 6. Second to 9th joints of the flagellum wider than long, brownish species, 

1"6 mm Amoldi, Forel. 

T. luteum, Emery. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 43, g , 1895. 
" $ . 2 mm. Pale flavous, dull, with very fine and pale pubescence, 
erect hairs only on the clypeus and mandibles. Head a little longer 
than wide ; clypeus widely emarginate in the middle. The scape 
extends beyond the occipital margin by about one-quarter of its own 
length ; declivity of epinotum more than twice as long as the 
dorsum. Makapan (Simon)." 

Pace Emeryi, Forel. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 54, p. 477, $ $ , 1910. 

£ . 27-3 mm. Flavous, posterior region of the head and posterior 

segments of the abdomen more or less brownish yellow. Sub-opaque, 

the sides of the thorax slightly shining, microscopically rugulose. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 153 

Pubescence whitish, very fine and short. Pilose hairs absent. 
Very similar to Technomyrmex albipes, but differing in the following 
structural characters. 

The head is proportionately wider, and is longer than wide ; the 
frontal carinae are shorter and less divergent posteriorly, the scape 
is relatively longer. The mesonotum is not highest in the middle as 
in albipes, but at its anterior margin, sloping thence in a gradual 
curve to the meso-epinotal suture. The dorsum of the epinotum is 
longer and narrower than in albipes, being longer than it is wide 
below, whereas in albipes it is quite as wide below as it is long. 
The petiole is shorter and narrower. The abdomen widens towards 
the apex. The eyes are also larger, and the clypeus only feebly 
sinuate in the middle of the anterior margin. 

? . 4*8 mm. (Hitherto undescribed.) Considerably larger than 
the $ . Head and abdomen dark brown, clypeus paler. Thorax 
brownish yellow, prothorax and tegulae a little darker, legs and 
antennae ochreous. Pubescence and puncturation as in the £ . 
Head as wide as long, posterior margin straight. Eyes situated in 
the anterior half of the head, and occupying about one-quarter of the 
sides of the same. Thorax nearly as wide as the head. Pronotum 
exposed, mesonotum slightly rounded at the sides and in front, flat 
above, as long as wide, 4 times as long as the pronotum. Scutellum 
wider than long. Epinotum very little narrower than the scutellum ; 
the dorsum is not sharply delimited from the declivity but merges 
into it gradually. The declivity is not so steep as in the $ . The 
abdomen is nearly as long as the head and thorax together. The 1st 
segment is nearly twice as long as the 2nd, and one-third wider than 
long. There are a few black erect hairs on the 3rd and 4th 
segments, and some paler ones on the clypeus. 

" $. 4-7 mm. Head and thorax rusty brown ; abdomen brown. 
Legs and mandibles yellowish. Otherwise like the £ . Wings 
slightly tinged with brown, with a single cubital and a single closed 
radial cell." 

The $ $ which I have taken here with the $ $ , do not attain to 
this size, being 3 mm. long. The scape is as long as the first 4 
joints of the flagellum, and extends back just a little beyond the 
occipital margin. The $ of this species is very similar to that of 
Technomyrmex albipes, but is smaller and differs in the following 
details. 

The head is longer than wide, the posterior angles more 
prominent. The antennae are longer, extending back as far as the 
base of the 2nd abdominal segment. The 1st joint of the flagellum 



154 Annals of the Sotith African Museum. 

is one-quarter longer than wide, all the other joints at least twice as 
long as wide. The mesonotum is much more convex and the 
scutellum posteriorly is also more convex and higher. The epinotum 
resembles that of the ? . The legs are long and slender. 

The $ of the race differs from the type species in its larger size, 
stronger and denser puncturation, slightly shorter scape and duller 
surface. 

Bulawayo ; common. (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 

T. Arnoldi, Forel. (Plate IV., fig. 44.) 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. 139, $ , 1913. 

£ . 1*6-1 '7 mm. Light brown, anterior portion of the head, 
scape, 1st joint of the flagellum, mandibles, tarsi, articulations of the 
legs and the petiole, yellowish. Moderately shining and almost 
impunctate. A very fine pubescence on the whole body and legs. 
Pilose hairs absent except on the clypeus. Head very little longer 
than wide, rectangular, sides feebly convex, angles rounded, posterior 
margin almost straight. Eyes situated within the anterior third of 
the sides of the head. Clypeus wider than long, shallowly but 
widely emarginate on the anterior border. Mandibles shining and 
feebly punctured, masticatory margin with a few small teeth, the 
apical tooth larger and more acute. The scape does not reach back 
as far as the occipital margin ; the flagellum is thickened towards 
the apex, the 1st joint as long as the 2nd, 3rd and 4th taken 
together, apical joint as long as the 3 preceding joints together, 
2nd-9th joints wider than long. Pro-meso, and meso-epinotal 
sutures moderately distinct. Pronotum wider than the rest of the 
thorax, and a little wider than long ; mesonotum almost as long as 
the pronotum ; dorsum of epinotum wider than long, only half as 
long as the mesonotum, the declivity oblique, longer than the 
dorsum, widest below, its brow rounded. Petiole longer than wide, 
flattened dorso-ventrally. Abdomen oval, all the segments much 
wider than long. 

$ . 2*7 mm. (Hitherto undescribed.) Dark brown, tarsi pale 
yellow, articulations of the legs, base of the scape, mandibles and 
anterior angles of the head brownish yellow. The sides and the 
posterior margin of the head are straight, the posterior angles 
rounded. Eyes large, ocelli small and set close to the posterior 
margin. Pronotum very short, mesonotum large and moderately 
convex, as wide as long and as long as the distance from the 
antennal sockets to the posterior margin of the head ; scutellum 
wider than long, two-fifths as long as the mesonotum ; epinotum 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 155 

wider than long, curving very gradually from base to apex so that the 
dorsal and declivous portions cannot be distinctly defined. Abdomen 
oblong, as long as the head and thorax together. Other characters 
as in the £ . 

3 . l - 7 mm. (Hitherto undescribed.) Brownish black, front of 
head, epinotum and last 3 segments more or less flavous, mandibles, 
tibiae and femora fuscous, tarsi pale yellow. Pubescence micro- 
scopic, the whole body shining and impunctate. Head narrowing 
towards the occiput, widest across the eyes, one-third wider than 
long ; eyes large, occupying nearly the anterior half of the sides of 
the head ; ocelli on a slightly raised area, not very large. Clypeus 
shorter than in the § , otherwise similar. Mandibles well developed, 
with a sharp apical tooth, the masticatory margin minutely 
denticulate., Scape just reaching the occiput, as long as the first 6 
joints of the flagellum, all the joints of the latter, except the 2nd, 
longer than wide, the 2nd as long as wide, the 1st joint half as long 
again as the 2nd. Pronotum not exposed ; mesonotum one-third 
wider than long, Mayrian furrows obsolete, parapsidal sutures well 
defined ; scutellum less than half as long as the mesonotum, and as 
wide as long. Epinotum widest at the base and as long as wide at 
the base. Abdomen ovate, all the segments much wider than long. 
Genital armature exserted. Wings slightly tinged with yellow, 
nervures very pale, stigma faintly fuscous. 

Bulawayo, in a hollow stem of an Acacia. Plumtree, S. Ehodesia, 
in a hollow gall. Small nests, containing about 30 individuals. 

Type of $» and $ in my collection. (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 

T. Voeltzkowi, Forel, var. Ehodesiae, Forel. (Plate IV., fig. 43.) 

Voeltzkow's Eeise Ost Afrika, vol. 2, p. 84, $ , 1907. (Variety) Ann. 
Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. 139, $ , 1913. 

£ . 2 - 5-3 mm. Black, clypeus, femora and scape brown, 
mandibles, flagellum brownish yellow, tibiae, tarsi, coxae and base and 
apex of femora pale straw-yellow. A very short and inconspicuous 
pale pubescence all over, and a few long pilose hairs on the clypeus 
and mandibles. Head shallowly but closely reticulate. Thorax 
shallowly reticulate-punctate, the puncturation being strongest on 
the mesonotum. Body slightly shining, the mesonotum and 
epinotum duller than the rest. Head a trifle longer than wide, the 
sides convex, the posterior margin moderately concave, the posterior 
angles strongly rounded. Eyes large, situated just in front of the 
middle of the sides of the head. Frontal carinae flat, linear and 



156 Annals of the South African Museum. 

sub-parallel. Clypeus with a deep and abrupt emargination in the 
middle anteriorly, which extends quite half the length of the clypeus, 
and is deeper than wide. Mandibles triangular, widest at the base, 
shining and sparsely punctured, masticatory margin with about 
8 acute teeth, the apical the longest. The scape reaches back 
beyond the occipital margin by less than the length of the eye. 
Flagellum one-third longer than the scape, all the joints longer than 
wide. The thoracic sutures well denned, the posterior rather deep. 
Pronotum wider than long, rounded in front, the sides very convex, 
the dorsum moderately so. Mesonotum longer than wide, as long 
as the pronotum. Dorsum of epinotum wider than long, rising 
gradually from the suture towards the brow of the declivity, the 
latter sloping obliquely, longer than the dorsum and with the brow 
angular. Petiole flattened, longer than wide, widest in front of the 
middle and pointed at its base. Abdomen ovate. This variety 
differs from the type only in having the head a little wider behind, 
in the less convex sides, and the slightly longer scapes. 

Bulawayo, nesting in grassy soil ; not common. 

(S.A.M., P.M., G.A. colls.) 

T. geacilis, Forel. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. 140, % , 1913. 
£ . 2 mm. Ochreous ; apex of abdomen, flagellum and 
posterior tibiae and femora brownish. Sub-opaque (Forel says 
" densely punctured " ; if so, the punctures are too small to be 
resolved even under a magnification of 65 diameters). Pubes- 
cence short, decumbent and yellowish. Pilose hairs absent. 
Head almost quadrate and rather flat, not more than one- sixth 
longer than wide, sides nearly straight, posterior margin straight, 
hind angles widely rounded. Eyes large, situated more dorsally 
than laterally, a little in front of the middle of the head. Clypeus 
three times as wide as long, anterior margin with a shallow median 
emargination. Frontal carinae closer to each other than they are 
to the eyes. Mandibles smooth, narrow, largely hidden under the 
clypeus, and with about 4 or 5 teeth. The scape extends back 
beyond the occipital margin by one-third of its length ; the 2nd 
joint of the flagellum two and a quarter times longer than wide, 
nearly as long as the 1st. Thorax narrow, elongate, with the dorsal 
profile nearly horizontal, therein differing markedly from our other 
two species. The pronotum is a little wider than long, mesonotum 
two-thirds as long as the pronotum. The dorsum and declivity of 
the epinotum of equal length ; the declivity is very oblique, sloping 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 157 

but slightly below the level of the dorsum, from which it is not 
clearly delimited. Petiole flattened as in the other species, but 
more parallel-sided. Legs very long. 

Matetsi, near the Victoria Falls. The nest of this species is 
placed in rather loose sandy soil. It is a very quick and erratic ant, 
and, owing to its colour, difficult to distinguish from the ground 
which it frequents. 

(G.A. coll.) 

Genus SEMONIUS, Forel. 

Schultze' Eeise im west, and zentral Siidafrika, Formicidae, p. 21, 

1910. 

Characters. 

$ . Clypeus entire. Antennae 11-jointed, ftagellum strongly 
incrassate, almost clavate. Anal orifice inferior. 

? . Much larger than the $ . Head very elongate, much longer 
than wide. Wings with 1 closed cubital and 1 radial cell. 

$ . Scape half as long as the flagellum. Mandibles well 
developed. Pronotum not exposed. Genital armature exserted. 
Smaller than the $ . "Wings as in the ? . 

S. Schultzei, Forel. (Plate IV., fig. 45.) 

Loc. cit. p. 21, £ . Santschi, Voy. d'Alluaud and Jeannel, p. 120, 

$, 1914. 

£ . 1*8-2 mm. Black or brownish, dull or only very slightly 
shining. Pubescence greyish, dense and microscopic ; a few pilose 
hairs on the clypeus. Microscopically and closely punctured. Head 
one-fifth longer than wide, the sides moderately convex, the hind 
angles strongly rounded, the posterior margin almost straight. The 
anterior margin of the clypeus is straight or nearly so. The frontal 
carinae rounded, very short, nearer to the eyes than they are to each 
other. Eyes moderately large, flat, situated in front of the middle. 
Mandibles smooth and shining, with a few small punctures, feebly 
dentate. The scape reaches back as far as the posterior fourth 
of the head; all the joints of the flagellum, except the 1st and last, 
wider than long, the last three joints form a slight club. Thorax 
shorter and much narrower than the head, distinctly convex longitu- 
dinally. Thoracic sutui'es distinct. Pronotum one-third wider than 
long, sloping steeply in its anterior half. Mesonotum wider in 
front than behind, one-third wider than long. The dorsum of the 
epinotum is as wide as the mesonotum, and is not clearly delimited 



158 Annals of the South African Museum. 

from the very oblique declivity ; the whole epinotum is a little longer 
than the mesonotum. Petiole flattened, acuminate at the base, 
widest below the middle. Abdomen ovate, overhanging the petiole. 
Legs short, all the femora rather broad. 

? . 3'5 mm. (Hitherto undescribed.) Black ; head and thorax 
very smooth and shining, very sparsely pubescent. The pubescence 
very fine and short, arising on the head from microscopic punctures ; 
thorax impunctate. Abdomen dull, and similar to that of the £ , but 
larger. Tibiae and femora shining. Head, excluding the mandibles, 
two and one-fifth as long as wide, parallel-sided, somewhat flat 
above, the posterior angles rounded, the posterior margin straight. 
Eyes moderately large, situated within the anterior third of the 
head ; ocelli small, set rather far back. Antennae 11-jointed ; the 
length of the scape is less than the width of the head, the flagellum 
about one-third longer than the scape. Clypeus convex in the 
middle, the anterior border feebly emarginate in the middle. 
Mandibles sparsely but rather strongly punctured, elongate, the 
external margin twice as long as the masticatory, which is furnished 
with numerous small teeth and a large apical tooth. Pronotum 
very convex transversely in front, and sloping steeply downwards 
towards the neck from the level of the pro-mesonotal suture. Meso- 
notum flattened, about as long as wide ; scutellum less than half as 
long as the mesonotum ; epinotum one and a half times wider than 
long, the brow of the very short and vertical declivity is polished 
and shining. Wings with a yellowish tint, nervures ochreous, 
1 closed cubital and 1 radial cell. 

This sex differs remarkably from the $ , particularly in the shape 
of the head, so much so that if it had not been taken with the $ $ 
and $ $■ in large numbers in the same nest it might reasonably have 
been ascribed to a different genus. 

$ . 2*1 mm. Black ; mandibles, antennae, and legs brownish. 
Shining and impunctate, the pubescence very short and sparse. 
Head as long as wide between the eyes, where it is widest ; dis- 
tinctly narrowed in front of the eyes and contracting towards the 
hind margin. Mandibles about half as long as the head, similar 
to those of the ? . The scape does not reach the occipital margin, 
it is half as long as the flagellum. Eyes large, situated just within 
the anterior half of the head, occupying about one-quarter of the 
sides. Ocelli small, hardly raised. There is a short median longi- 
tudinal impression between the posterior margin of the clypeus and 
the anterior ocellus. Clypeus rounded and raised in the middle, the 
anterior margin feebly convex. Seen from above, the pronotum is 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 159 

entirely hidden by the mesonotum. The latter is similar to that 
of the 2 , but less flattened and with the parapsidal sutures more 
distinct. The scutellum is narrower and more convex posteriorly, 
and raised higher above the level of the epinotum. The latter is 
very smooth and shining, the dorsum wider than long, and merging 
gradually into the declivity. Genital armature exserted. Wings 
as in the ? . 

The above description differs in some respects from that given by 
Santschi, which was drawn up from a single specimen in a damaged 
condition. There can be no doubt as to the correct identity 
of the numerous specimens of $ $ on which the above descrip- 
tion is based, since they were taken in the same nest with the $ 
and ? . 

S. Rhodesia ; fairly common. Kalahari. (Schultze.) Durban. 
(Marley.) 

This is a timid and quick ant, living on trees and nesting under 
the bark. When disturbed, it emits from the anal glands a white 
sticky fluid, which hardens on exposure to the air. 

(S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 



1 a n a U S.Jfric Mus.Vol.XIV. 



PL J 




I I < rapaclrys !'<• ri ■■ o u<- vi Emej'y. y X 16. 5 StreblogTiathus aethiopicus Smith. ^ X2. 

19 do node .".- I st at>dom. segment. ' 6 Paltotiryreus tarsatus JF. x 3 W. 

1! Probolomyrmex .filiformis Maur. H x 16. 7 Megaponera foetens F'^xi 

- a .1.. anterior region <>f head. 8&8 a do - c?X3 & head X 8. 

■"> Hah tlivri'.-! Lamellosa Roger KX4(racei*hodesiana.Z52re&j9 il.llla^rnsiai Havilandi. Ford. ^ X 4. 

4 Platvihyrea cribrinodis Gerst, S X 4. 10 Paltotlryreus tarsatus.-F c? X *. 



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ANNALS 



SOUTH AFRICAN MUSEU 



VOLUME XIV. 




PART IT. containing :- 



1. — A Monograph of the Formic idae of South Africa (Ponerinae; 
Dorylinae). By Geobge Arnold, M.Sc, A.U.C.S., F.E.S., 
Curator of the Rhodesia Museum, Bulaivayo, pp. 159-270. 
(Plates II-IV.) 




ISSUED MA Y 20th, 1916. 



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3 SEP 121916 V 

A Monograph of the Formiciclae of South Africa. ^^oPnsil MliS e 

entirely hidden by the mesonotum. The latter is similar to that 
of the ? , but less flattened and with the parapsidal sutures more 
distinct. The scutellum is narrower and more convex posteriorly, 
and raised higher above the level of the epinotum. The latter is 
very smooth and shining, the dorsum wider than long, and merging 
gradually into the declivity. Genital armature exserted. Wings as 
in the ? . 

The above description differs in some respects from that given by 
Santschi, which was drawn up from a single specimen in a damaged 
condition. There can be no doubt as to the correct identity of the 
numerous specimens of $ $ on which the above description is based, 
since they were taken in the same nest with the $ and $ . 

S. Rhodesia ; fairly common. Kalahari. (Schultze.) Durban. 
(Marley.) 

This is a timid and quick ant, living on trees and nesting under 
the bark. When disturbed, it emits from the anal glands a white 
sticky fluid, which hardens on exposure to the air. 

(S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 



Tribe PROCERATIINL* 

Genus DISCOTHYREA, Roger. 

Berl. Ent. Zeitschr., vol. 7, p. 176, 1863. Emery, Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Belg., vol. 45, p. 51, 1901. 

Characters. 

$ . Antennae 9-jointed, the scape strongly incrassate apically, the 
flagellum clavate, the last joint nearly as long as the remaining joints 
taken together. Mandibles edentate. Clypeus fused with the frontal 
carinae and the cheeks, forming a semi-circular disc in front of the 
antennae and projecting over the mandibles. On this disc, the frontal 
carinae are fused together, to form a single lamella at the level of the 
antennal sockets, but more or less free behind that point. Eyes small 
or very small. Thoracic sutures absent. The declivity of the epinotum 
marginate and excavated. Petiole bell-shaped or thickly squamiform ; 
1st segment of abdomen not very large, separated from the 2nd by a 
feeble constriction. Abdomen anteflexed, the apical segments curved 
downwards and forwards under the 2nd segment as in Proceratium. 

$ . Winged. Eyes and ocelli well developed. Pronotum exposed 
above only at the sides. Otherwise like the § . 

* Page 33. 
11 



160 Annals of the South African Museum. 

$ . Antennae 13-jointed. Clypeus, frontal carinae, mandibles, 
petiole, and abdomen more or less like those of the $ . Mavrian 
furrows present. Subgenital plate rounded. Wings with one closed 
cubital cell; no discoidal cell. 

Nymphs without cocoons in D. ocidata, Emery. 

Distribution. North America and the tropical regions of both 
hemispheres. 

This genus can be distinguished from Sysphincta and Probolomyrmex, 
and also from the new genus described further on, by the 9-jointed 
antennae. 



D. Hewitti, n. sp. 

? . 2 '2 mm. Reddish ochreous, the occipital margin of the head, 
the thorax and petiole darker or more brownish red. Dull, micro- 
scopically coriaceous-punctate ; 2nd abdominal segment slightly shining 
and fairly smooth. Clothed with a fairly dense but exceedingly fine 
and short pubescence. Head very convex in its posterior half, one- 
fifth longer than wide, wider behind than in front, the sides feebly 
convex, the posterior margin straight or slightly concave. Clypeus of 
the shape usual to the genus, being produced in front into a horizontal 
shelf, hiding the mandibles, the anterior margin convex. Frontal 
carinae fused into a single triangular plate, the front edge of which is 
perpendicular to the plane of the clypeus and feebly convex, the dorsal 
edge (when seen from the side) straight and horizontal, not extending 
beyond the anterior fifth of the head. Mandibles triangular, with 
a sharp tooth at the apex. Eyes large, convex, placed a little in front 
of the middle of the sides ; ocelli small, placed at the angles of an 
equilateral triangle. Antennae 9-jointed, the scape strongly dilated 
apically, its apical width being nearly one-third of its length. First 
joint of flagellum as long as wide, 2nd — 6th joints much wider than 
long, the apical joint ovoid, pointed, twice as long as wide, longer than 
the rest of the flagellum. Pronotum widely exposed above at the 
sides, very little in the middle, the anterior angles rounded, the sides 
parallel. Mesonotum moderately convex above, longer than wide, the 
scutellum convex behind. Dorsum of epinotum very short, almost 
parallel-sided, or only very slightly narrowed towards the apex, the 
apical margin or brow of the declivity blackish, nearly straight, the 
lateral corners rectangular but not dentate ; the declivity vertical, 
submarginate. Petiole nodiform, transverse, twice as wide as long, 
feebly convex above, sharply truncate in front, the anterior face 
vertical ; the ventral lamella produced in front into an oblong and 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 161 

rectangular lobe, which is longer than deep. First segment of abdo- 
men campaniform, as long as wide at the apical margin, where it is 
widest ; 2nd segment a little longer than the 1st, the remaining 
segments entirely hidden under the 2nd and reflexed underneath it, so 
that the apex of the abdomen is directed forwards. Deflated. 

Grahamstown (Hewitt), 2 specimens. Type in the Albany Museum, 
Grahamstown. 

Very closely allied to Traegaordhi, but in the absence of the $ sex, 
it is not advisable to unite it with that species, from which it differs 
by the shorter plate of the frontal carinae and by the narrower petiole. 

Amongst some ants recently sent to me for determination by the 
South African Museum, there was a specimen of a Proceratiine 
ant mounted on the same card with some Monomorium sp. — ?, and 
taken at Kimberley by Brother Power. For the reception of this 
peculiar insect, which combines in itself some of the chai'acters of all 
the other genera of the tribe, it will be necessary to erect a new genus, 
as follows. 



Genus PSEUDOSYSPHINCTA, g.n. 

Characters. 

$ . Antennae 12-jointed, the scape strongly incrassate apically, 
more than half as long as theflagellum ; 1st joint of fiagellum as long 
as wide, the apical joint very large, acuminate ovate, as long as the 
rest of the fiagellum, all the other joints at least three times wider 
than long, 2nd and 3rd joints almost fused. Crypeus produced for<- 
wards into a horizontal lamella with a convex anterior margin, pro- 
jecting over the mandibles, which are almost entirely hidden under it, 
as in Biscothyrea. Eyes present, not very small. Mandibles tri- 
angular, the masticatory margin concave. Thorax narrowed posteriorly ; 
seen from above it forms an elongate triangle, the truncate apex of 
which is at the brow of the declivity. It is not so elongate as in 
Probolomyrmex, being somewhat intermediate between that and 
Sysphincta. Promesonotal suture faintly indicated, the meso-epinotal 
absent. Petiole nodiform, articulating only over its lower half with 
the 1st abdominal segment. Abdomen as in Discothyrea and Sys- 
phincta, the apical segments being hidden under the 2nd, and ante- 
flexed. Middle and hind tibiae with one calcar. 
Type of genus P. Poweri, described below. 



162 



Annals of the South African Museum. 



P. Poweei, n. sp. (See Text-figures 9, 9a.) 

$ , 2. 1 mm. Yellowish rusty red, the legs and antennae paler, 
more ochreous. Microscopically coriaceous, the 1st abdominal segment 
also faintly and transversely rugulose. Dull, the 2nd abdominal 
segment with a slight gloss. Head as long as wide, very convex above, 
hardly narrowed in front, the sides feebly convex, the posterior margin 
straight. The single lamella formed by the fused frontal carinae is 
short, not passing the anterior fifth of the head. Eyes flat, composed 




/oa 



Figs. 9, 9a. Figs. 10, 10a. 



of several ill-defined facets (9 ?), and situated at the anterior third of 
the head. Scape extending to the middle of the head. Anterior 
margin of clypeus convex. Pronotum produced in front into a distinct 
neck, the anterior angles rounded ; the pronotum has a short and steep 
face in front, which is rounded above at its junction with the surface 
of the dorsum. Thorax nearly twice as long as it is wide across the 
pronotal angles, where it is widest ; the dorsal profile forms a very 
low curve, sloping towards the declivity. The latter nearly vertical, 
fairly sharply delimited from the dorsum, faintly submargined. Epi- 
notal angles rounded. Petiole a little wider behind than in front, a 
little wider than long, the anterior angles rounded, the anterior face 
straight ; the ventral lamella with a broad tooth near its base, pointing 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 163 

downwards and slightly forwards. First abdominal segment about as 
long as wide, decidedly longer than the 2nd ; the constriction 
between them moderate. Legs fairly long. Other characters as for 
genus. 

Kimbei*ley. (Power.) Type in my coll. 

Tribe PONERINL* 

Genus GLYPHOPONE, Forel. 

Eev. Zool. Afric, vol. 2, p. 308, 1913. 

V 

' Sub-Genus LEPTOPONE, s-g. n. 

Characters. 

$ . Mandibles triangular, with 6 strong teeth. Clypeus with the 
median ai-ea moderately raised, convex, and slightly produced in front 
(nothing like so much as in Paltothyreus), the lateral margins of the 
median area tumid, hardly carinate, the space between almost flat or 
only very shallowly concave, not deeply excavated as in Glyphopone, 
s. str. The clypeus is produced backwards between the frontal carinae, 
and is confluent with the frontal sulcus, which extends almost to the 
anterior ocellus. Antennae 12-jointed, the scape widening towards 
the apex, strongly compressed or flattened along its whole length. 
Abdomen elongate, as long as the head and thorax. Wings with 2 
closed cubital cells, 2 discoidal and 1 submedian (in the type of the 
genus there are 3 cubital, 2 discoidal and 2 submedian, one of the 
latter very small). Tibiae and metatarsi of middle pair of legs, and 
the metatarsi of the hind pair of legs furnished with rows of spines. 
All the femora compressed laterally, the anterior femora strongly so. 
Middle and hind tibiae with two strong calcaria, the inner pectinate. 
Claws simple. 

Type of sub-genus, L. rufigaster, described below. 

G. (Sub-Genus Leptopone) rufigaster, sp. n. (See Text-figs. 

10, 10a.) 

$ . 14 mm. Head black, slightly castaneous on the clypeus ; thorax 
black, petiole dark reddish brown, abdomen castaneous red. Legs, 
scapes, and mandibles castaneous, the mai'gins of the latter blackish, 
nagellum dark brownish red, the apical joint paler. Smooth and very 
shining. Exceedingly .sparsely and finely punctured, the piligerous 

* Page 36. 



164 Annals of the South African Museum. 

punctures larger than the others ; the extreme anterior margin of the 
mesonotum finely and rather closely punctured. Pilosity very sparse, 
consisting of stout, suberect, yellowish hairs, fairly long on the pro- 
notum and abdomen, shorter elsewhere. A very scanty pubescence 
on the legs and antennae. Head, excluding the mandibles, as long as 
wide behind, wider behind than in front, posterior margin very 
shallowly concave, the angles rounded. Eyes large, not very convex, 
placed in the middle of the sides, ocelli present. An oblique and 
shallow groove or elongate fovea lies on the inner border of each 
frontal carinae, along the posterior half. First joint of flagellum as 
long as wide, 2nd — 9th joints wider than long, 10th about as long as 
wide, the apical joint twice as long as wide, as long as the 9th and 
10th together. Pronotum widely exposed above, convex transversely 
and lengthwise ; mesonotum moderately convex, the parapsidal sutures 
feeble. Scutellum trapezoid, its postei'ior margin convex, sloping 
downwards posteriorly and hardly raised above the level of the meta- 
notum; the latter rather long, quite one-quarter the length of the 
scutellum. Epinotum sloping from its base downwards, merging into 
the declivity by a deep curve, wider than long, shorter than the 
declivity, the latter convex transversely and vertical. Petiole twice as 
wide as long, wider above than below, the dorsal surface moderately 
convex transversely and lengthwise ; the anterior face vertical, concave 
dorso-ventrally and convex transversely ; posterior face very steep 
or almost vertical ; ventral lamella produced into a large triangular 
tooth. Base of abdomen subtruncate, slanting a little forwards (as 
also the petiole) . Abdomen elongate, cylindrical, parallel- sided, two 
and four-fifths longer than wide, the constriction between the 1st and 
2nd segments feeble. Wings dirty yellowish, nervures dark brown, 
stigma black. Other characters as for the sub- genus. 

Victoria Falls. Type in my collection. 

I retain this species under the genus Glyphopone, since it appears 
to me that its points of resemblance with that genus (metatarsal and 
tibial spines, the polished integument, and structure of the node) are 
of greater value than the points of difference. 

Sub-Family MYRMICINAE, Mayr. 

Yer. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, vol. 5, p. 299, 1855. 

Characters. 

Petiole 2-jointed in all the sexes ; very rarely (Melissotarsus) the 

2nd joint is nearly as wide as the 1st abdominal segment. Pupae not 

enclosed in cocoons. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 165 

^ . The frontal carinae are nearly always separated, rarely close 
together, divergent or slightly convergent behind and rarely lobed 
anteriorly. 

$ . Usually winged ; not often ergatoid, generally larger than the £ . 

<$ . Anal segment with cerci ; armature usually partly exserted. 
In a few species ergatoid and apterous. 

This sub-family is the largest of the five, comprising for South 
Africa alone nearly 300 species, races, and varieties. Its classifica- 
tion is attended with considerable difficulty, not only in the higher 
ranks, but also often within the limits of the genera. If in some 
genera, e. g. Monomorium, Cremastogaster, we make a visual examina- 
tion of a series of forms which have been described as distinct, it may 
not be difficult to perceive the individuality of each form or of each 
of the links, sometimes very numerous, which connect up the extremes 
of one or more species. That which enables us to appreciate the 
distinctive character in such a case, is the sum total produced by a 
combination of characters, often very slight, in the colour, punctura- 
tion, gloss, and size of the insect. But although more or less readily 
perceptible to the eye, the specific distinction of each form is far less 
easily defined in words by the very reason of its composite nature. 
This statement applies more particularly to the construction of 
analytical keys having the succinct character which such aids to 
rapid determination should possess. It is therefore essential that the 
student should give careful attention to the remarks made on the 
general structural features in the introductory paragraph to each 
genus, since the characters used in the key are considered in direct 
relation to the general morphology exhibited by the genus or by the 
majority of its members. 

A far greater range of variation in habits and structure is shown in 
this sub-family than in any of the others. The majority of the 
species are mainly carnivorous, but there are some genera which are 
graminivorous. Nearly all have a partiality for sugary substances, 
and many tend aphides for the sake of the honey-dew excreted by 
those insects. The tribe Attini of the New World is perhaps one of 
the most remarkable of all, since it comprises the " leaf -cutting " or 
" fungus -growing " ants, species which feed exclusively on fungi 
cultivated in their nests. It is also to be noted that a very large 
number of myrmecophilous insects are found in the nests of Myrmi- 
cine ants. 

I have endeavoured to give with the descriptions of the species 
those facts concerning their habits which have so far been ascertained, 
but it must be admitted that such are painfully meagre, when not 



166 Annals of the South African Museum. 

altogether absent. There is, therefore, in this sub-family, as, indeed, 
is the case with the whole family, a large and magnificent field for 
patient work and observation, whereby a rich harvest may be reaped 
by naturalists in South Africa. The use of monographs should not 
be merely to aid the collector to identify the specimens in his cabinet, 
but more especially to enable the field-naturalist to study the living 
animal, and to assign his observations correctly to those species on 
which they are made, so that such data may be definitely recorded for 
reference and study by others. 

The scheme of classification herewith adopted for the tribes is that 
which has recently been proposed by Prof. C. Emery, in a paper 
entitled " Intorno alia classificazione dei Myrmicinae " (Eendiconto d. 
Sess. E. Acad. d. Scienze d. Inst. Bologna, January, 1914), and the 
following key has been adapted for the tribes found in South Africa, 
from the key published by him in those pages. Owing to the fact 
that this work is being published from time to time in parts, and to 
the lengthy study required by the tribe Pheidolini, I have not found 
it practicable to treat of the tribes in the order in which they appear 
in this key. This is, I believe, not a point of much importance, since 
in the present state of our knowledge it is not possible to make any 
definite assertions as to the phylogenetic relationship of one tribe to 
another. 

Key to the Tribes of Myrmicinae found in South Africa. 

Section I. PROMYRMICINAE, Emery. 

Clypeus not prolonged baclcivards between the frontal carinae, its posterior 
margin rounded; inner calcaria of middle and hind tibiae pectinij "orm ; ocelli 
almost alivays present in the £ . 

Antennae 12- jointed in the £ and $ , 13-jointed in the $ , anterior wings with 
two closed cubital cells .... Pseudomyrmini, Forel. 

Section II. ETTMYRMICLNAE, Emery. 
Clypeus almost always prolonged backwards between the frontal carinae; if not, 
then the calcaria of the middle and hind tibiae are simple or absent ; in the 
ordinary $ the ocelli are not developed, in strongly dimorphic species they may be 
more or less visible in the £ major or %. 

A. All the calcaria peetiniform (not South African). 

Myrmicini, F. Smith, Emery emend. 
AA. Calcaria of the middle and hind tibiee simple or absent. 

B. Anterior wings with two closed cubital cells (except in some extra- 
South African genera) ; antennae 12-jointed in the £ and $ , 13-jointed 
in the $ (except in a small number of Pheidole and extra-South African 
genera) ...... Pheidolini, Emery. 



J Monograph of the Formiciclae of South Africa. 167 

BB. Anterior wings with one closed cubital cell. 

C. Head not cordiform in the $ and ? . 

D. Frontal carinae close together ; thorax unarmed, without sutures or 
dorsal impressions in the £ Melissotarsini, Emery. 

DD. Frontal carinae more or less distant. 

E. Antennae 7-jointed, without a distinct club in the § and ? ; 13-jointed 
in the $ . Epinotum armed, abdomen cordiform in the $ . 

JHyrmicarini, Forel. 
EE. Antennae with more than 7 joints in the § an d ? . 

F. Antennal fossa delimited oh the inner side only by the frontal carinae ; 
antennae generally 12- or 13-jointed in the <? . 

G. Anterior wings with the radial cell largely incomplete ; the cubital 
joins the radial, but does not go beyond it ; the brachial unites with 
the medial ; $ generally apterous . . Cardioconclylini, Emery. 

GG. Anterior wings with the radial cell variable ; the cubital unites with 
the radial by a veinlet ; the cubital more or less long (Solenopsis type) ; 
in some genera and groups (a large number of Cremastogaster and 
Monomorium and some smaller genera allied to them) the cubital vein 
shortens so much as to disappear (Formica type). 
H. The 2nd joint of the petiole articulates with the upper surface of the 
abdomen ...... Cremastogastrini, Forel. 

HH, The 2nd joint of the petiole articulates with the basal apex of the 
abdomen. 

a. Characters negative, genera which cannot be placed within any of the 
others ; radial cell generally closed. Mayrian furrows generally distinct 
in the $ . - . . . . Myrmecinini, Ashmead. 

b. Thorax of the £ usually short ; promesonotum large ; epinotum with 
the dorsixm very short or obsolete, the spines situated very low ; in 
Meranoplus the mesonotum projects beyond the epinotum. Antennae 
9 to 12-jointed in the § and $ , and usually more or less retractile into 
a scrobe. Mayrian furrows well defined in the S, which has the 
antennae 13-jointed ..... Meranoplini, Emery. 

c. Antennae 11 to 12-jointed in the £ and $ , more rarely 7 to 10, usually 
with a 2 or 3-jointed club ; antennae in the $ 12 or 13-jointed, rarely 11 ; 
anterior wings with the radial cell always open. Mayrian furrows 
indistinct in the $ (except Monomorium) . . Solenopsidini, Forel. 

d. Antennae in the $ and ? 9 to 11-jointed, with a club usually of 2 
joints ; wings with radial cell always closed and with a large discoidal. 
Mayrian furrows absent .... Pheidologetini, Emery. 

GGG. Cubital vein of the anterior wing united with the radial, or is connected 
with it by a very short veinlet (Formica type). 

e. Antennae in the £ and $ 12-jointed, without a club; 1st joint of the 
petiole elongate, abdomen small and pyriform, thorax unarmed, without 
sutures or clear impressions on the dorsum. Antennae 13-jointed in the 
S , the scape very short ; anterior wings with the radial cell closed. 

Ocymyrmicini, Emery. 

f. Antennae in the $ and $ 11 or 12-jointed, club of 2 or 3 joints ; antennae 
in the c? of more than 10 joints ; epinotum generally armed. 

Leptothoracini, Emery. 



168 Annals of the South African Museum. 

g. Antennae in the $ and ? with 10 to 12 joints ; clypeus with a trans- 
verse and high carina on the posterior margin, separating the clypeus 
from the antennal fossa ; antennae in the $ 10-jointed, 4 joints having 
been fused into one long joint . . . Tetramoriini, Emery. 

FF. Antennal fossa delimited on the inner side by a carina which passes 
below the eyes and does not correspond (at least in its posterior portion) 
to the frontal carina ; antennae 11-jointed in all the sexes. 

Cataulacini, Emery. 

£*. • €Wk Head cordiform, excavated behind and much narrowed in front ; 

antennae in the £ and <j> with from 4 to 12 joints, in the $ with 13 

joints ; radial cell open ..... Dacetini, Forel. 

In the following key, the order in which the genera are placed is no 
indication of their natural affinities, the latter being treated of under 
the headings of the tribes. The <$ <$ and ? ? being insufficiently 
known, no key for the identification of those sexes can be constructed 
which would be of any practical value. The reader should be re- 
minded that, as in the case of the three preceding sub-families, the 
petiole is treated of as a distinct region, in the Myrmicinae composed 
of 2 joints, and that the abdominal segment which articulates with 
the 2nd joint of the petiole is referred to as the 1st abdominal 
segment. The 1st joint of the petiole usually consists of an anterior 
stalk or peduncle, articulating in front to the epinotum, and bearing 
behind a sAvollen portion, the node. The 2nd joint (2nd node) is 
rarely, if ever, pedunculate in front, but it may be more or less 
narrowed in its posterior half. The structure of the petiole is of 
considerable diagnostic value, and in order to avoid frequent repetition 
the following remarks on the shape of the organ should be carefully 
noted. 

In the ^ , the relative proportions of the node and the peduncle of 
the 1st joint are very variable. The node may be so large as to 
render the peduncular portion almost obsolete, as in Meranoplus, 
Sima, and Cataulacus ; or the node may be of such a shape that no 
definite line of demarcation can be drawn between a nodal and a 
peduncular region, Leptothorax, many species of Pheidole. 

The shape of the node is very diverse. It is usually more or less 
wedge-shaped, or a combination of a wedge and a cone, or it may be 
more or less cuboid. When the faces of the wedge are approximated 
and the sides also compressed, it merges into a more or less squamiform 
node, as in Tetramorium squaminode. On the other hand, when the 
faces of the wedge are very oblique, we have a tectiform node, as in 
Cataulacus. Again, if the faces and sides of a wedge are rounded, a 
more or less conical shape is produced. Such a shape, with the apex 
very considerably rounded, is one of the commonest, and when much 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 



169 



rounded above and flattened, passes into the hemispherical. When 
the apex of the node is directed moi'e forwards than upwards, the 





S/rn^a. t£_ 



tf Theidofa £pecu}/fer<x.. cf 
wecfoe ■ sf?&p>seC noae 



1S 



»J7 18 . o 








dorsal v/cvy torero./ r/fvtf 

CdLJaLU.la.CU.S i£_ 
tsc£/form no<s/e- 



c/orsal y/zw. 



a fa rojci/yt*/? /'??>/ '/s of /fie /lode , sAa. deot . , 

a. ■ a-p*.*. af. a-Ttcvr/o r A&sa 

Figs. 11-18. 



pf- poster/ b r/tice o/ 

/Stjo/n£~Ur/M/rt/c/rou?///7t 



posterior face acquires a more or less dorsal position (= posterior- 
dorsal face) ; this is frequently the case in the $ and $ , even when 
the apex is directed upwards in the £ (Monomorium, Pheidole, and 
others). In the <$ , the node is commonly less distinct than in the $ 
or ? (see Figs. 11 and 13). In measurements of the node, the length 



170 Annals of the South African Museum. 

is taken along its ventral surface, where it is longest ; however it is 
difficult at times to decide where the node ends and where the peduncle 
begins. In these cases, the relative proportions of the two parts can 
only be considered approximate. 

In Cremastogaster, there is no node in the strict sense of the term, 
since the first joint of the petiole has the form of a very oblique 
squame, the two faces of which are placed more or less dorsal and 
ventral respectively, united to the epinotum by a very short and 
narrow articular portion. 

In Myrmicaria $ , the node, which is more or less subconic, is very 
sharply defined; it serves as a very good example to illustrate the 
distinction between the two portions of the 1st joint. In Tetramorium 
and some other genera, the node is often cuboid and furnished with a 
more or less distinct peduncle. 

The 2nd joint is usually thicker in front than behind. It is also 
generally narrower behind, but is never so much so as to form a 
distinct peduncle attaching it to the abdomen. It varies less in shape 
than the 1st joint. The ventral lamella of the 1st joint is not often 
produced into a spine or tooth, as is so frequently the case in the 
Ponerinae. 

The above remarks serve to show that the shape of the nodes cannot 
often be described accurately in one word, and such expressions as 
cuboid, conical, wedge-shaped, etc., must be understood as being only 
approximate definitions. 

Key to the Genera of the Myrmicinae, <J> ^ • 

(2). 1. Clypeus not prolonged backwards between the frontal carinae, which. 

are placed more or less close together. Antennae 12-jointed. 

Sima, Roger. 
(1). 2. Clypeus prolonged backwards between the frontal carinae, which are 

more or less widely separated. 
(4). 3. Petiole attached to the dorsal surface of the abdomen. 

Cremastogaster, Lund. 
(3). 4. Petiole attached to the basal apex of the abdomen, below the dorsal 

surface. 
(10). 5. Head strongly cordiform, narrow in front, deeply emarginate behind, 

the posterior angles strongly rounded. 
(9). 6. Antennae 6-jointed. 
(8). 7. Antennal scrobe present ; head without spines ; a spongy mass covers 

the petiole, at least in part ; hairs spatulate . Strumigenys, Smith. 
(7). 8. Antennal scrobe absent; head spined posteriorly; petiole without 

a spongy covering ; hairs simple . . Microdaceton, Santschi. 

(6). 9. Antennae 4-jointed ..... Epitritus, Emery. 
(5). 10. Head not strongly cordiform, nor deeply emarginate behind. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 171 

(35). 11. Antennae with 11 joints or less. 

(20). 12. Antennal scrobes present. 

(14). 13. The antennal scrobe lies below and external to the eye ; posterior 

angles of the head more or less'prolonged and denticulate. Epinotum 

armed. Antennae 11- jointed . . . Cataulacus, Smith. 

(13). 14. The antennal scrobe lies above the eye ; posterior angles of the head 

not prolonged and denticulate. 
(18). 15. Pro- and mesonotum more or less distinct, not forming a single 

piece which overhangs the epinotum. 
(17). 16. Antennae 11-jointed 

(16 b). 16 a. Hairs simple .... Xip homy rmex, Forel. 

(16 a). 16 b. Hairs spatulate ..... Dicroaspis, Emery. 
(16). 17. Antennae 10-jointed . . Sub-genus Decamorium, Forel. 

(15). 18. Pro- and mesonotum more or less fused into a single disc, the poste- 
rior margin of which overhangs the epinotum. Antennae 9- join ted. 

Meranoplus, Smith. 
(12). 20. Antennal scrobes absent. 
(22). 21. First joint of all the tarsi, or at least of the anterior or the posterior 

tarsi greatly enlarged, as wide as the tibiae. Thorax without trace 

of sutures. Antennae 6-jointed . . Melissotarsus, Emery. 

(21). 22. First joint of the tarsi simple, not enlarged; antennae with more 

than 6 joints. 
(24). 23. Antennae 7- jointed . . . Myrmicaria, Saunders. 

(23). 24. Antennae with more than 7 joints. 
(30). 25. Antennae 11-jointed. 
(29). 26. Epinotum unarmed or at the most feebly bituberculate. $ $ usually 

monomorphic. 
(28). 27. Clypeus bicarinate, or with carinae at least faintly indicated. 

Monomorium, Mayr (part). 
(27). 28. Clypeus without carinae .... Diplomorium, Mayr. 
(26). 29. Epinotum bidentate; £ $ strongly dimorphic, the y. % with very 

large elongated heads .... Aneleus, Emery. 

(25). 30. Antennae with less than 11 joints. 
(32). 31. Antennae 9-jointed ( $ 13-jointed, ? 10-jointed). £ $ very small, 

$ and ? enormously larger than the £ Carebara, Westwood. 

(31). 32. Antennae 10-jointed. 
(34). 33. Dimorphism of the £ £ but slightly marked, or if not, the head of 

the £ major is subquadrate or broader than long. 

Solenopsis, Westwood. 
(33). 34. Dimorphism of the £ £ strongly marked ; head of the £ major (%) 

elongate ...... Aeromyrma, Forel. 

Antennae 12-jointed. 

At least some of the hairs on the body spatulate. 

Calyptomyrmex, Emery. 

Hairs on the body not spatulate but simple, or trifid (most species of 

Triglyphothrix), or slightly clavate (Leptothorax). 

First node of petiole bidentate or bispinose above. 

Atopomyrmex, Andre. 

First node of petiole simple. 



(11). 

(37). 


35. 
36. 


(36). 


37, 


(33). 


38. 


(38.) 


39, 



172 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(41). 40. Middle and hind tibiae without calcaria; no clavate hairs present. 

Cardiocondyla, Emery. 

(40). 41. Middle and hind tibiae with calcaria ; if not, then the erect hairs on 
the body are more or less clavate. 

(47). 42. Posterior border of the clypens raised in the form of a trenchant 
ridge bordering the antennal fossa (rather feeble in Rhoptromyrmex) . 

(44). 43. Epinotum unarmed ; no antennal scrobe. First joint of petiole 
usually laterally compressed . . Rhoptromyrmex, Mayr. 

(43.) 44. Epinotum armed ; antennal scrobes usually present. 

(46). 45. Erect hairs simple .... Tetramorium, Mayr. 

(45). 46. Erect hairs usually trifid. Nodes of petiole usually strongly trans- 
verse .... Sub-genus Triglyphothrix, Forel. 

(42). 47. Posterior border of the clypeus not raised in the form of a ridge. 

(49). 48. Flagellum without a distinct club; £ £ polymorphic. 

Hessor, Forel. 

(48). 49. Flagellum with a more or less distinct club. 

(51). 50. Clypeus usually bicarinate ; £ £ rarely polymorphic. 

v Monomorium, Mayr (part). 

(50). 51. Clypeus not bicarinate, occasionally with a median carina. 

(53.) 52. ^ $ strongly dimorphic, consisting of 1/. 11 with very large heads, 
and an ordinary $ caste ; more rarely polymorphic (sub-genus 
Allopheidole) .... Pheidole, Westwood. 

(52). 53. £ $ monomorphic. 

(55). 54. The peduncle of the 1st joint of the petiole very long ; thoracic 
sutures almost or entirely obliterated . . Ocymyrmex, Emery. 

(54) . 55. The peduncle of the first joint of the petiole not very long. 

(57). 56. Epinotum unarmed ; erect hairs not clavate ; no antennal scrobes. 

Tetramyrma, Forel. 

(56). 57. Epinotum usually armed ; erect hairs clavate; a shallow indication 
of the antennal scrobes sometimes present. Middle and hind tibiae 
without calcaria ..... Leptothorax, Mayr. 

The above key applies only to the species so far known from South 
Africa. In many species of Pheidole the club of the antennae is by no 
means sharply defined, hardly more than in the genus Messor, but in 
the latter genus the largest workers are connected with the smallest 
by a gradual series of intermediate forms, and the head, although 
perhaps much larger, does not differ materially in shape from that of 
the smallest workers. In Pheidole, on the other hand, the workers 
are dimorphic (with the exception of the sub- genus Allopheidole, in 
which there are intermediate grades between the % and the $ ) } the %. 
being sharply differentiated from the $ , and having a differently 
shaped head. 

In some species of Leptothorax, the posterior margin of the clypeus 
is slightly raised in a ridge posteriorly, but the clavate hairs and the 
absence of calcaria to the middle and hind tibiae will serve to dis- 
tinguish them from the members of the tribe Tetramoriini. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 173 

The frontal carinae in Melissotarsns are placed close together as in 
the genus Sima, but the absence of thoracic sutures, the structure of 
the metatarsus, and the 6-jointed antennae easily serve to distinguish 
them from the latter s;enus. 



Section I. PROMYRMICINAE, Emery. 
Tribe PSEUDOMYRMIM, Forel. 

Genus SIMA, Roger. 
Berlin. Ent. Zeitschr., vol. 7, p. 178, 1864. 

Characters. 

£ . Head more or less rectangular, somewhat truncate in profile 
anteriorly, the clypeus and mandibles being placed vertically below 
the anterior face of the head ; antennae 12 -jointed, slightly thickened 
towards the apex ; eyes usually very large. Thoracic sutures distinct ; 
the metanotum, usually not recognisable in the majority of £ ants, 
is more or less distinct in this genus. Epinotum high, unarmed. 
Abdomen more or less cylindrical and elongate. Sting exserted. 
£ ^ dimorphic in 8. ambigua, race rhodesiana, but the dimorphism is 
confined to the structure of the head. 

$ & ^ . Very similar to the $ , except for the usual sexual differ- 
ences in the structure of the thorax. <$ , antennae 13-jointed. 

The members of this genus are almost all tree-ants, nesting in 
hollow twigs or thorns, or in hollow reeds. Our two commonest 
species, ambigua-rhodesiana and natalensis-bulawayana, are very partial 
to the Acacia horrida. They are very quick ants, and have a habit of 
sliding, on the approach of danger, to the opposite side of the leaf 
or branch, or of dropping to the ground. The sting is powerful, and 

readily used. 

v 
Key to the Species of Sima, <£> 9 •* 

(2). 1. Large and stout species. Frontal carinae wider apart than in the other 

species of the genus ; 3 ocelli well developed. 

(Sub-genus Pachysima, Emery), aethiops, Smith. 
( 1 ) . 2. Smaller and more slender species ; frontal carinae closer together. 
(6). 3. Pronotum with distinct anterior angles, sharply margined. 2 or 3 

distinct ocelli .... (sub-genus Sima, s. str.) 

(5). 4. Colour yellow or brownish yellow ; 6-8 mm. long natalensis, Smith. 



* I am indebted to Prof. Emery for valuable advice in the construction of 
this key. 



174 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(4). 5. Colour blackish; 4'5 mm. long . . . Andrei, Mayr. 

(3) . 6. Pronotum with anterior angles rounded ; ocelli rudimentary or absent. 

Small species . . . (sub-genus Tetraponera, Smith.) 

(14). 7. Colour black or brown, or, if yellow, head and thorax smooth and 

shining (var. durbanensis, Forel, S. clypeata). 

(9). 8. Clypeus angular in the middle . . . Penzigi, Mayr. 

(8). 9. Clypeus quadri- or quinque-dentate, or bicarinate and bidentate. 

(11). 10. Clypeus with two longitudinal carinae ending in minute teeth at the 

anterior margin. ..... Liengmei, Forel. 

(10). 11. Clypeus without longitudinal carinae. 

(13). 12. Clypeus quadri-dentate .... clypeata, Emery. 

(12). 13. Clypeus quinque-dentata, the median tooth small, much smaller than 
the inner pair of teeth. . . clypeata, race Braunsi, Forel. 

(7). 14. Yellow or reddish yellow species; head and thorax not smooth and 
shining. 
(20). 15. Pronotum margined, at least laterally. 

(17). 16. Clypeus emarginate in the middle . . bifoveolata, Mayr. 

(16). 17. Clypeus not emarginate. 

(19). 18. Anterior margin of clypeus produced in the middle into a rectangular 
lobe ....... ambigua, Emery. 

(18). 19. Anterior margin of clypeus not lobed, feebly tridentate in the £ 
minor, distinctly so in the $ major. 

ambigua, var. rhodesiana, Forel. 

(15). 20. Pronotum not margined. Clypeus with five teeth on the anterior 

margin, the two outermost teeth the smallest. Eyes occupying nearly 

one-third of the sides of the head ; 4 - 5 mm. long Emeryi, Forel. 

S. (Sub-G-enus Pachysima, Emery) aethiops, Smith. 
Trans. Ent. Soc. London, p. 71, 1877. (Sub-Genus) Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Belg., vol. 56, p. 97, 1912. Santschi, Eev. Zool. Africaine, vol. i, 
p. 207, $ , 1911. 

£ . 9-9*6 mm. Black ; tibise, tarsi and antenna? castaneous brown. 
A very fine and adpressed pubescence on the whole body, denser on 
the flagelluni and abdomen than elsewhere. Clypeus and apex of 
abdomen with a few long, yellowish, exserted hairs. Shining, espe- 
cially the head ; the thorax duller than the abdomen. Head and 
thorax closely and finely punctured. The punctures are scantier on 
the vertex of the head than on the cheeks ; the punctures on the 
pronotum are larger but shallower than elsewhere. Nodes and abdo- 
men shallowly but closely punctured ; the punctures are smaller on 
the 2nd node than on the 1st, and very fine on the abdomen. Legs 
shining and shallowly punctured. 

Head as wide as long, a little narrower in front than behind. Eyes 
large, placed a little behind the middle of the head. Three distinct, 
but small and flat ocelli. Clypeus with the lateral angles rounded and 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 175 

prominent ; the anterior margin is shallowly concave in the middle 
and narrowly inflected, the median area is aciculate and coarsely 
punctured. The mandibles are broad, with 4 strong teeth, and 
coarsely striate. The frontal carinae are much further apart than in 
species of the other sub-genera, and slightly convex externally. The 
scape is short, not extending beyond the level of the middle of the 
eyes, the 3rd-10th» joints of the flagellum wider than long. A shining, 
median, impressed line extends from the posterior margin of the 
clypeus to about the middle of the vertex. 

Pronotum wider than long, the sides distinctly convex, the shoulders 
obtuse but prominent. Mesonotum more closely and deeply punctured 
than the pronotum, as long as wide, the anterior border semi-circular. 
Epinotum convex lengthwise, nearly as long as the pro- and meso- 
notum together, quite one-third longer than wide ; the dorsum merges 
into the oblique declivity by a gradual curve. The 1st joint of the 
petiole has a very short peduncle ; the node is convex above frrans- 
versely and longitudinally, wider than long, considerably narrowed 
behind; the ventral lamella at the extreme base is produced into a 
short, sharp spine, pointing downwards, and just behind it lies 
another, but rounded, projection. The 2nd node is widest in the 
middle, about one-third wider than the 1st, convex above. Seen from 
above, the lateral margins are very convex. The ventral surface is 
produced anteriorly into a fairly sharp prominence. The sides of both 
nodes slope steeply inwards. 

? . 155 mm. Colour as in the £ . Head, thorax, and nodes 
shining, abdomen nitidulous. Pubescence greyish-black and very 
fine, dense on the abdomen and 2nd node, much sparser elsewhere. 
A few long, yellowish, pilose hairs on the clypeus, nodes, and abdomen. 
Puncturation in the main like that of the £ , but stronger and much 
more abundant on the nodes and abdomen, and scantier on the thorax. 
Head a little longer than wide, very little narrower in front than 
behind, almost parallel- sided, about as long as the pro- and mesonotum 
taken together. Pronotum widely exposed above, not much lower 
than the mesonotum, narrower in front than behind, convex trans- 
versely, the shoulders rounded and not angular as in the £ . Scutellum 
as long as wide, feebly convex transversely and longitudinally, not 
quite half as long as the mesonotum. Dorsum of epinotum one and 
a half times wider than long, slightly longer than the declivity. The 
latter almost vertical, with the brow strongly rounded. Nodes similar 
to those of the $ , but the ventral lamellae of both nodes are produced 
into much larger and deeper teeth. Otherwise like the $ (described 
from a deflated West African specimen). 

12 



J 76 Annals of the South African Museum. 

" <$ . 13-5 mm. Black. The anterior tarsi and base of the genital 
armature testaceous. Subopaque. Sculpture and pilosity as in the 
? . Head a little wider than long. Posterior margin of the head 
straight, the posterior corners rectangular and rounded. The oval 
and very oblique eyes occupy the median two fourths of the sides of 
the head. Frontal area strongly impressed. Clypeus without a 
carina. Mandibles with 5 or 6 unequal teeth. First joint of the 
flagellum longer than wide; the 2nd joint a little less long than the 
scape. The declivity of the epinotum slightly convex in all directions, 
a little longer than the dorsum. Wings brownish black, the nervures 
darker, the stigma black. First joint of the petiole channelled in its 
anterior half, feebly convex behind. Second node as long as wide. 
Genital armature exserted, the distal portion of the blackish stipes 
strongly excised inwards, and ending in a lanciform point, turned 
inwards and backwards." 

South Africa. (Gr. A. coll.) 

S. (Sub-genus Sima, s. str.) natalensis, Smith. 

Cat. Hymen. Brit. Mus., vol. 6, p. 160, g 1858. 

^ . 7 mm. Dark ochreous yellow, somewhat darker and reddish on 
the head, the flagellum darker towards the apex, the masticatory 
margins of the mandibles blackish. Dull, very finely and closely 
punctured all over, the puncturation of the head a little stronger. 
Pubescence very short, microscopic, a few long hairs on the clypeus, 
scapes, and apical segment of the abdomen. 

Head longer than wide, the sides feebly convex, the posterior angles 
moderately rounded. The median area of the clypeus is slightly pro- 
duced forwards, and obtusely tridentate. The frontal carinae raised 
in front, divergent posteriorly. Mandibles longitudinally striate, 
quadridentate. The scape does not extend back quite as far as the 
middle of the eyes ; the 1st joint of the flagellum is half as long again 
as the 2nd. The eyes occupy more than one-third of the sides of the 
head, and are situated at about the middle. The two posterior ocelli 
are present. The whole thorax is marginate at the sides and in front, 
the margin blackish ; the sides and the dorsal surface of the thorax 
meet in a right angle. The pronotum is widest in front, and two- 
thirds wider than it is long ; the promeso- and mesometanotal sutures 
distinct. The mesonotum is two and a half times wider than long, 
and but half as long as the pronotum. The metanotum is feebly 
defined at the sides posteriorly. The epinotum is nearly one-third 
longer than the rest of the thorax, and nearly twice as long as wide, 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 177 

and widest at its posterior third. The dorsum of the epinotmn is not 
clearly delimited from the declivity, into which it merges by an even 
curve. The 1st joint of the petiole is not pedunculate ; it is very 
convex above lengthwise, the dorsal surface, half as long again as 
wide, is margined laterally and sharply delimited from the sides. 
The 2nd joint of the petiole is widest behind, about as long as wide, 
and one-third wider than the 1st joint. The abdomen is elongate, the 
sides almost straight, the 1st segment a little longer than wide. 

$ . 9 - 2 mm. Similar to the £ , excepting the usual sexual diffe- 
rences. The teeth of the clypeus are a little larger. The mesonotum 
is wider than long, and one- quarter longer than the pronotum ; the 
scutellum transversely oval, half as long as the mesonotum. The 
dorsal portion of the epinotum is about as long as the mesonotum, 
a little wider than long, and widest at the base ; the declivity is less 
oblique than in the $' . The puncturation of the epinotum is stronger 
than in the $ • Deflated . 

Durban. (Marley.) South Africa generally. (Gr. A. coll.) 

natalensis, race obsctjeata, Emery. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 22, g , 1895. 

$ . 6'7 mm. This differs from the type in its slightly smaller size 
and darker colour, which is ferruginous brown, with the front of the 
head, the abdomen, antennae, and legs yellowish brown. The punctu- 
ration is slightly stronger, and the 1st joint of the petiole is more 
convex longitudinally. 

$. 8'2 mm. (hitherto undescribed). Colouring similar to that of 
the ^ . It differs from the $ of the type by the stronger punctura- 
tion, especially of the thorax. The mesonotum is also narrower, and 
as long as wide. The dorsum of the epinotum is distinctly shorter 
and more convex. The 1st joint of the petiole is thinner at the base, 
and is shorter and more convex lengthwise than in the type. There 
are a few long pilose hairs on the back of the head and on the thorax. 
Deflated, otherwise like the ^ . 

<$ . 8 mm. Head, thorax, and petiole piceous brown, the sides of 
the scutellum and metanotum, the base and apex of the 1st joint 
of the petiole, the anterior half of the head below, including the 
frontal carinae, the mandibles, scapes, and 1st joint of the flagellum 
dirty yellow ; flagellum brown, legs yellowish brown, first three 
segments of abdomen dirty yellow, but brownish at the margins, the 
remaining segments dark brown. Wings hyaline, nervures yellow, 
stigma brownish yellow. The pubescence is much longer than in the 



178 Annals of the South African Museum. 

? , especially on the petiole and abdomen ; there are also a few long, 
erect, and blackish hairs on the thorax. The rugulosity of the 
surface is much stronger than in the $ ; the posterior half of the 
head is strongly and rather closely punctured. The mesonotum is 
sparsely but coarsely punctured. The head is slightly shining on the 
vertex, the rest of the body dull. Head longer than wide, sides rather 
convex, posterior margin nearly straight, wider behind the eyes than 
in front. The eyes occupy about two-thirds of the sides of the head, 
and are placed a little in front of the middle. Ocelli large, on a 
slightly raised area. Mandibles shining, feebly and sparsely punc- 
tured, armed with 5 teeth. Clypeus feebly convex transversely, with 
an obtuse median tubercle. Scape of antenna two and one-third times 
as long as the 1st joint of the flagellum, not reaching back to the 
posterior third of the eyes. First joint of flagellum very short, about 
as long as wide, all the remaining joints very much longer than wide; 
the antenna reaches back as far as the base of the 2nd joint of the 
petiole. Pronotum exposed above, short, convex transversely. Meso- 
notum a little longer than wide, with the scutellum a little longer than 
the head. The epinotum is somewhat flattened, the dorsum and 
declivity not distinctly delimited ; it is widest at the base, and about 
as long as wide. First joint of petiole with a short peduncle, the 
node twice as long as wide ; 2nd joint conical, widest behind, not 
quite half as wide again as the 1st joint. The petiole is not margi- 
nate. 

Algoa Bay. (Brauns.) 

Race obscurata, var. caffea, Santschi. 

G-oteborgs K. Vetans. och Vitterh. Handl., xv, 2, p. 15, £ , $ , £ , 

1914. 

It is necessary to sink this form to the rank of a variety of 
obscurata, from which it differs only in the following characters : 

£ . 6 mm. The colour is lighter, especially on the thorax and front 
of the head. The posterior half of the head is dark brown, contrast- 
ing sharply with the ochreous anterior half. The pronotum is wider ; 
the epinotum is much less strongly punctured, and the node of the 
1st joint of the petiole a little narrower and less convex. 

? . The eyes are a little longer. The pronotum is also a little 
longer and more sharply margined, and anterior angles less rounded. 
As in the $ , the colour is generally paler than in the type of the 
race, but the promesonotal suture has a dark blackish spot in the 
middle, and the parapsidal sutures are also heavily margined with 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 179 

darker colour. The 1st node of the petiole is distinctly narrower than 
in the type. 

£ . 7*8 mm. The author's description of this sex agrees entirely 
with that of the race. 

Zululand. (Triigardh.) 

Eace cuitensis, Forel, var. bulawayana, Forel. 

(Race) Bull. Soc. Vaud., vol. 47, p. 317, 1911. (Var.) Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Belg., vol. 57, p. 112, £ , 1913. 

" Smaller than the type of the race, less dull, simply sub-opaque. 
The node is also a little narrower, and the head a little shorter ; 
otherwise like the type of cuitensis." 

^ . 7"5 mm. This differs from the type of the species in its 
slightly smaller size, in having the sides of the head more parallel, the 
epinotum a little more oblique posteriorly, and the 1st joint of the 
petiole a little narrower. 

$ . 8"5 mm. This is smaller than the type of the species. The 
head is more parallel-sided, the epinotum narrower posteriorly, the 
denticulations of the clypeus smaller, and the colour a little redder ; 
otherwise like the type. 

Bulawayo, Plumtree, Bembesi, Victoria Falls. S. Rhodesia. Nest- 
ing in the hollow twigs of trees. (S.A.M;, R.M., Gr.A. colls.) 

I have not seen examples of the race cuitensis, and am therefore 
obliged to compare this variety with reference to the type of the 
pecies. 

S. (Sub-genus Sima, s. str.) Andrei, Mayr. 
Ann. K.K.KH. Mus. Wien, vol. 10, p. 144, £ , 1895. 
" 5 • 4"6 mm. Black, partly piceous, mandibles, scapes and 1st 
joint of flagellum, tibiae, tarsi and apex of femora reddish yellow ; 
sometimes the tibiae are brownish red-yellow, and the flagellum, except 
the 1st joint, yellowish brown. Pilosity almost absent, the decumbent 
pubescence very fine, short and dense, visible on the head and thorax 
only under a strong magnification. Dull ; head and dorsum of thorax 
closely and finely punctured, the sides of the pronotum slightly 
shining and finely rugulose, the sides of the meso- and metathorax, 
the petiole and abdomen rugulose-punctate, although not easily 
recognisable on the last, on account of the dense pubescence. The 
mandibles coarsely longitudinally striate, and with a few punctures, 
the very oblique masticatory margin quadridentate. The head is, as 
in Mocquerysi, Andre, rectangular, longer than wide, parallel- sided. 



180 Annals of the South African Museum. 

The short clypeus is arcuately emarginate in the middle of the anterior 
margin, but is not crenelate. The frontal carinae are as in Mocquerysi, 
closely approximated, separated only by the frontal sulcus which 
reaches back to the neighbourhood of the ocelli, and are divergent 
behind, and longer than in Mocquerysi. The scape does not extend 
back as far as the anterior third of the eye ; the 2nd joint of the 
flagellum is as long as wide, the rest, excepting the last joint, wider 
than long. Only two ocelli present. The rather large eyes are 
situated behind the middle of the sides, and occupy about half the 
length of the same. The head is but slightly emarginate behind. 
The thorax is not much narrower behind than it is between the 
anterior angles of the pronotum ; the latter is reversed trapeze- shaped, 
feebly convex above, a little shorter than wide, the side margins with 
a sharp, narrow, raised border, the anterior angles rounded and 
prominent. The mesonotum is short, semi-circular, twice as wide as 
long. The metanotum is separated from the mesonotum by a narrow 
sulcus, very short and almost linear in the middle, longer at the sides ; 
the metanotum is not distinctly defined from the epinotum. The 
epinotum is sharply marginate laterally, the dorsum flat, the brow of 
the declivity rounded. The 1st joint of the petiole is triangular, the 
sides sharply margined, hardly pedunculate, widening posteriorly, 
seen from above flat transversely, but very convex in profile. The 2nd 
joint is much wider, but shorter than the 1st, nearly twice as wide as 
long. The abdomen is elongate- ovate. The legs are fairly short." 
Delagoa Bay. (Brauns.) 

S. (Sub-genus Tetraponera, Smith) Penzigi, Mayr. 

(Tetraponera) Ann. Mag. N. H. (2), ix, p. 44, 1852. Formicidae 
Schwed. Kilimandjaro Exped., 8, p. — , $ , ? , $ , 1907. 

" £. 3 - ]-4'7 mm. Black, mandibles, articulations of the legs, 
tarsi, and often also the tibiae brownish yellowish-red, the antennae 
usually reddish yellow with brownish club. Pilosity almost absent, 
the adpressed pubescence very sparse. The whole body shining, finely 
rugulose and with some scanty punctures, bearing fine hairs; the 
front of the head, and to a certain extent the cheeks, longitudinally 
striate, the mandibles coarsely rugoso-striate. The mandibles, particu- 
larly in the larger specimens, depressed and flattened in the apical 
half, the teeth obtuse. Head wider than the thorax, distinctly longer 
than wide. The middle portion of the clypeus in the larger $ $ more 
or less angularly produced (strongly so in the ?). The scape does 
not reach back to the posterior margin of the eyes ; the 2nd-6th 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 181 

joints of the flagellum very short, each about twice as wide as long. 
The eyes occupy about one-third of the sides of the head, ocelli 
wanting. The pronotum is margined laterally only at the hind 
corners ; the mesonotum is transverse and oval, shorter than the 
pronotum ; the metanotum is shorter than the mesonotum, about twice 
as wide as long ; the epinotum is but little shorter than the pronotum, 
the feebly convex dorsum is longer than the declivity and wider at the 
base than at the apex ; the brow of the declivity rounded. The first 
joint of the petiole is shortly but distinctly pedunculated, the node 
rounded, a little wider than long, very little narrower than the 2nd 
joint, the ventral lamella compressed. The 2nd joint is transverse and 
oval, or pyriform, smaller in front than behind." 

" $ . 6 mm. Colour, pubescence and puncturation as in the $ , the 
punctures on the cheeks larger than on the frons. The middle part of 
the clypeus projects very distinctly forwards in a bluntly angular lobe. 
The rest of the head as in the £ • The wings feebly tinged with 
yellowish brown." 

" $ . 4'6 mm. Black, flagellum brownish yellow, mandibles and tarsi 
darker. The pilosity occurs almost only on the ventral surface of the 
abdomen. The antennae are thickly clothed with very short erect 
hairs ; the abdomen moderately pubescent. The mandibles have 
moderately long pilose hairs, inserted in coarse punctures ; the masti- 
catory margin with several teeth, the anterior ones acute. The head 
and mesonotum are very finely rugulose and shining, the latter with 
some strong piligerous punctures. Scutellum and metanotum smooth, 
the nodes of the petiole almost so, the abdomen finely rugulose. The 
middle part of the clypeus is strongly arched, ending in front in a 
blunt point. The scape of the 12-jointed antenna is quite twice as 
long as wide, the 2nd to the penultimate inclusive, sub-equal, and 
each about two and a half times longer than wide, the last joint a 
little longer. The 1st node of the petiole with a short peduncle and 
distinctly longer than wide, below with a flattened projection. The 
2nd joint is but little wider than long, but much wider than the 1st. 
The wings somewhat paler than in the ? ." 

Lehututu, Kalahari. (Schultze.) 

S. (Sub-genus Tetrapona.) Liengmei, Forel. 

Mitth. Schweiz. Ent. Ges., vol. 9, p. 88, £, <J, 1894. 

" ^ • 3*4-3' 7 mm. Mandibles with 4 to 5 teeth, the external margins 
almost straight, shining, feebly punctured and striate. Head elongate 
and rectangular, one and a half times as long as wide, somewhat 



182 Annals of the South African Museum. 

wider and more convex behind. Eyes in the middle of the sides of 
the head. Clypeus with two very small median carinae placed close 
together, each ending in front in a blunt tooth. Scape very short, 
half as long as the distance between the antennal sockets and the 
occipital margin. Flagellum thick, the joints excepting the first and 
last, wider than long. Pronotum rounded, as wide as long, flattened 
above. The metanotum is nearly as long and as wide as the meso- 
notum, the latter wider than long. The epinotum is fairly convex, 
the dorsum as long as the declivity, the brow of the latter rounded. 
The epinotum is as high as the mesonotum. The thoracic segments 
are separated by deep sulci, but are not constricted. First joint of 
petiole with a short peduncle, both joints short, thick, wide, and 
roundly pyriform ; the 1st, excluding the peduncle, hardly longer than 
wide behind, the 2nd much wider than long. Abdomen elongate- 
ovate, fairly pointed posteriorly. Antennae and legs short and thick. 
Very shining, very finely and shallowly reticulate ; head almost quite 
smooth. Pilosity nearly entirely absent, only a few thin hairs round 
the mouth and apex of abdomen. Pubescence very sparse. Brownish 
black, legs and flagellum brown, mandibles and anterior margin of 
the head brownish red. Scape, base of the flagellum, the ends of the 
tarsi, and articulations of the legs yellowish. 

<$ . 47 mm. Wings clear. Clypeus produced triangularly in the 
middle in front. Head oval, longer than wide. Petiole as in the $ . 
Antennae blackish brown, margins of the mandibles reddish ; legs 
brown, tarsi yellowish. All the rest of the body black, shining. 
Much wider and with a wider petiole than clypeata, and with cruite a 
differently shaped clypeus. The very strongly developed metanotum 
gives this species a vei*y distinctive appearance." 

Delagoa Bay. (Liengme.) 

S. (Sub-genus Tetraponera) clypeata, Emery. (Plate V, figs. 

50, 50«.) 

Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital., vol. 18, p. 361, $ , 1886. 

5 . 3 - 6-4 mm. Black, mandibles ferruginous, legs brownish black, 
tarsi and articulations reddish brown, antennae reddish yellow, darken- 
ing to brown towards the base and the apex. Very smooth and shining. 
Head, thorax, and abdomen microscopically rugulose, with a few fine 
punctures ; the anterior half of the head rather closely but very finely 
and shallowly punctured. Pubescence exceedingly sparse and micro- 
scopical, except on the antennae, where it is dense and longer. Clypeus 
and last three abdominal segments with a few long, erect, pilose 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 183 

hairs. Head widest between the eyes, nearly one-third longer than 
wide, the posterior angles very rounded. Eyes placed in the middle 
of the sides of the v head, occupying a little more than one quarter of 
the latter ; a trace of the anterior ocellus present. Median portion of 
clypeus raised and produced ; the anterior margin of the protruded 
area is quadridentate (see fig. 50, Plate V) ; the inner pair of teeth are 
larger and further apart from each other than they are from the outer 
teeth. (In the two specimens at my disposal there is a slight asym- 
metry produced by the sub-division of either the right or the left inner 
tooth.) The scape extends backwards to the posterior margin of the 
eyes ; the 1st joint of the flagellum is longer than wide, and is as long 
as the 2nd-4th joints taken together ; the latter and also the 5th 
and 6th are wider than long, the remaining joints longer than wide. 
Frontal carinae short, slightly divergent behind. Mandibles tri- 
dentate, feebly striato-punctate, the external and internal margins 
subpai'allel. The dorsum of the thorax is not margined. Pronotum 
widest anteriorly, flattened above, as long as wide ; mesonotum sub- 
circular, nearly as long as the pronotum ; pro-mesonotal suture feeble, 
meso-metanotal fairly well defined. The metanotum is much narrower 
than the mesonotum and is separated from the epinotum by a deep 
and wide groove, slightly clathrate laterally. The epinotum is widest 
at the base, twice as long as wide, as long as the pronotum, the lateral 
dorsal margins and the brow of the short and oblique declivity, 
strongly rounded. The peduncle of the 1st joint of the petiole is 
about half as long as the node, the latter is nearly twice as long as 
wide. The 2nd joint is bell-shaped, widest posteriorly, and two-thirds 
wider than the 1st joint. Seen in profile, both joints are very convex 
above. Abdomen elongate-ovate, 1st segment longer than wide. 
The femora are swollen in the middle. 

$ . 5 - 5 mm. Differing from the ^ in the following characters. 
The head is more parallel-sided ; the inner pair of teeth on the anterior 
margin of the clypeus are much larger, and the outer pair relatively 
smaller. The pronotum has the anterior angles less rounded, the 
sides more parallel ; it is distinctly wider than long. The mesonotum 
is widest in the middle, in front of the tegulae, and one-third wider 
than long. The scutellum wider than long, two-thirds as long as the 
mesonotum. The epinotum is wider at the base than it is long, seen 
from above, reversed trapezoid, not elongately triangular as in the 
^ • Three small ocelli are present. Other characters as in the £' . 
(Deflated.) 

(S.A.M. coll.) 



184 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Eace Beaunsi, Forel. (Plate V, fig. 49.) 
(as species), Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. vol. 57, p. 112, £, ? , 1913. 

^ . 4-4 - 4 mm. This form differs from the type in its larger size, 
the slightly stronger puncturation, and the shape of the produced 
median portion of the clypeus. This is like that of clyyeata, but in 
the majority of specimens has in addition a median unpaired tooth, 
somewhat smaller than the inner pair of teeth on each side of it. This 
median tooth in some examples is very small, or quite obsolete, in 
which case the clypeus exactly resembles that of clypeata. The 
peduncle of the first joint of the petiole is perhaps a trifle longer than 
in the type species. 

? . 7 mm. The median tooth is very small or entirely absent. 
The mandibles are more strongly striate and punctate than in the 
type species, and the head is also more shining. Otherwise similar. 
Deflated. 

Willowmore, Cape Pro v. (Dr. Brauns.) (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 

Eace Beatjnsi, var. dtjebanensis, Forel. 
Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat., vol. 50, p. 218, 1914. 

Entirely dark ochreous yellow. Head, thorax, and abdomen smooth 
and shining. Epinotum more convex lengthwise than in the race. A 
little smaller and more slender, 3 - 8-4 mm. Otherwise similar to the 
race. 

Durban. (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 

Eace Beatjnsi, var. eqtjidentata, n. v. (Plate V, fig. 48.) 

^ . 3"5-4 mm. This differs from the race in its smaller size and 
in having the median tooth as large as the inner pair of teeth, the 
outer pair of teeth much smaller, and the clypeus produced further 
forwards. Capetown, nesting in the tunnels made by a species of 
Allodape. 

(S.A.M., G.A. colls.) 

S. (Sub-genus Teteaponeea) bifoveolata, Map*. 

Ann. K.K.KH. Mus., Wien, vol. 10, p. 146, $ , 1895. 

" ^ • 3'8-4 - 2 mm. Eeddish yellow, eyes black, masticatory margin 
of the mandibles and apex of abdomen brown. The pilosity is sparse, 
even on the scapes and the tibiae ; the body, excepting the thorax, has 
an abundant pubescence, which is somewhat oblique on the head, 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 185 

especially on the cheeks and on the legs. Moderately shining ; head, 
thorax and petiole very finely rugulose or reticulate ; the head is also 
scantily punctured, the abdomen finely so, the punctures piligerous. 
The mandibles are longitudinally striate, with scattered punctures, the 
masticatory margin furnished with four or five teeth, and merging in 
a curve with the internal margin. The elongate and quadrangular 
head is wider than the thorax, about one and a half times as long as 
wide, almost parallel- sided, slightly narrower in front than behind. 
The short clypeus has an unarmed, and widely but shallowly emarginate 
anterior border. The frontal carinae are placed close together, diverging 
slightly posteriorly. Frontal area wanting. The frontal sulcus is 
clearly marked only between the anterior third of the carinae. The 
scape reaches back to the anterior third of the eye, the 2nd-10th joints 
of the flagellum wider than long. Ocelli absent. The rather large 
oval eyes occupy about one-third of the sides of the headland are 
situated distinctly behind the middle of the latter. In front of, and 
above the posterior margin of the head there are two circular foveae, 
more or less distinctly margined and rugosely granulate ; the diameter 
of each of these pits is about one-fifth or one-sixth of the posterior 
margin of the head ; the latter is arcuately emarginate. The thorax 
is distinctly wider in front than behind, only the sides of the 
pronotum are marginate, and the dorsum is not very convex. The 
pronotum, seen from above, is somewhat longer than wide, wider in 
front than behind, the rectangular anterior corners rounded. The 
pi'o-mesonotal suture is distinct. The mesonotum is hardly longer 
than it is wide in front, and very little narrower behind than in front. 
A metanotum is not indicated, its stigmata lie just in front of the 
shallow constriction between the meso- and epinotum. The dorsum 
of the latter is longer than wide, and merges into the equally long and 
transversely convex declivity. The first joint of the petiole has a very 
short peduncle, its node is of an elongate pyriform shape, not marginate 
laterally ; seen in profile, the node is steeper in front than behind ; 
the 2nd joint of the petiole is shorter and about twice as wide as the 
first, wider than long, and wider in front than behind. Abdomen 
oblong, moderately pointed apically, the 1st segment longer than wide." 
Delagoa Bay and Zanzibar. (Brauns.) 

S. (Sub-genus Tetkaponeka) ambigua, Emery. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 23, £ , ? , 1895. Forel, Schultze, 

Eeise Siid Afrika, vol. 4, p. 5, $ , 1910. 

" 5 , ? • Testaceous, flagellum pubescent, punctate, dull, eyes in 
the middle of the sides of the head, pronotum marginate, the rest of 



186 Annals of the South African Museum. 

the thorax and the petiole not marginate. 1st node of petiole narrow, 

2nd sub-globose. $ 4 - 5 mm., ? 5'5 mm. 

" Hamman's Kraal and Makapan, Bechuanaland. (Simon.) " 

" <$ . 4 , 5-5 , 5 mm. Head a little longer than wide, narrow in 

front, posterior margin straight. Eyes large. 1st node pedunculate 

in front, twice as long as wide. 2nd node much longer than wide. 

Thorax wider than the head. Shining, scantily and finely punctured. 

Erect pilose hairs absent, the decumbent pubescence very fine and 

scanty. Wings as in penzigi. Brown ; antennae, clypeus, legs and 

narrow bands on the abdomen pale yellow." 

Race ehodesiana, Forel. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. 112, £ , 1913. Arnold, Proc. Rhod. 
Sc. Assn., vol. 13, pt. 3, p. 31. £ maj. 1914. 

" This race differs from the type species by the almost total absence 
of the anterior lobe of the clypeus, which, in the type, is very distinct, 
rectangular and produced. The three segments of the thorax ai-e also 
more flattened and margined, and less convex. The curve between the 
dorsum and the declivity of the epinotum is more abrupt and angular 
than in the type." 

^ . 5 mm. Reddish yellow. Pubescence scanty on the head, 
thorax and legs, more abundant on the abdomen. A few pale, erect 
hairs on the head, pronotum, petiole and apical portion of the abdomen. 
Head, dorsum of thorax and 1st node of petiole very finely reticulate, 
sides of thorax very finely reticulate -striate. Dull, abdomen nitidulous. 
Head about one-third longer than wide, wider than the thorax, the 
sides convex, posterior margin straight. Frontal carinae rather wide 
in front, raised more above the antennal sockets than in natalensis. 
Median portion of clypeus raised and projecting slightly forwards, its 
anterior margin bearing three minute prominences, hardly toothed- 
Mandibles quadridentate, shining and striate. The scape extends back 
to the anterior third of the eye. The latter very large, almost half as 
long as the sides of the head, placed rather obliquely, and nearer the 
posterior than the anterior margin. The two posterior ocelli faintly 
indicated. Pronotum very slightly wider in front than behind, as 
long as wide, and distinctly marginate at the sides. Pro-mesonotal 
suture deep ; mesonotum as long as wide, two-thirds as long as the 
pronotum. Dorsum of epinotum as long as the pronotum, about one- 
quarter longer than the declivity, which is very steep, almost vertical. 
First joint of petiole hardly pedunculate, twice as long as wide ; the 
sides of the node are vertical, but the dorsal surface is not marginate ; 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 187 

2nd joint of petiole sub-globose, twice as wide as the 1st, Legs rela- 
tively longer than in jiatalensis. 

ty major. 5 '8-6 mm. This differs from the $ minor not only in 
its larger size, but also by the structure and sculpture of the head. 
The anterior angles of the head are much more prominent. The clypeus 
has the anterior margin produced into three distinct short teeth, 
which are only indicated by slight prominences in the $ minor. The 
frontal carinae are also wider anteriorly and longer. The mandibles 
are strongly striated. The posterior half of the vertex is deeply and 
transversely striated, the region in front of the eyes and below them 
reticulate- striate, the frontal carinae longitudinally and rather finely 
striate. The posterior ocelli of the $ minor are just distinguishable, . 
whereas in this form they are barely represented by three shallow and 
minute indentations. Otherwise like the $ minor. 

$ . 6S-7 mm. (hitherto undescribed). Head more parallel-sided 
than in the £' , one-third longer than wide. The median portion of 
the clypeus is produced further forwards and its anterior margin is 
distinctly tridentate. The frontal carinae extend back almost to the 
level of the anterior margin of the eyes. Three ocelli present. The 
pronotum is narrower in front than behind, more convex above trans- 
versely than in the £ . The mesonotum is wider than long ; on each 
side of the middle line behind the pro-mesonotal suture there is a 
short longitudinal impression, about one-third the length of the 
segment. The head is distinctly rugose, obliquely so in front of the 
eyes, and transversely and more strongly rugose behind them, but 
the rugosities are not so coarse as in the $ major. Mesonotum very 
finely rugulose and shining. Otherwise like the $ . 

Plumtree and Bembesi, S. Ehodesia, nesting in thin dead twigs of 
Acacia. (S.A.M., R.M., G-.A. colls.) 



S. (Sub-genus Tetraponera), Emeryi Forel. ( = capensis, Emery, 
nee. Smith, Forel emend.) 

Emery, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 23, £ , 1895. Forel, Bull. 
Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat., vol. 47, p. 367, 1911. 

" This species is very shining, and the thorax and petiole are not at 
all margined. The petiole is even narrower than in ambicjua. The 
metanotum has a sti-ong transverse impression behind the suture. 
The eyes are situated at about the middle of the sides of the head, a 
little nearer the anterior than the posterior border; they are also 
smaller, being less than one-third the length of the head ; in natalensis 



188 Annals of the South African Museum. 

and ambigua they are more than one-third the length of the head. 
4-4-5 rani. Pretoria." 



Tribe MELISSOTABSINI, Emery. 

Genus MELISSOTAESUS, Emery. 
Ann. Muss. Civ. Gen., vol. 9, p. 16, 1877. 

Characters. 

$ . Antennae 6-jointed, the club 2-jointed ; frontal carinae closely 
approximated. Thorax without a trace of sutures. First joint of 
petiole elongate and triangular, 2nd joint short, transverse, fused 
behind with the abdomen. Legs thick and short, 1st joint of the 
anterior or of all the tarsi greatly enlarged, and as wide or nearly as 
wide as the tibia. Mandibles bluntly tridentate or with the teeth 
more or less produced and acuminate, especially the apical.* 

$ . Similar to the $ , the teeth on the mandibles acute. Tarsi as 
in the $ . Pronotum but slightly exposed dorsally. Wings with 1 
closed cubital and 1 closed radial cell ; stigma absent. 

$ . Antennae 12-jointed, filiform, scape three times as long as the 
1st joint of the flagellum. Mandibles small, not well developed. 
Petiole as in the $ and £ . Tarsi simple. Genital armature exserted. 
Wings as in the $ . 

M. Beccarii, Emery. (Plate V, figs. 51, 51a and &.) 

Loc. cit., p. 17, 1/, $'. 

$ . 22 mm. Head and thorax reddish ochreous, the front of the 
head darker, the mandibles ferruginous ; legs, antennae and abdomen 
pale dirty yellow. A very fine and scanty pubescence on the legs and 
antennae, but absent on the body. Pilosity pale, long and very sparse 
on the head and abdomen, shorter and even scantier on the thorax. 
Head microscopically and longitudinally strigose, also finely and 
sparsely punctured. Dorsum of thorax with very even and distinct 
longitudinal striae which become feeble towards the brow of the 
declivity ; the declivous anterior and posterior faces of the thorax 
smooth. Petiole and abdomen microscopically reticulate and shining, 
legs smooth and shining, head and thorax dull. Head sub-quadrate, 

* After seeing a long series of M. Beccarii, it appears to me that Emery's 
division of the neuter caste into % and "$ cannot be maintained. There is a 
complete gradation between forms with narrow heads and acute mandibles, 
and those with broader heads and blunt mandibles. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 189 

parallel- sided and with the posterior margin shallowly concave in the 
forms with blunt mandibles, or slightly narrower in front than behind, 
in those with acute teeth on the mandibles ; the latter also have the 
posterior margin of the head more deeply concave. Forms inter- 
mediate in respect to the mandibular structure and the shape of the 
head also occur. Head much wider than the thorax, very convex 
transversely. Mandibles tridentate, the masticatory margin straight 
and with very small blunt teeth, or, more or less oblique, and with the 
teeth stronger and acute. The internal margin of the mandibles is 
more or less swollen. Clypeus short, slightly raised in the middle, the 
anterior margin feebly concave at each side. Frontal carinae short, 
close together and parallel. Antennae 6- jointed, the scape short, only 
just reaching the internal margins of the eyes when extended sideways; 
flagellum very little longer than the scape, the 1st joint as long as the 
2nd and 3rd together and a little longer than wide, 2nd joint as long 
as wide at its apex, 3rd joint a little shorter than the 2nd, wider than 
long, 4th joint twice as wide as long, 5th joint narrowing to the apex, 
half as long again as wide, and quite twice as long as the 4th. Eyes 
small, oval, situated far forwards, composed of about 15 facets, and 
separated from the base of the mandibles by a distance less than their 
own long diameter. Thorax rectangular, the corners rounded, nearly 
parallel-sided, or only very slightly wider in front than behind, convex 
longitudinally and transversely, the declivity vertical, the brow strongly 
rounded. 

First joint of the petiole triangular, longer than wide, widest behind. 
Second joint transverse, two and a quarter times wider than long, its 
posterior face coalesced on the whole surface with the abdomen. 
Abdomen ovate, all the segments wider than long. 

Legs short, the femora swollen, the 1st tarsal joint (metatarsus) of 
the front pair of legs sub-ovate, wider than the tibia, the other tarsal 
joints very short. The metatarsus of the middle pair of legs cylindrical, 
as thick as and two-thirds as long as the tibia. Metatarsus of hind 
pair of legs slightly compressed, a little wider than the tibia, and like 
the middle metatarsi, furnished with a series of minute teeth round 
the outer half of the apex. 

? . 4 mm. Mandibles with masticatory margin oblique and acutely 
dentate. Eyes large, the facets clearly defined ; three ocelli present 
and well developed. Head narrower in front than behind, posterior 
angles more pronounced than in the £ , and posterior margin much 
mox-e deeply emarginate. Pronotum not greatly exposed, not as high 
as the mesonotum and three times wider than long. Mesonotum 
convex above, but as long as wide, the sides smooth, the central area 



190 Annals of the South African Museum. 

and also the scutellum longitudinally striate. Scutellurn half as long 
as the mesonotum. Dorsum of epinotum very short, four times wider 
than long, the brow rounded, the declivity vertical. Second joint of 
petiole narrower than in the $ , hardly more than twice as wide as 
long. Legs as in the $ . 

Antennae, mandibles, petiole and legs dark yellow, the rest of the 
body brown, a little paler on the mesonotum. Wings with one closed 
cubital and closed radial cell, recurrent nervures wanting. Kervures 
brownish yellow, stigma almost obsolete. Otherwise like the $ . 

g . 3*7 mm. Ochreous yellow, legs and antennae pale yellow, 
vertex of head slightly brown. Head wider than long. Eyes large, 
placed in the anterior half of the head, and covering quite half of the 
sides. Ocelli large. Mandibles very small. Clypeus very short, the 
median portion raised and projecting slightly forwards. Antennae 
filiform, scape a little longer than the eye, two and a quarter times as 
long as the first joint of the flagellum, 2nd joint of flagellum nearly 
twice as long as the 1st, all the joints longer than wide. The pronotum 
is vertical, not visible from above ; mesonotum strongly convex above, 
faintly and longitudinally striate. Epinotum and petiole as in the ? . 
Tarsal joints simple, not as wide as the tibiae. Genital armature 
exserted. Wings as in the ? . Pubescence a little longer and more 
abundant than in that sex. ■ 

Durban, nesting under bark, in moderately populous colonies. 
(Marley, Cooper.) (S.A.M., E.M., O.A. colls.) 

Teibe MYEMECININI, Ashmead. 

Genus ATOPOMYEMEX, E. Andre. 
Eev. d'Ent., vol. 8, p. 226, 1889. 

Characters. 

$. Size variable, all forms occurring from ^ maj. to $ min. 
Antennae 12-jointed, with a 3-jointed club. Olypeus large, sub- 
triangular; mandibles short, thick and obtusely dentate. Frontal 
carinae widely divergent posteriorly, the outer margin projecting so as 
to form an indistinct scrobe in the largest $ $ . Eyes not large. 
Pronotum flat above, produced anteriorly into a distinct neck, from 
which and from the sides the dorsum is rather shortly delimited. 
The pronotum is widest in front, narrowed and constricted behind. 
Pro-mesonotal suture not distinctly defined dorsally. Mesonotum 
strongly bi-tuberculate above and separated from the epinotum by a 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 191 

wide and deep depression. Dorsum of epinoturn also tuberculate 
near the base. Epinotal spines large, long, and divergent. 1st node 
of petiole bispinose above ; 2nd node wider than long, the anterior 
angles rounded but strongly dilated. Middle and hind legs without 
calcaria, all the femora swollen in the middle ; last tarsal joint very 
large, as" long as the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th taken together, and bearing 
strong claws. 

$ . Antennae 12-jointed. Eyes not large, 3 well- developed ocelli. 
Frontal carinae long, and forming a more distinct scrobe than in the 
^ max. Pronotum very short in the middle ; meso- and epinoturn 
of the usual form, and without tubercles or spines ; dorsum of epi- 
noturn very short, the declivity vertical. 1st node of petiole with the 
spines of the $ represented only by two broad tubercles. Anterior 
wing with 1 cubital, and 1 marginal, and a closed radial cell. 

$ . Mandibles very short, thick, dentate. Posterior margin of 
head raised to form a collar. Clypeus carinate ; frontal carinae 
widely divergent. Eyes small. Scape short. Thorax and nodes 
without spines or tubercles. Wings as in the $ . 

A. Mocquerysi, Andre, var. curvispina, Forel. 
Rev. d'Ent., vol. 8, p. 227, $ , 1889. Variety, Deutsch. Ent, Zeitsch., 

p. 311, 1911. 

£ . 4 - 2-8 mm. The largest $ $ differ from the media and 
minima only by the longer frontal carinae, which are expanded out- 
wards so as to form, above the eyes, an ill-defined scrobe. Head 
dark red, thorax piceous or piceous red, petiole, abdomen and legs 
black, antennae reddish brown, margins of the mandibles, clypeus and 
frontal carinae brown. Abdomen, legs, and antennae with a very 
sparse, microscopical pubescence, a little longer on the antennae ; the 
rest of the body glabrous. Legs shining, disc of pronotum and 
abdomen very slightly shining, rest of the body dull, except the meso- 
notal tubercles in the £ maxima. Head finely reticulate, with rather 
irregular and longitudinal rugosities superimposed, which are strongest 
in front and on the vertex, and become feebler between the eyes and 
the posterior angles. Neck, sides of thorax, epinoturn, sides and 
posterior dorsal faces of the nodes reticulate. Dorsum of pro- and 
mesonotum longitudinally and somewhat irregularly rugose, the 
rugosities diminishing in front of the mesonotal tubercles, which are 
more or less smooth and shining. Abdomen very finely and evenly 
reticulate. Head very convex above and high, from apex of closed 
mandibles to the middle of the occipital margin as long as wide, 

1r> 
O 



192 Annals of the South African Mtiseum. 

distinctly wider behind than in front, the sides converging in front, 
the posterior angles very round. Mandibles thick, triangular, finely 
striated, sharply and closely punctured, obtusely dentate, the apical 
tooth more acute in the smaller £ $ . Scape short, not reaching to 
the posterior border of the head ; the three apical joints form a slight 
club, nearly as long as the rest of the flagellum, the 1st joint of the 
flagellum nearly as long as the following three taken together, 2nd- 
7th joints wider than long. Clypeus with two strong carinae con- 
tinued down from the frontal carinae, the anterior margin shallowly 
sinuate. Frontal carinae flat, widely divergent posteriorly, continued 
backwards as a fine ridge, which ends well behind the eyes in the $ 
max., but in the £> $ media and minima not extending back beyond 
the front of the eyes. The latter small, and situated behind the 
middle of the sides. Pronotum with the anterior portion depressed, 
forming a distinct neck, the posterior portion flat, and with distinct 
but rounded anterior angles ; it is (excluding the neck) widest in 
front, and twice as wide as it is long in the middle. The thorax is 
constricted between the pro- and mesonotum, but the suture is not 
clearly defined above. Mesonotum much narrower than the pronotum ; 
its anterior two-thirds is level with the pronotum, and bears on each 
side a strong rounded tubercle, behind which the surface slopes 
steeply down to the meso-epinotal suture. The mesonotum is widest 
across the tubercles. From the suture the epinotum rises upwards 
for a short distance, and then slopes gradually downwards towards 
declivity, which is moderately oblique. Close to the base, the dorsum 
of the epinotum bears a pair of lateral tubercles, smaller and flatter 
than those of the mesonotum. The epinotal spines are slightly 
curved, and directed upwards, backwards and slightly outwards, and 
are as long as the space between them at their base. The declivity is 
margined laterally by ridges, which merge above into the base of the 
spines, and below terminate in two small laminate teeth. 1st joint 
of petiole as long as wide, widest in the middle, the dorsum flat or 
shallowly concave, and bearing on each side, just above the steep 
anterior face, an upward and outwardly directed spine. Second node 
wider than long, convex above and in front, the posterior margin 
depressed, the anterior angles dilated, narrower behind than in front. 
Seen from the side, the spines of the first node hardly project above 
the level of the dorsum of the 2nd node. Abdomen round, slightly 
flattened above ; 1st segment a little longer than wide, truncate at the 
base, with distinct lateral angles, and forming four-fifths of the abdo- 
men above. 

$ . 13 mm. Head dark red, ocellar triangle blackish, thorax and 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 193 

abdomen black. Thorax shining. Pronotum obliquely rugoso-striate, 
scutellum and mesonotum longitudinally striate in the middle, 
obliquely so outside the parapsidal sutures. Metanotum and the 
narrow dorsum of the epinotum finely rugulose, the declivity very 
finely reticulate. Sides of meso-, meta-, and epinotum reticulate, the 
angles of the epinotum coarsely rugose. 2nd joint of petiole above, 
shining, sparsely but strongly punctured. Pronotum very little 
exposed in the middle dorsally. Mesonotum longer than wide, pro- 
mesonotal suture ellipsoidal. Scutellum sloping and rounded behind. 
Dorsum of epinotum very short in the middle, the declivity almost 
vertical ; the epinotum is devoid of spines, which are replaced by very 
blunt angles on each side. 1st joint of petiole with the anterior face 
more vertical than in the $ , each side with a strong angle in the 
middle, and above and inwards there is a pair of rather flat tubercles. 
Second joint with the anterior angles more dilated than in the £ . 
Abdomen oblong, 1st segment one-quarter longer than the 2nd, all 
the segments wider than long. Wings brownish yellow, with the 
cubital and radial cells somewhat darker, nervures brown. Other- 
wise like the ^ max. 

This genus appears to combine in the head and thorax some of the 
characters of the genera Cremastogaster and Tetramorium, and the 
habits of the species described above are decidedly similar to those of 
the Cremastogastrii. It is a slow ant, living in trees, and. mainly 
carnivorous in its diet. The nest is usually situated in a hollow stem, 
some distance above the ground. Like the Cremastogastrii, these ants, 
when disturbed, exude a whitish and rather sticky secretion from the 
anal glands. It has not been found by me except in districts contain- 
ing large trees. 

Sipapoma, Malindi, and Victoria Falls, Rhodesia. Zululand. 
(Traegaordh.) (S.A.M., R.M., G-.A. colls.) 

Var. australis, Santschi. 

G-oeteborgs K. Vetensk. o. Vitterh. Handl., xv, 2, p. 16, $ , 1914. 

" Differs from the type by the slightly stronger sculpturation of 
the head. The mesonotum is wider. The epinotal spines are a little 
shorter, less raised. The spines of the 1st node of the petiole also 
shorter and thicker ; the 2nd node longer. The colour in the $ 
minor paler than in the type." Zululand. (Traegaordh.) 



194 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Tribe OCYMYEMICINI, Emery. 

Genus OCYMYRMEX, Emery. 
Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital., vol. 18, p. 363, 1886. 

Characters. 

$ . Head sub-quadrate. Clypeus convex, the anterior margin 
rendered more or less bidentate by a median excision. Frontal area 
narrow, distinct. Antennae 12-jointed, nearly filiform, scape long, at 
least half as long as the flagellum. Mandibles, clypeus and head 
below the mouth furnished with long curved hairs (ammochaetae). 
Thoracic sutures absent ; thorax unarmed, depressed in the middle. 
First joint of petiole pedunculate, the peduncle very thin and longer 
than the node ; 2nd joint more or less barrel-shaped. Abdomen 
small, more or less pyriform, legs very long and slender. ? un- 
known. 

$ . Antennae filiform, 13-jointed, the scape very short, not more 
than twice the length of one ocellus ; 1st joint of flagellum very short, 
half the length of the scape, the remaining joints all at least three 
times longer than wide. Eyes and ocelli large, the latter on a raised 
area. Mesonotum very wide and gibbous, overhanging the pronotum. 
Scutellum gibbous. Mayrian furrows and parapsidal sutures absent. 
Wings with one closed cubital cell, the discoidal cell absent, the radial 
short. 

The ants of this genus live in hot, arid and sandy localities. The 
nest, usually made in loose sandy soil, is surmounted by a crateri- 
form mass of earthen or sandy pellets derived from the excavation of 
the underground galleries. The entrance is always central, at the 
bottom of the crater. Like other aremphilous ants, the species of this 
genus possess long curved hairs or " ammochaetae," fringing the 
mandibles, clypeus, and the ventral surface of the head behind the 
mouth. The hairs, forming a sort of basket around the mandibles, 
facilitate the l'emoval of grains of sand in the excavation of their 
nests. These ants are also endowed with the most marvellous 
celerity, far excelling in this respect all other ants with which I am 
acquainted, so much so that they appear almost to fly over the surface 
of the ground. Their motion is just as erratic as it is swift ; they 
seem incapable of pursuing a straight path for more than a couple of 
inches, and watching one of these insects for but a short time, a 
casual observer might be led to suppose that the unfortunate animal, 
having lost its way, had been seized with hysterical dementia. The 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 195 

males are exceedingly common at lights during the greater part of the 
year. I have frequently dug up the nests of the variety Arnoldi, 
without ever having found a $ of any sort, nor have 5 $ of any 
species been described up to now. I believe that the genus will 
eventually be found to have only ergatoid queens, or that the egg- 
laying function (with the production of <$ <$ and ^ ^ ) is possessed 
by the whole ^ caste. 

y 

Key to the ^ ^ of Ocymyrmex. 

(Note. — In using this key, the term " node of the 1st joint " should 
be understood to refer to the swollen part of the joint only ; it does 
not include the narrow and short portion which lies between the node 
proper and the base of the 2nd joint.) 

(2). 1. Outline of 1st abdominal segment, seen from above, evenly convex 
from the base, not sub-pedunculate. (Plate V, fig. 53.) 

harbiger, Emery. 

(1). 2. Outline of 1st abdominal segment, seen from above, shallowly concave 
just beyond the base, more or less sub-pedunculate. (Plate V, fig. 52a.) 

(8). 3. Less than 8'5 mm. long. 

(5). 4. Node of 1st joint of petiole wider than long. Weitzaeckeri, Emery. 

(4). 5. Node of 1st joint of petiole longer than wide, or as long as wide. 

(7). 6. Stouter insect, 2nd joint of petiole hardly longer than the node of the 
1st joint ; median excision of the clypeus shallow, hardly bidentate ; 
abdomen red, moderately shining . . var. Foreli, Arnold. 

(6). 7. Insect more slender, 2nd joint of petiole one-third to one-half longer 
than the node of the 1st joint ; median excision of clypeus deeper, 
making the margin distinctly bidentate ; abdomen piceous, shining. 

var. Arnoldi, Forel. 

(3). 8. 10-11 mm. long ..... Picardi, Forel. 

The races hirsutus and Wroughtoni, and the var. micans of Weit- 
zaeckeri are not known to me in nature, and have therefore been 
omitted from the above key. The different forms of Weitzaeckeri are 
clearly exceedingly closely allied, and ought not to be considered as 
ranking higher than varieties. The striation of the head varies in 
strength and direction, even in specimens from the same nest, so that 
very little reliance can be placed on that feature in the separation of 
the species and varieties. 

0. Weitzaeckeki, Emery. (Plate V, fig. 54) 
Ann. Mus. Civ. Genoa, vol. 32, p. 116, $ , 1892. 
5. 65-7 mm. Castaneous red, tibiae and tarsi paler, femora and 
abdomen piceous. In some specimens the colouring is darker, the 



196 Annals of the South African Museum. 

head and thorax being dark reddish brown, and the abdomen black. 
Pubescent hairs on the flagellum and tarsi, the rest of the body 
clothed somewhat irregularly and sparsely with long, semi-erect, pale 
hairs, which are oblique and rather more abundant on the legs. The 
inner margins of the mandibles with a row of long curved hairs, 
curving upwards over the clypeus. The ventral surface of the head 
behind the mentum, with a row of long hairs curving forwards under 
the mouth. 

Head as wide as long, measured from apex of clypeus to the 
occipital margin. Clypeus moderately convex transversely, and pro- 
jecting a little over the mandibles ; the anterior margin semi-circularly 
excised in the middle, the excision bounded by a slight tooth on each 
side. Mandibles elongate, nitidulous, strongly striate longitudinally, 
armed with 5 large teeth. Eyes strongly convex, placed somewhat 
dorsally at about the middle of the sides. Frontal carinae large, 
raised in front, divergent behind ; the frontal area triangular and 
well denned. Scape long, extending back a little beyond the occipital 
margin, flagellum slightly thickened towards the apex, all the joints 
longer than wide, the 1st joint as long as the 2nd and 3rd together. 
The clypeus is evenly and longitudinally striate, the rest of the head 
strongly striate, the direction of the striae rather variable. Usually 
the median portion of the vertex is longitudinally striate from the 
frontal carinae back towards the occiput, and on each side of the 
median area the striae become more and more oblique posteriorly, 
curving back to the eyes. The thoracic sutures are only slightly 
indicated at the sides, quite obsolete above. The anterior portion of 
the thorax is convex in front and at the sides, the median portion 
depressed, the posterior or epinotal region straight or slightly convex. 
The prothorax is concentrically striate, the meso- and epinotum trans- 
versely striate above, obliquely and longitudinally striate at the sides. 
The striae on the meso- and epinotum are larger and deeper than those 
on the head and prothorax. The dorsum of the epinotum is half as 
long again as the declivity. The peduncle of the first joint of the 
petiole is quite half the length of the joint ; the node is distinctly 
wider than long, very convex above. The peduncle and node are 
transversely striate, the node feebly so. The 2nd joint of the petiole 
is as long as wide, more or less campaniform, not so convex above as 
the 1st node. Abdomen narrow, twice as long as wide, the 1st 
segment with a slight neck-like constriction at the base, and four and 
a half times longer than the remaining segments taken together. 
There are a few very faint transverse striae near the basal half of the 
1st segment. Legs very long and slender. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 197 

$ . 5-56 mm. Piceous, antennae, mandibles and legs ochreous. 
Head dull, reticulately rugose, except the central area between the 
antennal sockets and the median ocellus, which is smooth and shining. 
Rest of body faintly rugulose and very shining. Pilosity similar to 
that of the £ , but shorter, and more abundant on the abdomen. 
Legs and antennae with a pale and long pubescence, more abundant 
on the latter. Head wider than long ; eyes large, placed anteriorly 
and occupying more than half the sides of the head. Anterior margin 
of clypeus straight. Frontal carinae obsolete. Scape very short, very 
little longer than the long diameter of the median ocellus ; 1st joint 
of the flagelluui a little wider than long, the remaining joints all 
much longer than wide. Pronotum not visible from above ; meso- 
notum gibbous, and very convex anteriorly, wider than long. Scutellum 
rounded behind and gibbous. Petiole not unlike that of the $ , but 
the peduncle of the 1st joint is much shorter and wider, the node is 
also broader and flatter, and longer than wide. The posterior femora 
are laterally compressed, and strongly sinuate along their basal half. 
Wings hyaline, nervures pale yellowish. 

Orange Free State, Basutoland, and Cape Province. (S.A.M., 
G.A. colls.) 

Var. Arnoldi, Forel. (Plate V, figs. 52, 52a, 55.) 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. 138, £ , <y, 1913. 

Pace ahdominalis, Santschi, Goteborgs K. Vetens. o. Vitterh. Handl., 
xv, 2, p. 16, 1914. 

^ . Like the var. Foreli, this differs from the type species in having 
the node of the 1st joint of the petiole longer than wide. The colour 
of the head is lighter, the dorsal profile of the thorax less concave in 
the middle. The $ is like that of the type. 

S. Ehodesia, common. (S.A.M., P.M., G.A. colls.) 
Pace ahdominalis, Santschi. I have seen examples of this form, 
which have the basal portion of the 1st abdominal segment slightly 
longer, making the abdomen appear narrower. This character does 
not appear to me to be sufficient to separate them fi'om var. Arnoldi. 

Var. Foreli, n. v." 

£ . 7"8 mm. This differs from the preceding and the type by its 
bright red colour, the stronger striation of the thorax, and by the 
sculpture of the 1st joint of the petiole, which is deeply and trans- 
versely striate on the whole of the node and the peduncle. The median 
excision on the anterior margin of the clypeus is also less deep. The 



198 Annals of the South African Museum. 

abdomen is wider, the 1st segment being only a trifle longer than wide, 
and only twice as long as the 2nd segment, whereas in the type species 
and in var. Arnoldi, it is at least one-quarter longer than wide, and 
three times longer than the 2nd segment. The basal neck-like portion 
of the 1st segment is also shorter. 

This variety has a r „very strong cockroachy odour, similar to Pachy- 
condyla soror. Eedbank, S. Rhod., Victoria Falls. 

(S.A.M., R.M., G.A. colls.) 

The examples from the Victoria Falls are even larger, 8-8*3 mm., and 
have the excision of the clypeus almost as deep as in var. Arnoldi, but 
these differences are hardly sufficient to justify their separation as a 
variety distinct from Foreli. 

Race hirsutus, Forel. 
Schultze Eeise Siid Afrika, vol. 4, p. 12, $ , 1910. 

" $ . 5 - 5-7 mm. Reddish brown, with brighter brownish yellow 
abdomen. The whitish, stumpy, pilose hairs are more abundant and 
longer than in the type species ; the hairs are also thicker. Headless 
wide in front. First joint of petiole with much longer peduncle, some- 
what like Robechii, Emery, and laticejps, Forel, and with smaller nodes. 
The head is also arcuately and transversely striate behind (in the type 
species somewhat divergent and longitudinally striate), and not so 
wide." 

Severelela and Kooa, Kalahari. (Schultze.) 

Race Wroughtoni, Forel. 
Loc. cit. 

" Differs from the type by its darker brown colour, but more 
especially by the narrower head which is hardly widened in front, and 
has the sides more convex. The 1st joint of the petiole has also a 
longer peduncle, and the yellowish hairs are also longer, although not 
so blunt as in hirsutus. The head is narrower than in hirsutus. The 
<$ is 4 - 5 mm. long. Its head is short behind the eyes, wider than 
long, the hind margin broad and convex. Wings glassy. Mesonotum 
strongly gibbous in front. First joint of petiole with long peduncle." 

Natal. (Wroughton.) 

Var. micans, Forel. 

Loc. cit., p. 12. 

" $ • 5 - 5 mm. Head and thorax nitidulous, more closely and 
finely striate than in the type species. The node of the 1st joint of 



A Monograph of the Formiciclae of South Africa. 199 

the petiole is higher and more distinctly delimited. Otherwise similar, 
but smaller. The colour is, however, much brighter, yellowish red, and 
the pilosity is finer and sparser. 

" Okahandja, German S. W. Africa. (Peters.) " 

0. barbiger, Emery. (Plate V, fig. 53.) 
Boll. Soc. Ent. Ital., vol. 18, p. 364, $, <?, 1886. 

$. 6'5 mm, Very similar to WeitzaecJceri, but the thorax is darker 
and the abdomen is quite black. The striation of the head at the 
sides in front is a little stronger, but the direction of the striation is 
very variable. The clypeus is excised like that of WeitzaecJceri. The 
petiole resembles that of var. Foreli, but is not quite so strongly striate. 
The main distinction lies in the shape of the abdomen, which is 
rounder and with the 1st segment not sub-pedunculate at the base, 
but convex in its entire outline, when seen from above. 

$ . 5 mm. Differs from WeitzaecJceri in the shape of the head, which 
is narrower, not wider than long, but even a little longer than wide. 
The eyes are much smaller ; they are not placed so far forwards, and 
occupy less than half the sides of the head. The ocelli are also smaller 
and less raised. The clypeus is very convex in the middle, almost 
tuberculate. The mesonotum is narrow, finely and longitudinally 
striate, and separated from the scutellum by a much deeper impression 
than in WeitzaecJceri. The petiole and abdomen are much more sparsely 
pilose, and the hairs are shorter and thinner. The posterior femora 
are laterally compressed, but not sinuate along the basal half. The 
whole insect is much more shining than WeitzaecJceri. 

Capetown, Orange River, Mahalapye, Bechuanaland. (S.A.M., 
R.M., GA. colls.) 

0. Picardi, Forel. 

Mitth. Schweiz. Ent. Ges., vol. 10, p. 306, % , 1895. 

" £ . 10-11 mm. Mandibles closely and coarsely striate, quinque- 
dentate, almost parallel- sided (hardly wider at the masticatory margin 
than at the base). Clypeus somewhat produced and narrowly and 
semi-circularly excised in the middle, so as to leave a tooth-like angle 
on each side of the excision. Head at least as wide as long, wider in 
front. Eyes situated behind the middle. The scape extends back 
slightly beyond the occipital margin. Declivity of epinotum steeper 
than in BobeccJiii, more like that of WeitzaecJceri. First joint of petiole 
with a long peduncle as in the other species, but the node is more 



200 Annals of the South African Museum. 

distinct, even more than in barbiger ; 2nd joint hardly longer than 
wide, more nodiform than in barbiger. First abdominal segment 
strongly pedunculate as in Robecchii and nitidulus. Head and thorax 
almost dull, closely striate and finely reticulate between the striae. 
Pronotum concentrically striate, the median striae longitudinal. The 
rest of the thorax above transversely striate, the side longitudinally so. 
The peduncle of the 1st joint of petiole coarsely, the node finely striate. 
Second joint of petiole finely reticulate, slightly shining. Abdomen 
and legs very shallowly reticulate and very shining. Head, thorax, 
petiole, antennae and legs with fairly short, oblique, thick and blunt 
brownish black hairs, moderately abundant. Abdomen almost 
glabrous above. On the legs and antennae the hairs are more abundant, 
shorter and oblique. The ammochaetae are blackish brown. Head 
very dark red, the rest of the body black. 

" Cubango-Cuito, Mossamedes. (Baum.) Severelela and Kooa, 
Kalahari. (Schultze.) " 

Tlube CARDIOCONDYLINI, Emery. 

Genus CARDIOCOOTYLA, Emery. 
Ann. Acad. Nat, Napoli, vol. 2, p. 20, 1869. 

Characters. 

$ . Antennae 12-jointed, with a 3-jointed club. Frontal area 
depressed. Pro-mesonotal suture obsolete or nearly so, meso-epinotal 
suture well defined. Epinotum armed with two short spines or teeth. 
First joint of the petiole with a long peduncle, the node narrow, 2nd 
joint broad. 

$ . Head as in the £ , with 3 small ocelli, somewhat sunk below 
the surface. Pronotum well exposed, not hidden under the mesonotum. 
Wings long, the nervures only faintly indicated, radial cell open. 

<$ . Normal and winged, or ergatomorph and wingless. Antennae 
13-jomted, or 10 to 11-jointed in the ergatomorphs. So far, winged 
$ $ are known only in C. Emeryi, and as an abnormality in C. Batesi, 
which usually has ergatomorph males. For other characters of the 
winged $ , see species below. 

C. Emeryi, Forel. (Plate V, figs. 57, 57a.) 

Mitth. Miinchen Ent. Ver., vol. 1, p. 5, $ , 1881. Andre, Ann. Soc. 

Ent. France (6), p. 69, £ , 1881. 

5 • 1'8-2T mm. Head, thorax, petiole, legs and antennae ochreous, 

abdomen brown. Sometimes the head, the club of the antennae and 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 201 

the 2nd node are darker, reddish yellow or slightly brownish. Head, 
thorax and 1st joint of petiole finely and evenly reticulate, 2nd joint 
of petiole very shallowly punctate, abdomen smooth and shining. 
Whole body and legs microscopically pubescent. Head one-third 
longer than wide, sides feebly convex, posterior corners rounded, 
posterior margin straight. Clypeus produced, projecting over the 
hind portion of the mandibles. The median area of the clypeus is 
elongate triangular, raised and produced rather far back between the 
frontal carinae ; the lateral portions are laminate and bent upwards. 
The frontal area is small but clearly defined. The frontal carinae 
short, divergent behind. Mandibles quadridentate, the apical and 
post-apical teeth large and acute. The scape does not extend back as 
far as the hind margin of the head ; the 1st joint of the flagellum is 
two and a half times as long as wide, and as long as the five succeeding 
joints taken together, the apical joint is four times as long as the 
penultimate, and nearly as long as the rest of the flagellum less the 
1st joint; 2nd-9th joints wider than long. Eyes rather prominent, 
situated well in front of the middle of the sides. Thoi-ax widest in 
front, not so wide as the head. Pro-mesonotum hardly longer than 
wide, meso-epinotal suture distinct. The thorax is distinctly con- 
stricted between the meso- and epinotum. The latter is rather convex 
lengthwise at the base, and slopes rapidly at the apex to the brow of 
the concave declivity. Epinotal teeth small, triangular. The 1st 
joint of the petiole has a short, broad peduncle, the node is narrow, 
convex above, at the sides and in front, the anterior face almost 
vertical. The 2nd joint of the petiole is oblong transversely, one-third 
wider than long, and twice as wide as the 1st, convex above and at 
the sides. Abdomen oval, the 1st segment distinctly longer than wide, 
and four times as long as the remaining segments tahen together. 
Legs moderately long, femora not swollen ; middle and hind tibiae 
without calcai'ia. 

? (hitherto und escribed?). 2 - 5 mm. Head, thorax and petiole 
brown, abdomen black, legs, antennae and mandibles yellow, the club 
of the flagellum infuscate. Head very similar to that of the $ , but 
a trifle wider. Eyes rather small, very little larger than in the £> . 
Ocelli small, inconspicuous and sunk a little below the surface. Pro- 
notum widely exposed at the anterior lateral angles, which are rounded ; 
the median portion of the pronotum is occluded by the mesonotum, 
which extends far forwards in the middle. The mesonotum is convex 
in front, very feebly convex or nearly flat transversely in its posterior 
half. The scutellum is rather flat, very slightly raised above the level 
of the metanotum. Dorsum of epinotum wider than long, widest at 



202 Annals of the South African Museum. 

the base, sloping downwards posteriorly ; the epinotal teeth are longer 
than in the $ , the space between them shallowly excavated. Petiole 
as in the $ . Abdomen similar to that of the $ , but larger. Wings 
hyaline, the nervures hardly distinguishable. Puncturation as in the 
^ . The pubescence of the abdomen is longer and more abundant 
than in the $ . 

" $ . 2 mm. Head a little longer than wide ; wider in front than 
behind ; mandibles large, armed with 4 or 5 teeth, the apical one being 
the largest. Clypeus similar to that of the ^ > ^ is large, fairly 
convex, rounded in front, raised above the base of the ' mandibles ; 
frontal area deep, forming an obtuse angle with the clypeus ; frontal 
carinae short, frontal sulcus absent ; eyes large, situated in front of 
the middle of the sides of the head. Antennae 13- jointed, all the 
joints longer than wide ; scape about as long as the first 8 joints of 
the flagellum. First joint of the flagellum. a little wider but as long 
as the 2nd, the latter longer than the 3rd, the remaining joints 
lengthen and widen gradually towards the apex, without forming a 
well-defined club ; the apical joint is longer than the two preceding 
joints taken together. Thorax but slightly elongated, at least as high 
as wide in front ; pronotum visible from above, the lateral angles 
pronounced but rounded. Mesonotum a little longer than wide, 
without Mayrian furrows ; dorsum of epinotum oblique, longer than 
wide, wider in front than behind, the declivity half as long as the 
dorsum, nearly vertical and slightly concave transversely ; epinotal 
teeth strong, acute, divergent towards their apices and directed 
upwards. Petiole similar to that of the ^ . Abdomen oval ; genital 
armature small, not exposed. Wings with only one cubital cell, the 
radial and discoidal cells wanting. Eeddish testaceous, with the upper 
surface of the head and of the petiole, the flagellum, and some spots 
on the thorax more or less blackish, abdomen brownish black. Head 
and thorax dull, finely punctured, at the bottom of each puncture is a 
piligerous point. Petiole nearly smooth and moderately shining ; 
abdomen smooth and very shining. Pilosity absent, pubescence fine 
and not dense. Wings nearly hyaline." 

S. Ehodesia, generally distributed ; Durban. (C. B. Cooper.) This 
very small species is usually found nesting in grassy soil ; the entrance 
to the nest is a very minute hole, not surrounded by any earth or other 
substances. The species is tropicopolitan. 

(S.A.M., P.M., G.A. colls.) 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 203 



Tribe SOLENOPSIDINI, Forel. 
Sub-Tribe MONOMORIINI, Emery. 

The tribe includes the following South African genera: Monomorium, 
Diplomorium and Solenopsis. 

Genus MONOMORIUM, Mayr. 
Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, vol. v, p. 452, 1855. 

Characters. 

£' . Head more or less rectangular ; mandibles narrow, with 3 or 4 
acute teeth ; clypeus with the anterior margin more or less raised and 
projecting over the base of the closed mandibles ; the triangular or 
quadrangular median area is raised above the level of the short lateral 
portions, and has usually two obtuse carinae, convergent behind between 
the bases of the antennae (see Plate V, fig. 58c) ; sometimes the carinae 
end in front in very short blunt teeth ; frontal area, distinct. Frontal 
carinae short. Antennae 11- or 12-jointed, with a distinct club formed 
of the three apical joints. Thorax widest in front ; promesonotal 
suture obsolete, meso-epinotal suture deep and well defined. Epinotum 
without teeth. First joint of petiole shortly pedunculate in front. 
Abdomen distinctly, but not widely truncate at the base (see Plate V, 
fig. 58a). 

$ . Thorax elongate, pronotum very little exposed above ; meso- 
notum longer than wide ; dorsum of scutellum level or nearly so with 
that of the mesonotum. Epinotum without teeth ; the declivity and 
the posterior portion of the dorsum more or less excavated and concave, 
so that the lateral margins appear raised or tumid. Petiole similar 
to that of the £ • Abdomen elongate, rounded apically. Wings with 
one cubital cell, the radial cell open. 

<§ . Head broad and flat ; eyes large, ocelli not large. Mandibles 
well developed and dentate. Clypeus broad. Antennae filiform, 
13-jointed. Thorax similar to that of the ? . Petiole, especially 
the peduncle of the 1st joint, wider than in the ? , the node not so 
high. Abdomen as in the ? , but with the basal angles rounded. 

This very large genus occurs in both hemispheres, chiefly in the 
tropical zone, and includes several cosmopolitan species, some of 
which are frequently found in hot-houses in temperate countries. 



204 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Most of our South African species nest in the ground, sometimes 
forming very populous nests containing many hundreds of the 5 
caste. The ^ ^ of at least all the South African species which I have 
seen have a very distinctive, although minute character by which they 
may be recognised. The base of the ventral plate of the 1st abdominal 
segment forms a pronounced angle with the sides, so that the base of 
the abdomen has a distinctly truncated appearance. Moreover, in 
many species the abdomen has a more or less glaucous sheen, giving a 
steely reflection. These characters can be best observed under a lens. 
The truncate appearance of the base of the abdomen is certainly 
noticeable in some other genera, but rarely to such a marked extent 
as in Monomorium. The specific characters, which when taken 
together separate our numerous species from, one another, are fairly 
distinctive, but are often not sufficiently palpable when considered 
singly, so that it is no easy task to frame analytical keys for all the 
species. I have endeavoured to draw up a key to include all those 
species which I have seen, and also a few others which are known to 
me only from descriptions, but which yet appear to possess characters 
sufficiently distinctive to be utilised in a table. 

In many species of the genus, e. g., alboj)ilosum, bicolor, etc., the 
sculpture consists in part of a very fine and even raised reticulation, 
but under a low magnification only, this has a granulate appearance, 
owing to the manner in which the light is reflected from the smooth 
areas enclosed within the reticulations. Such a form of sculpture is 
described in the following pages as granulate, since its real character 
is appreciable only with rather high magnification. 

K 

„ ff Key to the $ $ of Monomorium. 

c>(-^trc^a/^ y. Antennae^-jointed (sub-genus Mitara, Forel). 

(3). 2. Yellowish species ; sides of head distinctly, and of 2nd node of petiole, 
slightly convex . (mictilis, Forel) race atomus, Forel. 

(2). 8. Brownish species ; sides of head and of 2nd node of petiole straight. 

(exiguum, Forel), var. bulatvayensis, Forel. 
(1). 4. Antennae 12-jointed. 
(28). 5. Head and thorax dull, or only very slightly shining. 
(7). 6. Head strongly striate and quadrate . . Emeryi, Mayr. 

(6). 7. Head not strongly striated. 
(17). 8. Head closely and fairly strongly granulate (see remark in introductory 

paragraph above). 
(12). 9. Dorsum of epinotum distinctly excavated. 

(11). 10. Dorsum of epinotum deeply excavated. Entirely black, 4 - 2 mm. long; 
posterior angles of the head prominent, feebly rounded. 

a/rum, Andre. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 205 

(10). 11. Dorsum of epinotum not very deeply excavated. Yellowish brown, 
2"4 mm. long ; posterior angles of the head considerably rounded. 

(Salamonis L.), race subopacum, Smith. 
(9). 12. Dorsum of epinotum not excavated, but flat or convex. 
(16). 13. Black or brownish species. 

(15). 14. 3 - 5 mm. long. Entirely black; 1st node, seen from above, conical, 
longer than wide, the pediincle half as long as the node. 

(albopilosum, Emery), var. Tholes, Forel. 
(14). 15. 3 mm. long. Dark brown, head paler brown; 1st node less conical, 
more wedge-shaped, not longer than wide, the peduncle very short. 

(Salamonis L.), race Junodi, Forel. 
(13). 16. Head and thorax bright yellowish red ; abdomen brownish. 

(bicolor, Emery), var. nitidiventris, Emery. 
(8). 17. Head very finely sculptured, more or less mimitely longitudinally 
striato-punctate, or reticulate. 
(21). 18. Colour pale. 

(20). 19. Head and thorax brownish yellow. Scape not reaching the hind 
margin of the head by the length of the eye. 

(Salamonis L.), var. Uiserta, Forel. 

(19). 20. Head and thorax bright yellow. Scape reaching the hind margin of 

the head ....... Pharaonis L. 

(18). 21. Colour dark. 

(23). 22. A median ocellus fairly well defined ; larger species, 3 - 3-38 mm. 

(Salamonis L.), race australis, Emery. 
(22). 23. No trace of ocelli. 
(25). 24. Thorax strongly constricted at the meso-epinotal suture, 2'2 mm. 

(setuliferum, Forel), var. notula, Forel. 
(24). 25. Thorax not strongly constricted at the meso-epinotal suture. 
(27). 26. Abdomen with a bluish, sub-metallic reflection. 1st node conical. 
2"8-3'4 mm. long . . (Salamonis L.), var. opacior, Forel. 

(26). 27. Abdomen without any bluish reflection. 1st node more wedge-shaped, 
3 mm. long. 
(Salamonis L., race delagoensis, Forel), var. graliamstownensis, Forel. 
(5). 28. Head and thorax, and usually also the abdomen, smooth and shining. 
(36). 29. Entirely black, or dark brown species. 

(31). 30. Very small species, less than 2 mm. . . minutum, Mayr. 

(30). 31. Larger species, 2 - 7 mm. and more. 
(33). 32. Large stout species, 3"7-4 mm. Sides of head very convex. 

Tchelichofi, Forel. 
(32). 33. More slender species, sides of head not very convex. 
(35). 34. 3 mm. long. 

(Salamonis L., race herero, Forel), var. willowmorensis, Forel. 
(34). 35. 2 - 6 mm. long. . (Salamonis L., race Herero), var. belli, Forel. 

(29). 36. Yellow, reddish yellow or yellowish brown species, at least in part. 
(38). 37. Polymorphic species, the £ £ varying from 1*8 to 4 mm. 

(amblyojjs, Emery), race bulawayense, Forel. 
(37). 38. Monomorphic species. 
(40). 39. Second node twice as wide as long. 

(Oscaris, Forel, race springvalense, Forel), var. paterna, Forel. 



206 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(39). 40. Second node about as long as wide. 

(44). 41. Second node sub-globose ; seen in profile, highest at or near the 

middle. 
(43). 42. Eyes separated from the base of the mandibles by a distance equal to 

twice the length of the eye. First node feebly convex below 2 mm. 

long ...... Leimbachi, Forel. 

(42). 43. Eyes separated from the base of the mandibles by a distance not 

greater than the length of the eye. First node strongly convex below 

1"4 mm. long . . (Braunsi, Mayr), var. shilohensis, Forel. 

(41). 44. Second node not sub-globose, wider in front than behind ; seen in 

profile, highest in front. 
(46). 45. First node distinctly higher than long. 1'6-1"9 mm. long. 

Arnoldi, Forel. 
(45). 46. First node longer than, or as long as high. 
(48). 47. First node not higher than the 2nd. l - 6-l'8 mm. long. 

(Oscaris, Forel), var. nuptialis, Forel. 
(47). 48. First node higher than the 2nd. 
(50). 49. Node of 1st joint of petiole very little longer than the peduncle; seen 

in profile, the dorsum and declivity of epinotum are fairly clearly 

delimited, the declivity sub-vertical . . Schultzei, Forel. 

(49). 50. Node of 1st joint almost twice as long as its peduncle ; seen in profile, 

the dorsum of the epinotum merges very gradually into the declivity, 

which is very oblique (Oscaris, Forel), race springvalense, Forel. 

M. afrtjm, Andre. (Plate V, figs. 58, 58a, 586, 58c.) 
Ann. Mus. Civ., Genoa, vol. 21, p. 540, £ , 1884. 

9' . 4" 2 mm. Black, mandibles castaneous, flagellum and tarsi 
brownish red. Pubescence short and very scanty. Anterior margin 
of clypeus, petiole and margins of abdominal segments with a few 
long yellowish hairs. Head, thorax and petiole densely and finely 
reticulate, but appearing granulate when seen under a low magnifica- 
tion. Abdomen microscopically rugulose or reticulate. The whole 
body dull. Mandibles shining, striate and coarsely punctured, and 
armed with 4 sharp teeth. Side of clypeus longitudinally striate. 
Legs slightly shining. 

Head a little longer than wide, as wide in front as behind, sides 
moderately convex, posterior angles slightly rounded but prominent, 
the occipital margin almost straight. Eyes flat, situated a little in 
front of the middle of the sides. Clypeus raised in the middle, 
obtusely carinate on each side of the raised area, the carinae ending 
anteriorly in blunt points, and converging posteriorly between the 
frontal carinae. Frontal ' carinae short, sub-parallel. Scape long, 
extending back just beyond the occipital margin ; 1st joint of flagellum 
as long as the 2nd and 3rd together, 4th joint as long as wide, all the 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 207 

others longer than wide, the club four-fifths as long as the rest of the 
flagellum. Pro-mesonotum one-third longer than wide. The thorax 
is compressed laterally and narrowest at the meso-epinotal suture. 
The dorsum of the epinotum widens towards the brow of the declivity, 
and is excavated, so that the sides of the excavation form two obtuse 
longitudinal ridges, diverging backwards ; the declivity is short and 
almost vertical. The 1st joint of the petiole has a short peduncle, 
shorter than the node, which is wedge-shaped, wider than long and 
rounded above; the front face of the node is rounded from side to 
side and vertical, the posterior face is slightly concave in the middle 
and slopes forwards. The 2nd joint of the petiole is sub-globose, 
widest in front, and only slightly wider than the 1st. First segment 
of abdomen • a little longer than wide, longer than the remaining 
segments taken together. 

Bulawayo. This species forms very populous nests in the soil, 
generally in exposed and sunny situations. 

(S.A.M., R.M., G.A. colls.)' 

M. albopilosum, Emery. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 24, £ , 1895. 

" 5 • 3-3*5 mm. Elongate, piceous brown, mandibles and articula- 
tions ferruginous, pilosity long, fine and white, head and thorax very 
closely punctured, dull, petiole very finely punctured, nitidulous, 
abdomen shining, with a bluish sheen, punctured at the extreme base ; 
head elongate, clypeus emarginate, antennae slender. The scape 
extending back beyond the occipital margin ; meso-epinotal suture of 
thorax moderately impressed, nodes of petiole subequal, legs shining 
and pilose." 

Bloemfontein, Kimberley, Makapan, Leribe. (Weitzaecker.) 
Umfulosi, Zululand. (Tragaeordh.) 

Var. Thales, Forel. (Plate V, fig. 61.) 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. 136, £ , 1913. 

$ . 3 - 5 mm. Black, tarsi, articulations of the legs, and flagellum 
brownish, mandibles and sides of clypeus ferruginous. Sparingly 
clothed with thin, white, semi-erect hairs. Head, thorax, and 
posterior faces of the nodes very finely and closely reticulate-punctate. 
Clypeus finely and longitudinally striate. Anterior faces of the 
nodes of the petiole very finely punctured, abdomen smooth, slightly 
shining, with a bluish sheen. Head a little more than one-quarter 
longer than wide, sides feebly convex, posterior angles very rounded, 

14 



208 Annals of the South African Museum. 

occipital margin straight. Median area of clypeus raised, obtusely 
bicarinate, the front margin of the median area feebly concave. 
Frontal carinae short and parallel. A shining and smooth line on the 
vertex extends back from the end of the clypeus to about the level of 
the eyes. The latter not large, situated just in front of the middle 
of the sides. Mandibles longitudinally striate, elongate, armed with 
4 teeth, the apical and sub-apical acute. Scape of antenna long, 
extending beyond the occipital margin, 1st joint of flagellum two and 
a half times as long as the second, the club, composed of the three 
apical joints, is as long as the rest of the flagellum. The pro-meso- 
notum is widest at the anterior fourth ; the thorax is rather strongly 
constricted at the meso-epinotal suture, which is deep. Epinotum 
longer than wide, widest at the middle, two-thirds the length of the 
pro-mesonotum, the declivity oblique and about half as long as the 
dorsum, the brow of the declivity considerably rounded. First joint 
of petiole with the peduncle half as long as the node, the latter longer 
and higher than wide, higher than the 2nd joint. The latter is about 
as long as wide, sub-quadrate, the anterior margin rounded. First 
segment of abdomen longer than wide, and twice as long as the 
remaining segments taken together. Legs long and slender. 

? (hitherto undescribed). 7 mm. Black; mandibles, antennae 
and legs dark reddish brown, the tarsi paler. Dull, except the basal 
two-thirds of the second and following abdominal segments, which are 
smooth, shining and alutaceous. Clypeus longitudinally striate, the 
rest of the head strongly, and more or less longitudinally rugose, the 
rugae with a few transverse anastomoses, and also partly radiating- 
outwards from the median ocellus. Mandibles strongly striate. 
Mesonotum and scutellum longitudinally and somewhat obliquely 
striate, the striae on the mesonotum thickening posteriorly, the space 
between the striae closely reticulate-punctate. Epinotum coarsely and 
irregularly rugose at the sides, transversely on the declivity, the space 
between the rugae closely punctured. Second node, and posterior 
face of the 1st node transversely rugose, more coarsely on the latter. 
First segment of abdomen, and marginal third of the remaining 
segments distinctly and regularly striate, longitudinally so over the 
basal half and the sides of the 1st segment, arcuately and transversely 
over the apical portion of all the segments. Legs and antennae with 
a short, sparse pubescence. Head, mesonotum, petiole, and abdomen 
with pale pilose hairs, which are longest on the clypeus, petiole, and 
margins of the abdominal segments. Head more quadrate than in 
the ^ ; eyes occupying about one-fifth of the sides, and placed in the 
middle, the ocelli not large. Pronotum not exposed above. Thorax 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 209 

narrow, nearly two and a quarter times as long as wide across the 
tegulae. Mesonotum one-third longer than wide, convex, and nar- 
rowed in front, flattened above. Epinotum deeply excavated, the 
excavation starting from the extreme base, and extending over the 
brow of the declivity, the margins raised and enclosing a A-shaped 
concavity. First node of petiole more squamiform than in the ^ > 
slanting forwards and with the posterior face more dorsal in position 
than in the ^ . Abdomen elongate ovate, all the segments wider than 
long. Dealated. 

$ (hitherto undescribed) . 7 mm. Black; all the joints of the 
tarsi, except the apical, pale flavous, tibiae brownish yellow, articula- 
tions of the legs flavous. Pilosity very long and fairly abundant 
except on the legs and basal halves of the abdominal segments. Legs 
and antennae with a short and oblique pubescence. Dull, except the 
basal two-thirds of the 2nd and the following abdominal segments, 
which are shining and alutaceous as in the $ . Sculpture of the head 
as in the $ but less regular. Mesonotum and scutellum closely 
reticulate-punctate, with a few irregular and feeble rugae super- 
imposed, not longitudinally striate as in the ? . The dorsum of 
the epinotum is on a much lower level than the scutellum (not 
much lower in the ? ), and is sparsely and transversely rugose over 
the basal half, not excavated, sloping downwards from its base to 
apex, and merging into the vertical declivity by a gentle curve ; the 
lateral angles or tubercles fairly distinct. The nodes of the petiole 
wider and shorter than in the $ . The 1st node is deeply emarginate 
in the middle of the dorsal edge, so as to appear almost bituberculate ; 
the 2nd node is one-third wider than the 1st, two-thirds wider than 
long, convex at the sides, fairly flat above, narrowed posteriorly, and 
with an obtuse tubercle on each side above. Wings hyaline, the 
nervures very faint. 

Springvale, Bulawayo, and Matopo Hills, S. Rhodesia ; Pretoria. 
(Lounsbury.) The entrance to the nest is surrounded by a large and 
low mound of earth. The species is exceedingly pugnacious and 
stings freely. Some of the nests in the Matopo Hills were very 
populous, containing probably not less than 1000 workers. 

(S.A.M., R.M., G.A. colls.) 

M. bicolor, Emery, var. nitidiventeis, Emery. 

(Type), Ann. Mus. Civ. Genoa, vol. 9, p. 368, £ , 1877. (Var.), Ann. 
Soc. Ent. France, p. 256, $, 1893. Mayr, Ann. K.KN.H. 
Mus. Wien, vol. 16, p. 7, ? , 1901 (type?)- Karaweiew, Rev. 
Russ. Ent,, vol. 2, p. 5, ? , <$ , 1911. 



210 Annals of the South African, Museum. 

$ . 3'6 mm. Head, antennae, legs, thorax and petiole bright orange 
red, abdomen brownish, with more or less of the median portion of the 
1st segment yellowish red, apices of the tarsi and the mandibular teeth 
brownish. Head, thorax and posterior faces of the nodes finely granu- 
late, posterior portion of the clypeus and frontal carinae finely and 
longitudinally striate, the sides of the thorax more strongly granulate 
than the dorsum. Abdomen smooth and shining. There is a very fine 
and short pubescence on the head ; the petiole and abdomen have a 
few long and sub-erect hairs. Head, excluding the mandibles, a little 
longer than wide, the sides feebly convex. Frontal carinae short and 
parallel. Eyes situated at about the middle of the sides of the head. 
Mandibles finely and longitudinally striate, with 4 distinct teeth. 
Scape long, extending back well beyond the occipital margin, 1st joint 
of flagellum one- third longer than the 2nd. Thorax narrower than 
the head ; pronotum convex in front and at the sides, a little wider 
than long, pro-mesonotal suture faintly indicated ; mesonotum as long 
as the pronotum, longer than wide, meso-epinotal suture deep ; dorsum 
of epinotum flat, quite as long as the mesonotum and merging 
gradually into the declivity. The 1st joint of the petiole has a 
short peduncle, much shorter than the node ; the latter is obtusely 
conical, and about as long and as wide as the 2nd node. Seen in 
profile, the 1st node is half as high again as the 2nd. Legs long and 
slender. 

? . 6"3 mm. Dark yellowish red (burnt sienna), with almost a 
fiery golden reflection in some lights. Pronotum, mesopleura, sides of 
the mesonotum, a median spot behind the pro-mesonotal suture, the 
basal half of the 2nd and following abdominal segments brownish, 
femora and scape more or less brownish. There is a very sparse and 
pale pubescence on the whole body, with a few long, pilose hairs on the 
clypeus, petiole and abdomen. Head and thorax very finely and 
longitudinally rugoso-striate, the head also somewhat reticulate- 
punctate ; the declivity of the epinotum and the posterior dorsal 
portions of the nodes transversely and more strongly rugose. Abdo- 
men very finely and longitudinally striate, the basal halves of the 2nd 
and following segments microscopically coriaceous, and slightly shining. 
Head sub- quadrate ; the eyes convex, situated a little behind the 
middle of the sides. The dorsum of the epinotum merges gradually 
into the declivity. The epinotum is shallowly concave transversely 
from base to apex. The 1st node of the petiole is strongly compressed 
from front to back, so as to form a fairly sharp and convex dorsal 
edge ; the anterior face of the node is almost vertical, the peduncle 
very short. The 2nd node is slightly wider than the 1st, and sub- 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 211 

quadrate, not so high as the 1st. The basal margin of the 1st abdo- 
minal segment feebly concave. 

The ? described by Mayr differs from the above only by its larger 
size (7 - 3 mm.), and its $ £ appear to me, judging by the description 
only, to be more closely related to the variety than to the type of the 
species ; they do not differ appreciably from the form described 
above. 

This species nests in loose sandy soil, usually over granite formation 
(rarely on the schist), and is a very agile insect. 

S. Rhodesia, fairly common; Bothaville, Orange Free State. 
(Brauns.) (S.A.M., R.M., G.A. colls.) 

M. Tchelichofi, Forel. 

Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat., vol. 50, p. 244, £ , 1914. 

£. 3' 7-4 mm. Piceous ; mandibles, tarsi, articulations of the legs 
and antennae brownish. Head, disc of pro-mesonotum and abdomen 
smooth and shining, the rest of the thorax and nodes nitidulous, finely 
reticulate. Cheeks in front of the eyes, and the frontal carinae finely 
striate. Mandibles shallowly and longitudinally striate, quadridentate. 
The clypeus projects considerably forwards, so that the closed 
mandibles are not quite visible from above. The anterior margin of 
the median portion of the clypeus feebly emarginate. A very incon- 
spicuous pubescence on the legs and antennae, but almost wanting on 
the body ; pilosity almost entirely absent. Head, excluding the 
mandibles, slightly longer than wide, the sides very convex, the 
posterior margin feebly concave in the middle, as wide in front as 
behind, moderately convex above. The eyes are placed in the middle 
of the sides of the head. The scape extends beyond the occipital 
margin by about as much as its own apical width ; the 1st joint of the 
flagellum not longer than the 2nd and 3rd together. Thorax widest 
in front, barely more than half as wide as the head, fairly strongly 
constricted at the meso-epinotal suture. i Seen from the side, the pro- 
mesonotum has a convex profile, raised above the level of theepinotum. 
The dorsum of the latter is half as long again as wide, and slopes 
downwards towards the declivity, forming a distinct angle at the 
junction ; it is also excavated, the excavation triangular and extending 
to the base. The declivity is also concave, and is fairly distinctly 
margined on each side. The anterior face of the 1st node is almost 
vertical, the posterior-dorsal face convex. The node is sub-ovate, seen 
from above, and its dorsal edge is rounded, with a slight indentation 
in the middle ; the peduncle a trifle shorter than the node. The 2nd 



212 Annals of the South African Museum. 

joint is one-third wider than long, narrowed behind, convex in front, 
and a little wider in front than the 1st. The abdomen is truncate at 
the base, and more globose than in the majority of the species of this 
genus. 

Willowmore, Cape Prov. This species forins very populous colonies 
in rocky ground, and is also a bold insect which uses its sting very 
readily. 

(S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 

M. Emeryi, Mayr. (Plate V, fig. 62.) 
Ann. K.K.KH. Mus. Wien, vol. 10, p. 132, £ , 1895. 

£ . 26-3 mm. Yellowish brown, the antennae, mandibles and legs 
brownish yellow. The pubescence is composed of long, pale and 
oblique hairs, rather abundant on the head, scantier on the thorax and 
abdomen. Legs and antennae with a close and short pubescence. 
The pilosity on the abdomen, petiole and thorax long, and more 
abundant on the abdomen than elsewhere. Head and thorax dull, 
nodes and abdomen shining. Head finely and longitudinally striate, 
obliquely striate between the frontal carinae and the anterior lateral 
angles, fairly closely punctured between the striae, the punctures 
piligerous. Thorax longitudinally striate ; the pronotum in front, and 
the epinotum transversely striate, the sides of the meso- and epithorax 
reticulate-punctate. Abdomen polished; nodes of petiole shallow ly 
punctured. 

Head as wide as long, or nearly so, the sides convex, the posterior 
margin feebly concave, a little wider in front than behind. The eyes 
are rather small and situated at the middle of the sides. The scape of 
the antenna barely reaches the posterior margin. The head is 
noticeably wide, quite two-thirds wider than the thorax. The clypeal 
carinae are fairly distinct. The mandibles coarsely striate and 
obtusely quadridentate. The pro-mesonotum is very convex trans- 
versely in front, its dorsal profile is also very convex ; it is quite twice 
as Avide across the rounded shoulders as it is at the meso-epinotal 
sutm-e. The dorsum of the epinotum is almost horizontal in profile, 
half as long, and not more than half as wide as the pro-thorax ; the 
declivity is rather oblique, but forms a very distinct angle at its junc- 
tion with the dorsum, on each side of which lies a blunt and elongate 
tubercle, the space between the tubercles feebly concave transversely. 
The 1st node of the petiole, seen from above, is elongate, almost one 
and a half times as long as wide, the anterior face vertical and only 
half as long as the posterior face ; the node is rounded above, obtusely 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 213 

wedge-shape:!, as long as its peduncle. The 2nd node is almost 
campaniform, wider behind than in front, wider than the 1st node and 
slightly longer than wide. 

$ . 8'3 mm. (hitherto undescribed). Eeddish yellow-brown, 
femora, tibiae, and antennae paler, tarsi brownish yellow. Head dull, 
the rest of the body shining. Clothed with a moderately abundant, 
long and yellow pilosity, longer and more abundant on the abdomen 
than on the head and thorax, much more abundant but shorter on the 
legs and antennae. Head very closely and strongly punctured, the 
punctures deep, also partly striate between the punctures. The 
clypeus shining, sparsely and strongly punctured. The front of the 
head round the antennal sockets finely and longitudinally striate. 
Mandibles sharply longitudinally striate, quadridentate. Dorsum of 
thorax largely but scantily punctured at the sides, leaving a median 
longitudinal area which is impunctate. Nodes sparsely punctured 
on their posterior halves, also somewhat rugulose. Abdomen very 
sparsely and finely punctured. Head as long as wide, subquadrate, 
the posterior angles strongly rounded, the posterior margin straight. 
Pronotum hardly exposed above. Mesonotum very convex trans- 
versely in front, moderately so longitudinally, a little wider than long, 
and twice as long as the scutellum, which is almost semicircular and 
not raised much above the level of the epinotum. The dorsum of the 
epinotum oblique, with a trace of tubercles at the angles, twice as 
wide at the base as it is long, and not quite as long as the sub- vertical 
declivity. The junction of the two faces of the epinotum rounded, 
slightly concave transversely. Nodes as in the $ . Wings long, pale 
brownish yellow, the nervures dark yellow. 

$ . 3- 3 mm. (hitherto undescribed). Head dark brown, the rest 
of the body pale brownish yellow, legs and antennae pale yellow. 
Head very finely and longitudinally striate, sub-opaque ; the rest of 
the body very smooth and shining, except the anterior angles of the 
first node, which are feebly striate. A few very fine punctures 
scattered on the thorax. Pilosity and pubescence as in the $ , but 
shorter and less abundant. Head much wider in front than behind, 
almost twice as wide. Eyes very large, occupying a little more than 
the anterior half of the sides, and almost touching the base of the 
mandibles in front. The latter finely striate, minutely tridentate, the 
inner and outer margins parallel. Clypeus with the media u area 
raised in the form of a tubercle, subtruncate above. Ocelli very large, 
raised, the posterior pair twice as far apart from each other as they 
are from the anterior ocellus. Antennae setaceous ; scape very short, 
barely longer than wide, and not so long as one ocellus. First joint 



214 Annals of the South African Museum. 

of flagellmn globose (as in Solenopsis), as long as the scape, the 
remaining joints longer than wide, increasing in length successively 
towards the apex, the apical joint flattened. Mesonotum very gibbous 
in front, the anterior margin strongly convex transversely and two 
and a third times longer than the scutellum. The latter is one and a 
half times wider than long, the posterior margin semi-circular. The 
mesonotum and scutellum are raised much above the level of the 
epinotum. The latter is nearly two and a half times wider at the 
base than it is long ; the posterior angles are slightly raised, not 
distinctly tuberculate. The declivity of the epinotum is vertical, 
shorter than the dorsum. Nodes as in the ? , but flatter ; the 
posterior dorsal face of the 1st node is a little wider than long. 
Wings as in the ? but paler. 

Redbank, and Nyamandhloru, S. Rhodesia. This species is easily 
distinguished from our other species by the very wide head, the very 
convex pro-mesonotum, the narrow 1st node and the campaniform 2nd 
node. 

(S.A.M., R.M., G.A. colls.) 

M. modesttjm, Santschi. 

G-oteborgs Kungl. Vetens. och Vitterh. Handl., xv, 2, p. 17, $ , 1914. 

"<£>'. i'6-1'7 mm. Yellow, smooth and shining. A very short, 
fine and erect pilosity is abundant over the whole body, including the 
legs and antennae. Head rectangular, hardly wider behind than in 
front, the occipital margin straight, the sides feebly convex. Posterior 
angles of the head rounded. Eyes composed of a single facet, placed 
slightly in front of the middle of the sides. Clypeus short and 
abrupt, the two carinae of which are close together and subparallel. 
Mandibles with masticatory margins oblique, quadridenticulate. The 
scape extends back as far as the posterior margin of the head ; 2nd to 
8th joints of the flagellum very short, much wider than long, 9th and 
10th joints subequal, the 10th joint only slightly thicker, the last 
joint very thick and almost as long as the four preceding joints taken 
together. Pro-mesonotal suture obsolete, meso-epinotal suture mode- 
rately deep. Pro-mesonotum slightly convex. Dorsum of the epinotum 
flat, submargined, forming a distinct angle with the declivity, which is 
also flat and margined, and two-thirds as long as the dorsum. First 
joint of petiole with a long peduncle, the node higher than the 2nd, 
and with its posterior face shorter than the anterior, which is much 
more oblique ; distinctly longer than wide, a little narrower than the 
2nd node, which is wider than long. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 215 

Related to terniitobivm, Forel, by its atrophied eyes." 
Stamford Hill, Natal. (Traegaorclh.) 

M. zultj, Santsclii. 
Loc. cit., p. 18, ^ ■ 

•' $ . 1*5 mm. Yellow, legs pale. A few erect hairs around the 
mouth and the apex of the abdomen, the rest of the body covered with 
a short adpressed pubescence. Shining, epinotum and petiole sub- 
opaque. Smooth, with a piligerous puncturation somewhat effaced. 
Epinotum and sides of thorax very finely reticulate-punctate. Head 
rectangular, one-sixth longer than wide, the sides moderately convex, 
the posterior margin straight. The eyes occupy nearly all the second 
anterior fourth of the sides of the head. Clypeus feebly excised in the 
middle of its anterior margin, unarmed, the carinae reduced. Frontal 
carinae sub-parallel. Mandibles with four teeth, the last very small. 
Antennae 12-jointed; the scape does not extend back quite as far as 
the hind margin of the head; 2nd-8th joints of the flagellum sub- 
equal, wider than long, the 9th shorter and hardly wider than the 1st, 
the 10th more than one-third longer and wider than the 9th, the last 
joint very thick and nearly as long as the four preceding joints taken 
together. Pro-mesonotal suture effaced on the dorsum, more distinct 
laterally. Meso-epinotal impression pronounced, but less so than in 
rhopalocerum. ' Profile of the pro-mesonotum fairly convex, that of the 
epinotal dorsum less so, the junction of the dorsum and the declivity 
forming a rounded but fairly distinct angle. The declivity is feebly 
margined, and a little longer than half the dorsum, the latter dis- 
tinctly longer than half the pro-mesonotum. Peduncle of the 1st 
joint of the petiole half as long as the node, with a tooth below, at its 
anterior extremity. Node triangular, rounded at the apex and below, 
higher than long, hardly narrower than the 2nd node. The latter is 
rounded and one-quarter higher and wider than the 1st. 

" This species belongs to the rhopalocerum, Em., group. In Arnoldi, 
Forel, Bruunsi, Mayr, and speluncarum, Santschi, the erect pilosity is 
more abundant, and the epinotum is smooth. In Schultzei and angus- 
tinode, Forel, the colour is different ; in nltinode, Santschi, the petiole 
is higher, and in termitobiiim&iid modestum the eyes are rudimentary." 
Junction of the Umfulosi, Zululand. (Traegaordh.) 

M. xhopalocerum, Emery. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 25, £ , 1895. 
"5 17 mm. Flavous testaceous ; abdomen fuscous, very shining ; 



216 Annals of the South African Museum. 

piligerous punctures very sparse, otherwise impunctate. Head 
moderately elongate, truncate posteriorly. Clypeus obtusely biden- 
tate. Mandibles quadridentate ; last joint of antenna very large, 
nearly as long as the four preceding together. Thorax fairly elongate, 
the meso-epinotal suture deeply impi-essed, the pro-mesonotal suture 
obsolete, the epinotum very obtusely angulated ; the 1st joint of the 
petiole with a very short peduncle, the node high but narrow, and 
longer than wide ; the 2nd node subglobose, much smaller and a little 
narrower than the 1st. 

"Capetown. (Simon.)" 

" Facies of a Solenopsis, very smooth and shining, with a few 
piligerous punctures. . . . The carinae on the clypeus are moderately 
prominent. The eyes are fairly small, and separated from the base of 
the mandibles by one and a half times their own diameter. The scapes 
do not extend back to the occipital margin. . . . The thorax is 
elongate, compressed at the meso-epinotal suture, which is deeply 
impressed and striated. . . . The joints of the petiole are vei-y 
unequal. The first, seen in profile, appears pedunculated along two- 
fifths of its length, the node cuneiform ; seen from above, the node 
appears distinctly longer than wide, rounded in front. The 2nd joint 
is globose, much smaller and a little narrower than the 1st." 

M. Havilandi, Forel. 

Ann. Soc. Ent, Belg., vol. 54, p. 443, £ , $ , 1910. 

" ^ • 2 - 5 mm. Mandibles strongly striated, tridentate. Clypeus 
entire, strongly concave between its two carinae ; these are separate in 
front, but nearly contiguous betw r een the frontal carinae, and are con- 
tinued round the sides to the anterior margin. Head nearly quadrate, 
a little longer than wide, and a little wider in front than behind ; the 
sides feebly convex, widely concave behind. The eyes are fairly large, 
slightly elongate, placed between the middle and the anterior third. 
The scape does not extend back quite as far as the hind margin of the 
head; 3rd-8th joints of the flagellum wider than long, the club not 
very thick, the penultimate joint only a little larger than the preceding. 
Pro-mesonotum convex, without a distinct suture, the constriction a 
little feebler than in gracillimum. Epinotum convex, the dorsum 
merging by a barely perceptible curve into the declivity ; the dorsum 
not at all depressed, fairly narrow, a little convex transversely, as long 
as the declivity. First node cuneiform, rounded, convex below as in 
minutum, with a short peduncle in front shorter than the node, and 
bearing below an obtuse tooth. Second node small, lower and not 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 217 

wider than the 1st, a little wider than long. Cheeks, frontal carinae, 
and antennal pits striate. The rest of the head smooth, with a strong, 
scattered, and abundant puncturation. Thorax and petiole densely 
and not very finely reticulate-punctate and dull, except the dorsum, 
which is reticulate and sub-opaque ; the middle of the pro-meso- 
notum smooth. Abdomen and legs smooth. An erect, short and 
yellowish pilosity fairly abundant over the whole body, especially the 
abdomen. The legs and scapes have only a decumbent pubescence, 
which also occurs on the body, particularly the head. Black; man- 
dibles reddish; antennae and legs rusty brown. 

$ . 5'5 mm. Head almost exactly square ; joints of the fiagellum 
a little more elongated than in the $ . Thorax narrower than the 
head. Dorsum of epinotum margined, flat transversely, convex longi- 
tudinally from end to end. Petiole as in the $ , but without the con- 
vexity or distinct tooth beloAV. Abdomen elongate. Otherwise like 
the ^ (including the mandibles). Head finely striate on nearly the 
whole of the anterior portion, the large punctures stronger and more 
abundant than in the ^ . Epinotum and nodes of petiole densely reticu- 
late-punctate and dull ; dorsum of epinotum densely and transversely 
striate. The abdomen and rest of thorax smooth, sides of mesonotum 
with a few large punctures. Pilosity and colour as in the $ , but the 
mandibles are reddish yelloAv, and the margins of the abdominal 
segments brownish. Dealated." 
Natal (Haviland.) 

M. minutum, Mayr. 

Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, vol. 5, p. 453, £ , 1855. 

" ^ • l'5-l - 7 mm. Piceous, very shining, smooth; the mandibles, 
the antennae, excepting the club, the articulations of the legs and the 
tarsi yellowish. The whole body sparsely covered with erect, thick 
hairs. The mandibles are smooth, shining, and armed with four 
strong teeth. The clypeus, like the rest of the head, is smooth and 
very shining. The scape of the 12- jointed antenna does not quite 
reach back to the posterior margin of the head ; the 1st joint of the 
fiagellum is fairly long, not greatly thickened, the following joints are 
very small and short, the last three joints form the club, the 8th, 
9th and 10th joints progressively larger, the terminal joint consider- 
ably longer than the 9th and 10th together. The thorax is smooth 
and very shining, the meso-epiiiotal suture alone is rather coarsely 
and longitudinally striate. The nodes of the petiole and the abdo- 
men are smooth and very shining." 



218 Annals of the South African Museum. 

The type species does not appear to have been recorded from South 
Africa, but is represented by the following forms. 

Eace boerorum, Forel. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 54, p. 442, £ , 1910. 

^ • 1'4-1"7 mm. Pale brown to dark brown, the -mandibles, 
antennae and tarsi lighter. Very smooth and shiniug, with a very 
sparse and pale pilosity. This race differs from the type in the 
following particulars. The head is longer and narrower than in the 
type, rectangular, with the sides almost straight (convex in the type). 
The eyes are placed within the anterior third of the head. The nodes 
are a little thicker, and the 1st node is but slightly convex below. 
The thoracic impression is stronger and wider. The epinotum is a 
little more convex, and the carinae on the clypeus are less distinct and 
further apart in front. 

$ . 3 2 mm. Black, legs and antennae brown, tarsi and articula- 
tions of the legs brownish, mandibles rusty brown. Head, mesonotum, 
and scutellum very sparsely and finely punctured; the rest of the 
body inipunctate. Abdomen and sides of the nodes sparsely covered 
with a thin, long and pale pilosity. Head longer than wide ; the 
ocelli small. Thorax narrow, much narrower than the head. Pro- 
notum almost vertical in front, very slightly exposed in the middle, 
but more at the shoulders. Mesonotum one-third longer than wide ; 
scutellum much longer than wide, and a little longer than half the 
mesonotum. Dorsum of epinotum very short, merging gradually into 
the declivity, which is very steep, transversely concave, feebly and 
transversely striate. Petiole as in the ^ . Abdomen elongate, the 
basal angles of the 1st segment pronounced, 1st segment as long as 
wide, the remaining segments wider than long. Deiilated. 

Orange Free State. (Wroughton.) Capetown. (Phillip.) (S.A.M., 
P.M., G-.A. colls.) 

Eace hottentota, Emery. 
Ann. Soc, Ent, France, vol. 63, p. 26, $ , 1895. 

This form is unknown to me, and I am therefore obliged to re- 
produce the author's description, which is unfortunately based on a 
comparison with a Madagascan species. 

" Closely allied to imerinense, Forel, from which it differs by the 
more angular epinotum, due to the more marked lateral ridges, and 
above all by the stronger petiole, the 1st joint of which has a longer 
peduncle ; the nodes more robust, the 2nd wider behind than in front, 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 219 

and consequently strongly narrowed behind. The proportions of the 
head and thorax, the sculpture and the hairs much as in imerinense. 
Capetown." 

M. Medinae Forel, race, Fridae Forel. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 49, p. 183, £ , 1905. 
" ^ . 3 mm. Apart from its larger size, this form differs from the 
type by the more convex sides of the head, by the higher declivity of 
the epinotum ; the latter is excavated above and behind to form a 
longitudinal channel which is much mor*e distinct than in hcsperium 
Em. The first node of the petiole is larger and higher than in the type 
of Medinae, and more cuneiform. Its summit is almost linear (or 
acutely angular). The legs are more slender. Very shining, except 
the epinotum which is opaque and reticulate-punctate. Mesonotum 
reticulate, slightly subopaque. Dark brown, the tarsi and antennae 
paler, as in Medinae. Willowmore, Cape Pro v. (Brauns) ; host of 
Braunsiella Wasm." 

M. Salamonis, Linn. 
Syst. Nat. Ed. 10, p. 580, 1758. 

This ant is found on the south shores of the Mediterranean, India, 
and Ceylon, and is represented in the Ethiopian Region by many sub- 
species and varieties, which show a considerable range of variation, in 
size, colour, and sculpture. 

For purposes of comparison, I reproduce the description of the type 
form given in Andre's " Hymenoptcres d'Europe." 

" ^ . 2"5-3 - 5 mm. Head, thorax, and petiole brownish red, more or 
less dark, very slightly shining or dull. The longitudinal sulcus 
(excavation) of the clypeus superficial. Head slightly, abdomen 
fairly, shining. Thorax deeply impressed between the meso- and the 
epinotum. Mox*e or less castaneous brown, with the head blackish, 
the abdomen brownish black. 

" $ . 6-7 mm. Dorsal profile of the thorax straight, from its front 
margin to a little beyond the scutellum, without an angular break 
between the latter and the mesonotum. Pilosity short and not very 
close, but plainly visible ; pubescence scanty. Entirely blackish 
brown, except the mandibles, the antennae, the tarsi, the thorax and 
the petiole, which are entirely or partly somewhat reddish brown. 
Head, thorax and petiole fairly strongly striate or rugose and dull. 
Abdomen very finely coriaceous, moderately shining. 

" £ . 5 mm. External paramera of the genital armature very large, 



220 Annals of the South African Museum. 

laminate, prolonged backwards and curved downwards at their ex- 
tremity. Petiole of the usual shape, its two joints not narrowed above 
to form transverse ridges, the 1st being cylindrical in front, thickened 
behind. The 2nd nodiform, rounded above, about as long as wide, 
and hardly wider than the 1st node. Black, tips of the mandibles 
and the antennae reddish yellow, tarsi and genital armature blackish 
brown. Pubescence almost absent ; pilosity sparse, except at the apex 
and below the abdomen, where it is longer and more abundant. Head, 
including the clypeus and frontal area, thorax and petiole densely 
punctate-rugose, dull ; abdomen very finely rugulose, fairly shining. 
Wings nearly hyaline or barely tinged with yellow ; nervures and 
stigma pale yellow." 

Var. opaciob, Forel. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. 136, $ , 1913. 

^ . 2'8-3 - 4 mm. Yellowish brown ; disc of pro-mesonotum and legs 
paler ; abdomen black, with a submetallic gloss. Abdomen with a few 
thick, pale hairs. Dull. Head very finely and longitudinally reticu- 
late-striate. Thorax closely and finely granulate (reticulate-punctate). 
Head nearly quadrate, a little longer than wide, and a little wider in 
front than behind. Scape short, not reaching the posterior margin of 
the head. Pronotum almost as wide as the head posteriorly. Pro- 
mesonotal suture faintly indicated, but more clearly than in Junodi. 
Dorsum of epinotum half as long as the pi - o-mesonotum ; the declivity 
sub-vertical, the brow rounded. The epinotum is barely excavated, 
and the profile of its dorsum is only moderately convex, or almost 
flat. First node of petiole wedge-shaped; convex transversely in 
front, behind and above ; one-qttarter higher than the 2nd node. 
The latter is as wide as the 1st ; widest in front. 

$ (hitherto undescribed). 4 - 6 mm. Black; mandibles, antennae, 
and legs yellowish brown. Head and abdomen with a scanty, short 
and decumbent pubescence ; the nodes and abdomen with also a few 
pale, pilose hairs. Head, pro- and mesonotum and scutelluni longi- 
tudinally reticulate- striate. Nodes of petiole and sides of epinotum 
reticulate-punctate ; the epinotum above transversely striate. Abdo- 
men very finely and rather obliquely striate. The pronotum is slightly 
exposed in the middle, much more at the shoulders. The epinotum is 
widest in frontfacross the level of the stigmatic orifices, which are 
somewhat angularly prominent. The dorsum of the epinotum is flat 
at the extreme base, beyond which it is shallowly excavated, the ex- 
cavation being continued over the declivity and forming moderately 
distinct lateral bosses orniargins on each side. First node of petiole 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 221 

as wide as it is long below ; more compressed from front to back than 
in the £ ; the anterior face very feebly convex transversely, and also 
vertical ; the posterior-dorsal face very oblique ; the dorsal edge very 
convex transversely. The 2nd node as in the ^ • 
Bulawayo. (S.A.M., E.M., G-.A. colls.) 

Var. diseeta, Forel. 

Deutsch. Ent. Zeit. Beiheffc, p. 216, $, 1913. 

^ . l - 9 mm. Reddish yellow, the head a little darker, the apical 
half of the abdomen brown. Head and nodes with a slight gloss, 
abdomen polished and shining, thorax dull. Head microscopically 
reticulat9-striate, thorax and nodes very finely reticulate. Abdomen 
very sparsely pilose and punctured. Head, excluding the mandibles, 
one-fifth longer than wide, the sides and the hind margin nearly 
straight. The scape just reaches the posterior margin. The eyes are 
situated just in front of the middle of the sides. The thorax is but 
moderately constricted at the meso-epinotal suture. The profile of the 
thorax is convex in front, horizontal above ; the dorsum of the epi- 
notum and of the pro-mesonotum are in the same plane, and slope 
backwards towards the declivity. The dorsum of the epinotum is 
about half as long as the pro-mesonotum, and very little longer than 
wide ; the declivity is sub-vertical and forms a distinct angle with 
the dorsum. The anterior face of the 1st node is very short, and the 
peduncle is a little shorter than the node ; the 2nd node is as wide as 
long. 

Shiloh, S. Rhodesia. ' (R.M., G.A. colls.) 

Race Junodi, Forel. 

Ann. Soc. Ent., Belg., vol. 54, p. 441, $ , 1910. 

^ • 3-3 - 4 mm. Dark brown, the legs, mandibles and basal half of 
the flagellum paler. Head, legs and antennae with a short decumbent 
pubescence, very short and scanty on the head. Clypeus, nodes and 
abdomen with a sparse, long and pale pilosity. Head, thorax and 
posterior faces of the nodes closely and finely granulate; abdomen 
smooth, with a faint submetallic, bluish gloss. Head, excluding the 
mandibles, as wide as long, the posterior angles rounded, the hind 
margin almost straight, the sides feebly convex. Eyes flat, situated 
at about the middle of the sides of the head. Median area of clvpeus 
longitudinally striate, the carinae well defined. Mandibles quadri- 
dentate and moderately strongly and longitudinally striate. The scape 
extends slightly beyond the hind margin of the head. Prothorax in 



222 Annals of the South African Museum. 

front not much narrower than the head, the thoracic constriction at 
the meso-epinotal suture feeble, the suture shallow. Dorsum of 
epinotum three-fifths as long as the pro-mesonotum, twice as long as 
the declivity, the latter sub-vertical. The epinotum is barely excavated 
above. Peduncle of the 1st joint of the petiole shorter than the node 
the latter is cuneiform, higher than the 2nd node, and measured along 
its base, longer than wide. Second node slightly narrowed behind, a 
little wider than the 1st. This species greatly resembles albopilosum, 
var. tholes, but may be distinguished from it by the thinner 1st node 
and the shorter peduncle. 

Bulawayo. (S.A.M., R.M., G.A. colls.) 

Race hekero, Forel. 
Schultze Reise, Siidafrika, vol. 4, p. 16, $ , ? , 1910! 

" £ • 2 - 6-2'8 mm. Head much longer than in the race australe, Em., 
quite one-quarter longer than wide in front, wider in front than behind, 
rather flatter below. Brownish black, antennae, legs and mandibles 
light brown or reddish brown. Resembling the var. subnitida, Em., in 
appearance, but the thoracic indentation less deep, the head smaller 
and flatter below, the 1st node thicker. The epinotum is also less 
arched, and lies lower. 

$ . 4 - 6 mm. Head quadrangular, wider than the thorax. Meso- 
notum feebly convex. The scape reaches back as far as the posterior 
margin of the head. Head, thorax and petiole dull, closely reticulate- 
punctate ; head also longitudinally striate. Abdomen shining, finely 
reticulate. Body clothed with short, fine hairs. Black : antennae, 
mandibles and legs reddish brown." 

Possession Island, German S.W. Africa. (Schultze.) 

Race hekero, var. willowmorensis, Forel. 
Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat., vol. 50, p. 245, £ , 1914. 
^ . 3 mm. Dark brown, pro-mesonotal disc lighter. Abdomen 
almost black. Nodes, legs, mandibles and the flagellum excepting 
the club, yellowish brown. Head, disc of pro-mesonotum, and 
abdomen shining, the rest of the body dull. Cheeks in front of the 
eyes finely and longitudinally striate, the rest of the head almost 
smooth, but with a few small and shallow piligerous punctures. 
Thorax closely and finely reticulate. Abdomen very sparsely pilose. 
Head, excluding the mandibles, one-sixth longer than wide, the sides 
convex, the posterior margin very feebly concave. The eyes are placed 
in front of the middle of the head. The scape extends back as far as 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 223 

the occipital margin. The thorax is considerably constricted at the 
meso-epinotal suture, which is fairly deep. The pro-niesonotum 
is very convex transversely in front. The dorsum of the epinotum 
is barely half as long as the pro-mesonotum and slopes downwards 
towards the declivity, with which it forms a rounded but distinct 
angle. The declivity is nearly vertical and half as long as the 
dorsum. The epinotum widens at the brow of the declivity, where 
the margins are rendered somewhat tumid by the median excavation. 
Nodes similar to those of Junodi. 

Willowmore, Cape Prov. (Arnold.) (S.A.M., E.M., Gr.A. colls.) 

Eace hebeeo, var. belli, Forel. 

Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat., vol. 50, p. 245, £ , 1914. 

^ . 2 - 8 mm. Exceedingly similar to var. willowmorensis, which it 
resembles in colour and sculpture. It is smaller than that variety, 
and the pro-mesonotum is narrower, and less convex at the sides 
behind the shoulders. The meso-epinotal suture is not so deep, and 
the thorax is less constricted at that point. The epinotum is also 
narrower across the brow of the declivity. The peduncle of the 1st 
joint of the petiole is also a little longer, the node more pointed above 
and narrower. The dorsum of the epinotum is flatter. 

Willowmore, Cape Prov. (Arnold.) (S.A.M., E.M., Gr.A. colls.) 

Eace damabense, Forel. 
Schultze Eeise Sudafrika, vol. 4, p. 17, $ , 1910. 

" ^ • 19-2 mm. This bears a close resemblance to M. setuliferum, 
Forel, from which it differs by the much longer head (one-quarter 
longer than wide), and by the nodes. The 1st is higher and also 
wedge-shaped (but rounded above), the 2nd is much smaller and 
lower. The thorax is like that of Salamonis, whereas in setuliferum 
both the pro-mesonotum and the epinotum form equal longitudinal 
convexities. In damarense, only the pronotum anteriorly is abruptly 
convex, the dorsum of the thorax is but slightly convex, only feebly 
indented, and the angle between the two planes of the epinotum is 
fairly sharp, though rounded ; the declivity is much shorter than the 
dorsum. The scape hardly extends beyond the occipital margin. The 
eyes are rather flatter and are placed more posteriorly than in 
setuliferum. Closely reticulate-punctate and dull (not so closely as in 
setuliferum and not rugose) . Abdomen in greater part shining and 
smooth. Pubescent, with scanty and erect hairs on the abdomen. 

15 



224 Annals of the Sotdli African Museum. 

Brownish ; scape, legs, clypeus and mandibles yellowish brown. First 
half of the flagellum yellowish red." 
Gawieb, Damaraland. (Schultze.) 

Eace termitarium, Forel. 
Loc. cit., p. 17, £, 2 . 

" ^ • 2 - 3-2 - 5 mm. Reddish yellow, abdomen light brown. In 
sculpture and gloss it is intermediate between salamonis, i. sp., and the 
var. subnitidum, Em. ; it is less shining and more sharply reticulate 
than the latter. Head elongate as in herero, the indentation of the 
thorax feeble, as in damarense • nodes as in salamonis, i. sp., but a little 
smaller and the 2nd node somewhat shorter. Pilosity as in the type 
species. 

2 . 5"5 mm. Head rectangular, not wider or hardly wider behind 
than in front, the sides almost straight, a little wider than the thorax. 
Brown ; mandibles, legs and antennae brownish red. Head and 
thorax dull, abdomen shining. Wings hyaline." 

Kooa, Kalahari. (Schultze.) Nesting in part of a termites' mound. 

Race subopacutm, Smith. 
Cat. Hymen. B.M., vol. 6, p. 127, £ , ? , 1858. 

£. 2'4 mm. Yellowish brown, the thorax a little paler ; antennae 
and legs, except the tarsi, brownish } T ellow, tarsi dirty ochreous. 
Entirely dull. Head, thorax and nodes very finely reticulate, the 
abdomen microscopically so ; the space between the frontal carinae 
faintly and longitudinally striate. Sparsely and very finely pubescent 
on the head, more densely on the legs and antennae. The abdomen 
with a few long, semi-erect hairs. Head a little wider in front than 
behind, the sides moderately convex, the posterior angles rounded. 
Clypeal carinae feeble, the space between them shining. Mandibles 
longitudinally striate, slightly shining, tridentate. The scape extends 
just beyond the occipital margin. Thorax narrower than the head, 
narrowed at the meso-epinotal suture, which is not deep. Dorsum of 
epinotum flat in profile, one-quarter longer than wide, three-fifths as 
long as the pro-mesonotum ; the brow of the declivity, seen from the 
side, is fairly angular but rounded ; the dorsum is shallowly and 
triangularly excavated. Eirst node of petiole, seen in profile, wedge- 
shaped but strongly rounded above, and as long as the 2nd node; the 
latter almost quadrate, slightly wider in front than behind, and hardly 
wider than the 1st. 

"2.5 mm. Opaque fusco-ferruginous ; abdomen black, with the 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 225 

base reddish, the articulations of the legs and the tarsi pale rufo-tes- 
taceons ; the thorax in the middle in front, and the scutellum, of a 
brighter red ; the epinotum with a deep excavation ; abdomen oblong- 
ovate, thinly sprinkled with short pale glittering hairs." 

This species makes rather small colonies, usually in sandy soil. 

Not common in Rhodesia. Bulawayo. (R.M., Gr.A. colls.) 

Race subopacum, var. anceps, Emery. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 24, £ , 1895. 

" Small forms with the head slightly shining behind, and the 
abdomen also shining ; colour of the race. 
Ham man's Kraal. (Simon.)" 



Race australe, Emery. 
Bull. Soc. Ent Ital., vol. 18, p. 363, g , ? , 1886. 

<£> . 3"3-3'8 mm. Head, epinotum, and nodes reddish brown; 
pro-mesonotum paler, more yellowish brown. Mandibles yellowish 
red, abdomen piceous, legs and antennae brownish red, the tarsi paler, 
except the last joint, which is dark brown. Head and thorax dull, 
abdomen moderately shining. Head, thorax and petiole very finely 
reticulate, abdomen alutaceous. A very sparse and fine pilosity on 
the nodes and abdomen. Head barely longer than wide, slightly 
narrowed behind, the sides feebly convex, the posterior angles 
rounded, the posterior margin shallowly concave. The scape extends 
back as far as the posterior margin. The median area of the clypeus 
finely and longitudinally striate, the clypeal carinae obtuse. Man- 
dibles longitudinally striate, quadridentate. Eyes placed at the 
middle of the sides of the head. Thorax narrower than the posterior 
margin of the head; pro-mesonotum, including the neck, almost twice 
as long as the epinotum, the latter one and a half times longer than 
wide, shallowly excavated, the excavation extending over the brow of 
the declivity, which is therefore concave transversely at that point. 
The profile of the epinotum above is convex, not flat, as in subopacum ; 
the declivity is short and oblique. The peduncle of the 1st joint of 
the petiole is more than half as long as the node. The latter is one- 
quarter higher than wide, a little wider than long, convex in front and 
behind. The 2nd node is widest across its anterior third, barely wider 
than the 1st, and as long as wide. 

$ . 5 - 7 mm. Colour and pilosity as in the £ , but the abdomen is 
darker, with the apical margins pale brownish yellow, and the head is 
dark reddish brown. Dull ; head finely and longitudinally striate ; 



226 Annals of the South African Museum. 

niesonotuui finely striate in front, alutaceous behind. Epinotum 
transversely striate. Abdomen alutaceous, with a slight silky sheen. 
Nodes of petiole posteriorly, transversely and minutely striate. 
Clypeus and frontal carinae longitudinally striate. Head quadrate, 
only very little longer than wide. Pronotum exposed only at the 
shoulders, which are rounded. Mesonotum one-third longer than 
wide ; scutellum a little more than one-third the length of the meso- 
notum. Epinotum more deeply excavated than in the $ , so that the 
margins at the junction of the declivity and dorsum form a distinct 
and elongate boss on each side. Nodes as in the $ , but the 1st is 
more compressed from back to front, and its front face is more vertical 
and flatter than in the £ . Wings pale smoky yellow ; nervures pale 
brownish yellow. 

Willowmore, Cape Prov. (Dr. Brauns.) (S.A.M., R.M., G-.A. 
colls.) 

Race delagoensis, Forel. 

Mitt. Schw. Ent. Ges., vol. 9, p. 87, £ , 1894. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 
vol. 54, p. 441, ?, <J, 1910. 

^ . 3 mm. Dark reddish brown, the pro-mesonotum a little redder ; 
mandibles, antennae and legs dark brownish yellow. Head slightly 
shining, microscopically reticulate-punctate, between the frontal 
caiinae finely and longitudinally striate. Thorax and posterior faces 
of the nodes dull, closely reticulate-punctate, the sculpture stronger on 
the nodes than on the thorax. Abdomen smooth and shining. Head, 
excluding the mandibles, very little longer than wide ; the posterior 
angles rounded, as wide behind as in front ; the posterior margin 
almost straight or very feebly concave. The scape not extending back 
to the posterior margin by a distance equal to the length of the eye. 
Median area of clypeus with very indistinct carinae, the space 
between very shallowly excavated. Thorax decidedly narrowed at 
the meso-epinotal suture ; dorsum of epinotum not quite half as long 
as the pro-mesonotum, a little longer than wide ; the declivity is 
short, and forms a rounded but fairly distinct angle with the dorsum. 
Second node of petiole a little wider than long, hardly wider than the 
1st, narrowed posteriorly. A very scanty pilosity on the nodes and 
abdomen. 

" ? . 6 mm. Head a little wider than the thorax. Entirely dull ; 
colour as in the ^ ." 

"^. 47 mm. Entirely black. Wings hyaline. Mesonotum alto- 
gether dull. The erect pilosity moi-e abundant than in the type of the 
species. Elagellum brown ; tibiae and tarsi pale yellow." 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 227 

Delagoa Bay. (Liengme.) Natal. (Haviland.) (Gr.A. coll., two 
§ presented by Dr. Forel.) 



Race delagoense, var. grahamstownensis, Forel. 
Bull. Soc. Vaucl. Sc. Nat., vol. 50, p. 245, £ , 1914. 

Tliis differs from the race only in the following trifling details : 
The colour is lighter, especially the pro-mesonotum ; the legs and 
antennae are more yellowish ; the nodes are slightly less dull than in 
the type of the race ; and the sculpture of the thorax and nodes a shade 
less strong. 

Grahamstown. (S.A.M., Gr.A. colls.) 

M. SETULIFERUM, Foiel. 

Schultze Seise Siidafrica, vol. 4, p. 16, £ , 1910. 

" ^ • l"8-2 - 3 mm. Very similar to the Indian species wroughtoni, 
Forel, but with the head much wider and without the metallic sheen 
on the abdomen which is seen in that species. Mandibles slightly 
shining, longitudinally striate, with three strong teeth and posteriorly 
a very small tooth. Clypeus with two very distinct carinae, which 
coalesce behind. Head rectangular, hardly longer than wide, feebly 
concave behind, the sides feebly convex. Eyes convex, fairly large, 
placed almost within the anterior third of the head. The scape just 
reaches back to the hind margin of the head. The 3rd-8th joints of 
the flagellum distinctly wider than long, the 2nd joint as wide as long. 
Thorax as in salamonis and wroughtoni, but the transition between the 
two planes of the epinotum more broadly rounded (the two planes 
indistinctly separated). The two nodes equally high (in salamonis the 
1st is higher) ; the 1st much wider than in wroughtoni, as wide as the 
2nd, much wider than its peduncle in front, thicker above than in 
wroughtoni. Abdomen in front somewhat concavely truncate. Head, 
thorax and petiole dull ; abdomen slightly glossy in front at the base, 
shining above and behind, very finely coriaceous and reticulate-rugose ; 
legs smooth and shining. The head is exceedingly finely and closely 
longitudinally striate, reticulate-punctate between the striae, the abdo- 
men anteriorly similarly sculptured, but more feebly. On the head 
and thorax are some very short, scanty, fine whitish and stiff hairs, 
not easily observable; similar but longer hairs occur on the petiole 
and abdomen. In addition there is a fine and short adpressed 
pubescence, fairly sparse ; scape and legs pubescent only. Brown ; 



228 Annals of the South African Museum. 

antennae, legs, mandibles and disc of pronotum and mesonotum 
reddish to brownish yellow. The club of the antenna dark brown." 
Khakhea, Kalahari. (Schultze.) Nest in sand. 

Var. NOTTTLA, Forel. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 54, p. 441, $ , $ , 1910. - 

^ . 2 - 2 mm. Dark reddish brown, pro-mesonotum lighter, more 
rusty red, legs paler, especially the tarsi, mandibles yellowish rusty 
red. Eyes rather smaller and placed further back than in the type* 
species. Head slightly narrower. Epinotum and mesopleura strongly 
reticulate-punctate. Second joint of flagellum a little longer than 
wide. 

"£. 35 mm. Head much wider than long; the posterior margin 
nearly straight, a little narrower than the thorax and, like it, dull. 
Abdomen fairly shining. Wings hyaline, nervures pale. Black ; 
antennae brown ; tarsi, tibiae, articulations and margins of the 
mandibles yellow. Hairs on head and thorax fairly abundant and 
erect. Tibiae and scapes with adpressed pubescence." 

Bulawayo ; Springvale, S. Bhodesia. (S.A.M., R.M., G-.A. colls.) 

M. Pharaonis, Linn. 

Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, i, p. 580, 1758. Say (Myrmica molesta), Boston 
Journ. NH., p. 626, $ , 1838. Smith (Myrmica domestica), 
List. Brit. Anim. B.M., vi, p. 119, <£, 1851. Smith (Myrmica 
domestica), Trans. Ent. Soc. London (2), iii, p. 130, $ , $ , £ , 

1855. 

$ . 2"5-3 mm. Reddish yellow, the apical half of the abdomen 
and sometimes the sides of the whole of the 1st segment brownish. A 
few scattered pilose hairs on the thorax and abdomen. A microscopic 
pubescence on the legs and antennae. Head, thorax and nodes closely 
and minutely granulate, abdomen and legs smooth and shining. 
Head, thorax and nodes dull. Head ovate, excluding the mandibles, 
one-quarter longer than wide, the sides strongly, the posterior margin 
feebly convex. Eyes situated in front of the middle of the head. 
The scape almost reaches the posterior margin. Clypeal carinae fairly 
distinct. Mandibles faintly striate. Pro-mesonotum convex, rounded 
in front and at the sides, narrowed posteriorly. The thorax constricted 
at the meso-epinotal suture, which is deep. Dorsum of epinotum 
longer than wide, about three-fifths as long as the pro-mesonotum, 
the declivity almost vertical, shorter than the dorsum. The pro- 
mesonotum and epinotum, seen from the side, are distinctly convex. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 229 

The 1st node of the petiole cuneiform, rounded above, the peduncle 
nearly as long as the node ; 2nd node wider in front than behind, 
wider than the 1st node, and slightly wider than long. 

$. 4' 3 nun. Reddish yellow; scutellum, median portion of 
metanotum, declivity and sides of epinotum, and the mesopleura dark 
brown. The posterior face of the 1st node slightly brown. Colour of 
the abdomen similar to that of the ^ but darker. Pilosity, pubes- 
cence and puncturation as in the ^ ; a longitudinal median area on 
the anterior half of the mesonotum finely striate. Head, excluding 
the mandibles, as wide as long. The eyes moderately large, placed in 
the middle of the sides. Pronotum not exposed dorsally ; mesonotum 
very slightly wider behind than in front, convex anteriorly, one-third 
wider than long. Dorsum of epinotum very short, the declivity 
strongly reticulate, its upper half excavated and concave, its lateral 
margins tumid. The upper half of the declivity is very steep, the 
lower half vertical. Nodes of petiole similar to those of the $ , but 
the peduncle of the 1st joint is shorter, and the node is also shorter 
and more compressed from front to back, so that the dorsal edge is 
linear. The 2nd node is wider than in the ^ , quite two-thirds wider 
than long. The anterior angles of the abdomen more rounded than in 
the £. 

" c? • 3 mm. Dai'k brown ; mandibles, scapes, apical half of the 
flagellum, femora and tibiae yellowish brown ; basal half of the 
fiagellum, tarsi and apex of the abdomen pale yellow. Pilosity long, 
very sparse and light yellow. Head closely and finely punctured. 
Clypeus convex, obtusely rounded behind, not carinate, finely shag- 
reened. Frontal sulcus extending as far as the anterior ocellus. 
Thorax punctate above and in front ; on the metanotum and the sides 
of the thorax the punctures are so shallow that the sculpture appears 
merely shagreened. Petiole punctured. Abdomen almost smooth 
and very shining, the rest of the body with only a faint gloss." 

Durban. (H. Bell-Marley.) Capetown. (R. Lightfoot.) The 
original home of this cosmopolitan species is probably South America. 
It is frequently found in hothouses in temperate countries. 

(S.A.M., R.M., G.A. colls.) 

M. Oscaris, Forel, var. nuptialis, Porel. 

Mitth. Schweiz. Ent. Ges., vol. ix, p. 8(5, 1894. (Var.) Deutsch. Ent. 
Zeit. Beiheft, p. 216, £ , 1913. 

ty . 1*6-1 8 mm. Dirty brownish yellow, the antennae and tarsi 
paler. The median dorsal area of the 1st abdominal segment is 



230 Annals of the South African Museum. 

brownish yellow, the rest of the abdomen brown. Very smooth and 
shining. Pilosity as in springvalense. Head nearly one-quarter longer 
than wide, the sides moderately convex. First joint of the flagellum 
as long as the 2nd, 3rd and 4th together ; the club a little longer than 
the rest of the nagellum. The scape is shorter than in the type 
species, and the nodes of the petiole, particularly the 1st, higher and 
shorter. 

Bembesi and Bulawayo. (S.A.M., B.M., G-.A. colls.) 

M. Oscaris, race musicum, Forel. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 54, p. 442, £ , ? , 1910. 

" ^ . 1*5 mm. Head a little narrower than in the type, a little 
smaller relatively to the body. Club of the antenna much thicker. 
The 9th joint of the flagellum is much smaller than the 10th, the 
latter and the 11th considerably swollen (in the type species the 9th is 
almost as wide as the 10th and the last two joints are only slightly 
swollen). Otherwise like Oscaris, but of a dull brownish yellow, the 
thorax dirty yellow. The scape is short, much shorter than in 
minutum and floricola ; the peduncle of the 1st node shorter than in 
floricola.''' 

" ? . 28 mm. Head as in the <£>, longer than wide; eyes large. 
Thorax high, narrower than the head. Nodes rounded, the 1st with a 
little tooth below. Dark brown ; maudibles, antennae and tarsi dirty 
yellow." 

Natal. (Haviland.) 

M. Oscaris, race springvalense, Forel. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. 163, £ , 1913. 

^ • 2 mm. Smooth and shining. Head reddish brown, legs pale 
brown, tarsi yellowish, abdomen and often also the nodes dark brown, 
the median area of the 1st abdominal segment above, more or less 
yellowish, thorax and mandibles dark ochreous, antennae brownish 
yellow except the club, which is brown. Head and thorax very 
sparsely and shallowly punctured, the punctures piligerous. Head 
with a sparse and fine decumbent pubescence, the rest of the body with 
a few long and pale pilose hairs. Head, including the closed mandi- 
bles, one-sixth longer than wide, the posterior angles rounded, the 
posterior margin shallowly concave, the sides nearly straight. Scape 
short, not reaching the posterior margin by the length of the eye. 
Club of antenna thick, distinctly longer than the rest of the flagellum, 
the apical joint as long as the six preceding joints taken together; 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 231 

3rd-6tli as wide as long. Clypeal carinae sharp, well denned. Man- 
dibles sparsely and coarsely punctured, acutely tridentate. Eyes rather 
flat, placed in front of the middle of the head. Pro-mesonotuni 
convex, widest in front and not much narrower than the head. Thorax 
strongly constricted at the meso-epinotal suture, which is deep and 
wide. The dorsum of the epinotum passes into the oblique declivity 
by a gradual curve. Seen from the side, the dorsum of the epinotum 
is convex lengthwise, that of the pro-mesonotum convex only in front. 
First joint of petiole with the peduncle short, about half as long as the 
node, which is sub-conical, longer than wide and higher than the 2nd 
node. The 2nd node is a little wider than the 1st, wider in front than 
behind, and as wide as long. 

Springvale, Matopos, S. Rhodesia. (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 

Race speingvalense, var. patbrna, Forel. 
Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat., vol. 50, p. 248, $ , 1914. 

5' . 2T mm. Dark yellowish brown, the tarsi pale. A stouter 
insect than the type of the race. The club of the antenna is not 
longer than the rest of the fiagellum, hardly as long; 3rd— Sth joints 
distinctly wider than long. The nodes of the petiole are much wider 
than in the race, and the 1st node has the anterior face less convex, 
and is as wide as long ; it is also less conical and more wedge-shaped. 
The 2nd node is transversely oblong, with rather pronounced anterior 
lateral angles, almost twice as wide as long. 

Table Mountain, 1800 ft. Under stones in damp soil. (R.M., Gr.A. 
colls.) 

M. Schultzei, Forel. 

Schultze Reise Suclafrika, vol. 4, p. 18, $ , ? , 1910. 

£ . 15-21 mm. Brownish yellow; the thorax a little paler; legs, 
antennae and the basal half of all the abdominal segments pale yellow. 
Smooth and shining, with scanty and very small piligerous punctures. 
Head about one-quarter longer than wide, the sides moderately convex, 
posterior angles rounded, porterior margin shallowly concave. The 
anterior margin of the ciypeus feebly excised in the middle, the clypeal 
carinae sharp, with a longitudinal impression between them. Man- 
dibles quadridentate, shining, sparsely and feebly punctured. Eyes 
large, placed a little in front of the middle of the head. The scape 
does not extend bach as far as the posterior margin of the head. 3rd- 
7th joints of the fiagellum as wide as, or a little wider than, long ; the 
1st joint as long as the three following taken together; the club as 



232 Annals of the South African Museum. 

long as the rest of the flagellum. Thorax moderately constricted. 
Dorsum of epinotum not quite half as long as the pro-mesonotum. 
The latter and the epinotum are feebly convex lengthwise, the whole 
thorax sloping steeply from front to back. The dorsum of the epi- 
notum twice as long as the declivity, the one merging into the other 
by a gentle curve. First node of petiole wedge-shaped, rounded above, 
higher than the 2nd, about as wide as long and twice as long as its 
peduncle. Second node sub-quadrate ; narrower behind than in front ; 
hardly wider than the 1st. 

" $. 4 - 7 mm. Head quadrate ; wider than the thorax. The scape 
extends back just as far as the posterior margin of the head. Meso- 
notum narrow ; the dorsal profile straight. Epinotum almost cuboid, 
with two longitudinal swellings. Head, thorax and petiole very 
slightly shining, almost dull ; partly reticulate-puuctate ; partly longi- 
tudinally striate, especially the front of the vertex. Black; mandibles, 
antennae and legs reddish (deiilated). Otherwise like the ^ •" 

German S. W. Africa. (Schultze.) Grahamstown. (J. Hewitt.) 
(S.A.M., E.M., G-.A. colls.) 

M. Aknoldi, Eorel. (Plate V, fig. 60.) 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. 137, £ , 1913. 

^ • 16-T9 mm. Reddish or amber yellow, the sides of the thorax 
and the nodes a little darker. Very smooth and shining ; almost im- 
punctate. A few long and thin pilose hairs on the thorax, nodes and 
abdomen, the hairs oblique and flavous. Head one-fifth longer than 
wide, the sides feebly convex, the posterior angles strongly rounded, 
the posterior margin shallowly concave. Eyes placed a little in front 
of the middle of the sides of the head. The scape extends back almost 
to the posterior margin. The club is not thick; the 1st joint of the 
flagellum is nearly as long as the five following joints taken together ; 
the 2nd joint is a little longer than wide; the 3rd-8th wider than 
long. The clypeal carinae are well defined; the anterior margin of 
the median area almost straight or very feebly concave. Mandibles 
smooth, punctured, quaclridentate ; the apical tooth acute, the inner- 
most indistinct. Thorax rather strongly constricted at the meso- 
epinotal suture. Dorsal profile of both pro-mesonotum and epinotum 
convex. Epinotum a little more than two-thirds the length of the 
pro-mesonotum, its dorsum longer than the declivity, which is oblique. 
The 1st node of the petiole is more squamiform than usual for the 
genus, and is not much thicker at the base than it is above. It is 
about one and a half times as high as long, and one and a half times 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 283 

wider than long ; the posterior face convex, the anterior nearly 
vertical, convex transversely. The 2nd node is one and a quarter 
times higher than long, rounded above, as wide as, but not so high 
as the 1st, and a little wider than long. 

Matopo Hills, S. Rhodesia. Running over the branches of a tree 
(species unidentified). This tree has a dark green bark, covered with 
a thin yellowish and parchment-like outer skin, which is also waxy. 
The colour of the ant matches that of this skin very closely, so that 
even when moving about it is difficult to detect. I have never taken 
this species except on this particular kind of tree, and it is not un- 
likely that the ant feeds on the waxy exudation. (S.A.M., R.M., G.A. 
colls.) 

M. Leimbachi, Forel. 
Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat., vol. 50, p. 246, £ , 1914. 

5 . 2 mm. Pale ochreous ; the legs very pale ; the apical half of 
the abdomen brownish yellow. Smooth and shining, impunctate, 
excepting a few feeble punctures on the vertex. Pubescence absent, 
except on the legs. Pilosity short and very scanty, more decumbent 
than in Arnoldi. Head very little longer than wide ; the sides dis- 
tinctly convex ; the posterior margin straight. Eyes situated within 
the anterior third of the head. Median area of clypeus projecting 
somewhat forward; the carinae rather feeble, the space between them 
almost flat. Mandibles shining, sparsely and coarsely punctured, 
quadridentate. The scape does not extend back quite as far as the 
occipital margin. First joint of flagellum as long as the four succeed- 
ing joints taken together ; 3rd-8th joints a little wider than long. 
Head almost twice as wide as the pro-mesonotum. Thorax similar to 
that of Arnoldi, but narrower, and with the meso-epinotal suture 
deeper. The epinotum is two-thirds as long as the pro-mesonotum. 
The dorsum of the epinotum not much longer than the declivity, as 
high as the mesonotum, and very convex. The node of the 1st joint 
of the petiole is conical and widely rounded above, its length below 
about one and a quarter times longer than its peduncle, one and two- 
thirds as long as wide, not much higher than the 2nd node, the 
anterior face subvertical, the posterior face very oblique. The 2nd 
node is globose, widest in the middle, barely wider than the 1st. 
Abdomen oval. 

Capetown. (S.A.M., G.A. colls.) 



234 Annals of the South African Museum. 

M. pacis, Forel. 

Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat., vol. 50, p. 343, $ , 1914. 

" ^ . 1"9 mm. Smaller and a little paler than Leimbachi, but not 
so pale as Oscaris-excensurae. It is distinguished from both by the 
profile being subtruncate in front of the clypeus, which gives it a 
false appearance of a Bondroitia. In profile, the mandibles extend 
very little beyond the clypeus. The frontal carinse behind form a 
strong curve with their anterior lobes, which are situated on the sub- 
truncate portion. The eyes, placed within the anterior third of the 
head, are fairly large but almost unpigmented. The abdomen has 
some brown bands, not very distinct. The shape of the petiole and 
thorax, like the sculpture and other characters, is identical with that 
of Leimbachi, but the head is slightly' narrower. The eyes are com- 
posed of about 15-20 facets." 

Capetown, ex S.A. Mus. coll. 

M. Bbatjnsi, Mayr. 

Ann. K.K.N.H. Mus. Wien, vol. 16, p. 7, £ , 1901. 

" ^ . T4-T6 mm. Reddish yellow or yellow, the abdomen more or 
less brownish, the 1st segment above yellow, brownish at the sides 
and near the posterior margin. Masticatory margin of the mandibles 
reddish brown, the last four joints of the flagellum and also the hind 
margin of the head slightly brownish. Very sparsely pilose, with 
fairly long erect hairs. Very smooth and shining, sparsely punctured 
with piligerous punctures, the cheeks in front longitudinally striate, 
the frontal carinae somewhat striate, the meso-pleura below finely 
and shallowly reticulate. Mandibles quadridentate. The head very 
distinctly longer than wide. The clypeus has a rounded anterior 
margin ; no median groove, teeth, or carinae ; but the posterior lateral 
margins, between the antennal sockets, somewhat projecting. Antennae 
12-jointed; the apex of the scape is nearer to the posterior angles of 
the head than to the eyes ; the 2nd-8th joints of the flagellum very 
small, much wider than long. The 1st joint of the club as wide as 
long or a little wider, the second a little wider than long, the last 
joint nearly twice as long as the first and second together. The eyes 
are rather small, placed in front of the middle of the head. The 
thorax is constricted at the meso-epinotal suture ; the dorsum of the 
epinotum passes arcuately into the declivity, which is but half as long. 
The 2nd joint of the petiole is somewhat wider than long, distinctly 
lower than the 1st joint, and not wider, or hardly wider, than the 1st. 

This species stands close to M. disjjar. In this species the head is 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 235 

somewhat narrower. The 1st and 2nd joint of the antennal club not 
longer than wide (in dispar both are distinctly longer than wide, the 
first joint of the club decidedly smaller than the 2nd), the last joint of 
the club distinctly wider than in dispar, and nearly twice as long as 
the two joints preceding taken together, whereas in dispar it is 
certainly clearly, but very little longer than the two preceding." 
Port Elizabeth. (Dr. Brauns.) In hollow stems. 

Var. shilohensis, Forel. 
Deutsch. Ent. Zeit. Beiheft, p. 217, £ , 1913. 

^ , 1*4 mm. Colour as in the type. The scape is shorter, and the 
thorax is less constricted at the meso-epinotal suture. The head is 
more quadrangular, the sides straighter. The dorsal profile of the 
thorax is almost straight. The 3rd-7th joints of the flagellum twice 
as wide as long, the 2nd and 8th joints one and a half times as wide 
as loug. The ventral surface of the 1st node is strongly convex, the 
node is but slightly higher than the 2nd. 

Shiloh, S. Rhodesia. In grassy soil. (Gr.A. coll.) 

M. destructor, Jerdon, race kalahariense, Forel. 

Madras Journ. Litt. and Sc, vol. 17, p. 105, $ , 1851. Race, 
Schultze Reise Siiclafrica, vol. 4, p. 18, $ , 1910. 

" 5 • l'7-3 mm. Differs from the subspecies gracillimum, Smith, by 
the shorter scape, which even in the smallest £' by no means reaches 
the posterior margin of the head, and by the very small, flat eyes, 
which comprise only 16-18 distinct facets (quite 40 in the larger 
and more convex eyes of the type species and the race gracillimum) . 
The head is even more strongly and closely punctured than in gracilli- 
mum. Brownish yellow-red ; abdomen brownish. Upper surface of 
the first two abdominal segments, antennae and legs yellowish. 
Polymorphic as in gracillimum. Larger than dispar, Em., in which 
the epinotum is smooth — in this species transversely rugose. 

" Kooa-Sekgoma, Kalahari. (Schultze.) In a small subterranean 
sand-nest ; also found on another occasion in the nest of Hamitermes 
runconifer, attacking Ocymyrmex picardi?'' 

M. dispar, Emery. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 24, g , 1895. 

" $ . Maxima, 3 mm. Testaceous; abdomen fuscous, veiy shining, 
and sparsely punctured. Head hardly longer than wide ; the cheeks 



236 Annals of the South African Museum. 

as far as the eyes, and the front of the head, striated. There is a 
median sulcus, and the occipital region is tiunsversely striate. Man- 
dibles tridentate ; antennae as in the $ minima ; thorax moderately 
stout; the meso-epinotal suture impressed ; the epinotum distinctly 
angulate ; the meso- and metapleura punctate, dull ; dorsum of the 
declivity transversely rugulose, nodes of the petiole transverse. 

"£. Minima, 1*5— 1 - 7 mm. Pale, testaceous, pellucid; abdomen 
fuscous, very shining, very scantily punctured with piligerous punc- 
tures. Head moderately elongate ; cheeks striated anteriorly. The 
first two joints of the antennal club subecpial, the last joint a little 
longer than the two preceding together ; mesopleura reticulate- 
punctate. Epinotum obtusely angulated between the dorsum and the 
declivity ; nodes of petiole small and subequal. 

" Makapan. (Simon.)" 

M. AMBiiTOPS, Emery, race bttlawayense, Forel. 

Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital. xxvi, 1894, p. 148. (Race) Bull. Soc. Yaucl. Sc. 
Nat, vol. 50, p. 247, £ , 1914. 

T8-4 mm. Strongly polymorphic, having the facies of a Solenopsis. 
The smaller $ $ , T8-23 mm., differ from the larger $ $ in having 
the head longer and the sides less convex, but a complete transitional 
series can be found between one extreme and the other. 

^ . Maxima, 4 mm. Ochreous, somewhat reddish, the abdomen 
darker, with the apical margins and the greater part of the sides of the 
segments fuscous. The nodes above and the masticatory margin of 
the mandibles slightly brownish. A short and rather sparse pubes- 
cence on the head and thorax, much longer and denser on the legs and 
antennae. Margin of clypeus, thorax, nodes, and abdomen with a 
long, pale, yellowish and sparse pilosity. Smooth and shining. Head 
strongly but sparsely punctured (as in Solenopsis punctaticeps) ; pro- 
mesonotum more feebly and sparsely punctured. The mesopleura 
distinctly reticulate-punctate ; the sides of the epinotum above 
shallowly and transversely striate, oblicpiely' striate below. Abdomen 
very smooth and shining, each pilose hair is inserted in a small 
puncture. The head in front, on each side of a smooth area sur- 
rounding the antennal sockets, is obliquely and closely striate, the 
striated area extending back as far as, and a little below, the eyes. 
Head, excluding the mandibles, hardly longer than wide, the sides very 
convex, the posterior angles strongly rounded, the occipital margin 
shallowly concave. The eyes are rather small and placed well within 
the anterior half of the head. The median area of the clypeus is 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 287 

feebly and longitudinally striate on eacli side, hardly carinate, the 
anterior margin straight. The frontal carinae are short and parallel ; 
the scape of the antenna short, extending' back hardly as far as the 
posterior third of the head ; the club of the flagellum thin ; the 1st 
joint of the flagellum not longer than the 2nd, 3rd and 4th taken 
together ; 3rd-8th joints about as long as wide ; all the joints of the 
club much longer than wide. Mandibles shining, coarsely striato- 
punctate, quadridentate. Thorax moderately constricted at the meso- 
epinotal suture, which is deeply impressed and large. The dorsal 
profile of the pro-mesonotum is very convex ; that of the epinotum 
flat, sloping posteriorly. The dorsum of the epinotum is broad, 
almost as wide as long, and a little less than half as long as the pro- 
mesonotum. The declivity is almost vertical, the brow very shallowly 
impressed in the middle. The peduncle of the 1 st joint of the petiole 
nearly as long as the node, the latter as wide as long, not higher than 
the 2nd. The 2nd node is a little wider than the 1st, wider than long, 
narrowed behind, subglobose. 

^ . Minima, 1'8 mm. Similar to the $ maxima, except in the 
following characters : The colour is slightly paler ; the head is longer, 
quite one-quarter longer than wide, the sides almost straight or very 
feebly convex ; the anterior angles of the head not striate ; the scape 
longer, extending well beyond the posterior third of the head; the 
3rd-8th joints of the flagellum distinctly wider than long. 

5 . (Hitherto undescribed.) 8 mm. Head and antennae reddish 
yellow, legs yellow, the rest of the body reddish browu. Smooth and 
shining. Pilosity as in the ^ , but there are some' short pubescent 
hairs on the abdomen intermixed with the pilosity. Head sub- 
quadrate, coarsely punctured, and striate, the striae rather feeble 
on the vertex, and converging behind at the ocellar region. The eyes 
are large, placed just in front of the middle of the sides. The ocelli 
are set far back, the posterior margin of the Jiead subtruncate behind 
the posterior ocelli. A median longitudinal sulcus extends from the 
posterior angle of the clypeus to the anterior ocellus. Pronotum 
hardly exposed above. Mesonotum convex and narrow in front, one 
third longer than wide. Dorsum of epinotum short, passing by a 
steep curve into the vertical declivity. First joint of petiole with the 
peduncle shorter than in the ^ ; the 2nd node less rounded ; the 
sides parallel and not convex ; subquadrate. Abdomen oblong, as 
long as the thorax and nodes together. Wings slightly yellow, the 
nervures yellow, the stigma brownish yellow ; 1 cubital cell. 

£ . (Hitherto undescribed.) 4T mm. Black; antennae, man- 
dibles and tarsi flavous ; femora and tibiae brown. Smooth and 



238 Annals of the South African Museum. 

shining ; head duller. Pilosity scanty, longer on the scutellum than 
on the mesonotum. Head shallowly and longitudinally striate, trans- 
versely so between the ocelli, subquadrate, the sides moderately 
convex, the posterior angles rounded. The eyes are very large and 
convex, occupying the whole of the anterior half of the head and 
touching the base of the mandibles ; the latter short and nan*ow, 
feebly dentate. Clypeus convex, the median area raised into a" promi- 
nent tubercle. The 13-jointed antennae are densely covered with a 
stiff, almost bristly, erect pubescence. They have a distinctive struc- 
ture unlike that of any other <$ $ of this genus which are known to 
me, excepting M. Enieryi, and resembling that of Solenopsis. The 
antennae are setaceous, thinning considerably towards the apex. 
The scape is very short, almost quadrate or only a very little 
longer than wide, not longer than the 1st joint, which is wider 
than the scape, and globose, as in Solenopsis. The 2nd joint is a 
little longer than the 1st or 3rd ; the 2nd -4th joints cylindrical 
and twice as long as wide, their inner margins convex, the outer 
straight; the remaining joints are all much longer than wide, and 
flattened. Pronotum not exposed above ; the mesonotam very convex 
in front, horizontal behind, as wide as long, widest across the 
tegulae. The scutellum convex, wider than long, sloping backwards. 
The dorsum of the epinotum twice as wide at the base as it is long, 
with a prominent boss on each side above the vertical declivity. 
First node of petiole flattened, the anterior face vertical, the posterior- 
dorsal face as long as wide, widest in front ; seen from the side, the 
node is shorter than its peduncle. Second node wider than the 1st, 
convex above, transversely ovate. Legs slender, not long. Wings as 
in the ? . 

Hillside, Bulawayo. (A. M. Macgregor.) This species forms very 
populous colonies, and almost invariably the nest is placed under 
stones which also cover the nests of a small species of termite (species 
unidentified). The galleries of the two nests are not in free 
communication, and the termites are quickly attacked if the dividing 
walls are broken down. 

(S.A.M., E.M., G-.A. colls.) 

M. (sub-genus Mitara, Forel) exiguum, Forel, var. btjlawatense, 

Forel. 

Mitth. Schweiz. Ent. G-es., vol. 9, p. 84, 1894. (Var.) Deutsch. Ent. 

Zeit. Beiheft, p. 217, £ , 1913. 

£ . 1-5 mm. Brownish yellow, the apical half of the abdomen dark 

brown, legs, antennae, mandibles and anterior margin of head yellow. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 239 

Smooth and shining. Head and thorax very sparsely and finely 
punctured. Head about one-fifth longer than wide, the sides almost 
parallel. Antennae 11-jointed, the scape extending a little beyond the 
posterior fifth of the head ; 3rd-7th joints of flagellum one and a half 
times wider than long ; the 8th and 9th as wide as long. Clypeus 
distinctly bicarinate. The eyes small, set within the anterior half of 
the head. Mandibles shining, with a few large punctures, tridentate. 
The thorax is fairly strongly constricted at the meso-epinotal suture ; 
the pro-mesonotum is twice as long as the epinotum. The dorsum of 
the latter one-third longer than the declivity, which is oblique and 
passes into the dorsum by a low curve. The dorsal profile of the pro- 
mesonotum is not very convex. The 1st node of the petiole cuneiform, 
about as wide as long, the apex rounded, the peduncle half as long as 
the node. The 2nd node is about as wide as long, or a little wider, 
wider in front than behind, reversed trapeziform. 

Dr. Forel distinguishes this form from the type by the more convex 
sides of the head, the shorter nodes and the wider 2nd node, which is 
" much wider than long (as long as wide in the type)." The latter 
feature is not appreciable by measurement in the specimens which I 
have before me. 

Bulawayo. (G-.A. coll.) 

M. (sub-genus Mitara) atomus, Forel, race mictilis, Forel. 
(Eace) Zool. Jahrb. Syst., vol. 29, p. 252, £ , ? , 1910. 

^ . 1'5 mm. Pale ochreous, the sides and apical margins of the 
abdominal segments slightly brownish. Smooth and shining. Head 
and thorax very sparsely and finely punctured. Head very sparsely 
pubescent, and with the rest of the body, also very sparsely pilose. 
Head, excluding the mandibles, nearly one-sixth longer than wide, 
the sides moderately convex. Mandibles rather long, shining, coarsely 
and sparsely punctured, with 3 or 4 teeth. The clypeus produced a 
little forwards ; the median area bicarinate, slightly concave between 
the carinae, the anterior margin feebly sinuate. Eyes not very small, 
placed a little in front of the middle of the sides. Antennae 
11-jointed, the scape extending back as far as the posterior fourth of 
the head, the club distinctly longer than the rest of the flagellum ; 1st 
joint of flagellum as long as the four following joints taken together, 
3rd-6th joints twice as wide as long. Thorax not strongly constricted 
at the meso-epinotal suture. The 1st node of the petiole is only a 
little higher than the 2nd, narrower and longer than that of exiguum, 
bvlaivayense, and longer than wide. The 2nd node subglobose, the 

16 



240 Annals of the South African Museum. 

sides convex (not straight as in exiguum, oulawayense) , a trifle wider 
than the 1st. 

$ . 3 - 8 mm. Yellowish or reddish brown ; legs, antennae and 
mandibles dark ochreous. Head somewhat quadrangular, one-quarter 
longer than wide. Thorax narrow, two and a half times as long as 
wide, almost parallel- sided or only slightly convex. Pronotum slightly 
exposed above. The brow of the declivity of the epinotum rounded, 
the dorsum short and about half as long as the vertical declivity. 
The 1st node of the petiole is wider and more flattened above than in 
the £ . The 2nd node is more convex above and at the sides than 
in the ^ > an d is two-thirds longer than wide. Otherwise like the ^ ■ 
(Dealated.) 

Durban. (Arnold, Cooper.) (E.M., G-.A. colls.) 

Sub-Tribe SOLENOPSIDINT, Emery. 

Genus DIPLOMORITTM, Mayr. 
Ann. K.K.KH. Mus., Wien, vol. 16, p. 16, 1901. 

Characters. 

^ . Antennae 11-jointed ; clypeus without carinae. Pro-mesonotal 
suture almost effaced ; meso-epinotal suture deep. Epinotum unarmed, 
its dorsum slightly excavated as in some species of Honomorium. 
Middle and hind tibiae without calcaiia. 

$ . Considerably larger than the £ . Antennae 11-jointed. Pro- 
notum vertical, not exposed dorsally. Epinotum unarmed. Discoidal 
cell of anterior wing large, radial cell open. 

$ . Unknown. 

D. longipbnne, Mayr. 

Loc. cit., pp. 16-18, £ , ? . 

" $ . 1'8-1'9 mm. Pale brown, the mandibles and tarsi brighter. 
A sparse and moderately long pilosity on the body ; on the legs and 
antennae shorter, but more abundant. The upper surface of the head 
also has shorter and more abundant hairs, intermixed with the longer 
ones. Polished and shining ; the mandibles partly longitudinally 
striate and with a few piligerous punctures ; the sides of the 
niesothorax reticulate-punctate. Head rectangular, but little longer 
than wide, with rounded posterior angles and somewhat convex sides. 
Mandibles with a very oblique masticatory margin, armed with 3 
larger teeth in front, and 3 or 4 smaller and less distinct teeth 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 241 

behind. Clypeus moderately large, without carinae or teeth, convex 
transversely and lengthwise, the posterior third inserted between the 
frontal carinae, the anterior margin convex. The frontal carinae are 
very short, fairly narrow, not diverging much behind ; they are farther 
apart and the posterior portion of the clypeus is wider than in 
Solenopsis. The scape of the 11-jointed antennae does not extend back 
as far as the hind margin of the head, the flagellum similar to that of 
Solenopsis, but the antepenultimate joint is relatively larger ; the 
2nd-7th joints of the flagellum small and wider than long, the 8th 
distinctly larger than the preceding, as long as wide, the 9th large, 
very little longer than wide, the last joint almost three times as long 
as the preceding ; the structure of the flagellum being intermediate 
between that of Monomorium and of Solenopsis. The antennal fossa 
small. The frontal area small and triangular. The frontal sulcus is 
very short. The moderately large and feebly convex eyes lie in front 
of the middle of the head. No ocelli. The posterior margin of the 
head is straight, but is strongly hollowed out at the occipital foramen. 
The thorax is like that of Solenopsis, the pro-mesonotal suture hardly 
defined ; the meso-epinotal suture deep. The dorsum of the epinotum 
merges by a gentle curve into the declivity. A transversely concave 
and shallow longitudinal impression begins at the base of the epinotum, 
widens and passes over into the declivity. The legs of medium length. 
The petiole is shaped as in Solenopsis, the 1st joint distinctly 
pedunculate, the ventral lamella simple, the node transverse ; the 2nd 
joint is wider than the 1st, much narrower in front than behind, 
somewhat bell-shaped. Abdomen ovate, transversely truncate at the 
base. 

<j> . 9-5-10 mm. Very shining and pale brown. The pilosity is 
fairly abundant, particularly on the legs. The adpressed pubescence 
is absent from the head and thorax, scanty on the abdomen, the ventral 
surface of the 2nd node of the petiole is densely pilose, the hairs short 
and exserted. Mandibles coarsely striated, sparsely and strongly 
punctured. The clypeus is transversely rugose at the sides, smooth 
in the middle ; the cheeks and inner borders of the eyes longitudinally 
striate, the frons and vertex sparsely punctured with deep and large 
punctures, the mesonotum and scutellum polished, with few punctures, 
the sides of the pronotum and the mesopleura polished ; the concave 
sides of the scutellum, the metanotum, the sides of the metathorax 
and of the epinotum more or less striato-rugose, the latter also with 
fairly abundant punctures bearing short and erect hairs. The anterior 
upper surface of the finely rugulose and punctured 1st node bears 
similar hairs, the 2nd node is polished on the upper surface, with a 



242 Annals of the South African Museum. 

few pilose punctures, striato-punctate in front and pubescent. The 
abdomen is polished and sparsely punctured. The anterior wings are 
slightly greyish yellow, nervures and stigma brownish yellow. Head 
with the closed mandibles triangular and rounded, narrower than the 
thorax across the tegulae ; without the mandibles, a little wider than 
long. Clypeus triangular, strongly convex transversely, without 
carinae, the anterior margin feebly sinuate on each side, so that the 
median portion projects in an obtuse angle ; the posterior portion of 
the clypeus between the frontal carinae separated off from the front 
portion by a transverse impression. A small frontal area present, 
with a frontal sulcus extending from it to the anterior ocellus. . . . 
The scape extends back as far as the posterior ocelli ; the flagebum 
with a distinct 3-jointed club, the 1st joint of the flagellum two and 
three-quarter times longer than wide, the 4 following joints as long as 
wide, the 6th a trifle longer than wide, the 1st and 2nd joints of the 
club distinctly longer than wide, the last joint almost as long as the 
three preceding taken together. The fairly large and convex eyes lie 
in front of the middle of the head. The posterior margin of the head 
straight. The thorax is widest in the middle ; the pronotum vertical, 
the mesonotum in front and at the sides strongly convex, in the middle 
feebly so ; the dorsum of the epinotum sloping, the declivity vertical 
and with a rounded brow. The 1st joint of the petiole has a little 
tooth below, the 2nd is even more campaniform than in the £ , it is 
about twice as wide as long and twice as wide as the 1st node, rounded 
at the sides, widest just in front of the hind margin. The abdomen is 
a little more than twice as wide as the 2nd node, and not quite twice 
as long as it is wide." 

Port Elizabeth. (Dr. Brauns.) Under stones in the ground. 

Genus SOLENOPSIS, Westwoocl. 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist,, vi, p. 86, 1841. 

Characters. 

^ • Maxima. Antennae 10-jointed, with a well-defined and fairly 
thick two-jointed club. Mandibles thick, edentate or with two or 
three blunt teeth. Head quadrate. Clypeus with the median area 
raised and produced rather far back between the frontal carinae, 
channelled down the middle, the sides of the channel forming a carina 
on each side, which converge behind, and in front end in two acute 
teeth projecting beyond the margin of the clypeus. Frontal carinae 
short and broad, placed fairly far apart, Eyes small. Thorax 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 243 

narrower than the head, wide and convex in front, considerably 
narrowed behind. Pro - mesonotal suture ill defined; the nieso- 
epinotal suture deeply impi'essed. Epinotum unarmed, the limits 
of the two faces ill defined, the declivity slightly excavated. First 
joint of petiole shortly pedunculated, the 1st node usually wider than 
the 2nd. 

5 . Minor and minima. Like the $ maxima, but the head is more 
elongate, the sides less convex, especially in the smallest $ ^ . The 
mandibular teeth more acute. 

$. Antennae 11-jointed. Eyes fairly large and convex; three 
ocelli. Pronotum hardly exposed above ; mesonotum not very narrow, 
almost as wide across the tegulae as it is long. Dorsum of epinotum 
very short. First node cuneiform, not much wider than the 2nd. 
Anterior wings with 1 cubital and 1 discoidal cell ; the radial cell 
open. 

<$ . Antennae 12-jointed; the scape very short; the 1st joint of 
the flagellum globose. Head reversed trapeziform, widest in front. 
Mandibles long and narrow, with 3 or 4 teeth. Median area of 
clypeus more or less quadrate and gibbous. Eyes large and convex ; 
ocelli large, raised. Pronotum not exposed above. Mesonotum very 
gibbous. Mayrian furrows absent. Scutellum raised above the level 
of the epinotum far more than in the ? . Epinotum as in the ? . 
First node emarginate above ; 2nd node with the dorsal surface 
flattened, not convex, as in the $ . 

This genus is found in both hemispheres. One species, 8. geminata, 
so far not recorded from our region, is very widely distributed, 
occurring over the greater part of the circumtropical area. The 
European species, S.fugax, is frequently found in the nests of other 
ants (chiefly Formica) ; but our commonest species, punctaticeps, 
forms large and independent nests. It is almost hypogaeic in its 
habits, rarely coining to the surface except in dull weather. 

S. punctaticeps, Mayr. (Plate VI, figs. 78, 78a, 78b.) 

Eeise d. Novara, Zool., p. 109, $ , 1865. Forel, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 
vol. 54, p. 431, form B, ? , <$ , 1910. 

^ . Maxima, 3"6 mm. Dirty ochreous, the apical half of all the 
abdominal segments more or less reddish brown yellow ; head brown 
or brownish yellow. Head sparsely and strongly punctured ; thorax 
sparsely and less strongly punctured ; the median longitudinal area of 
the pro-mesonotum almost impunctate. Legs and abdomen very 
sparsely punctured, the punctures on the abdomen minute and 



244 Annals of the South African Museum. 

piligerous. Smooth and shining. The whole body, including the 
legs and antennae, clothed with a rather long, erect, pale yellowish 
pilosity, which is somewhat denser at the margins of the abdominal 
segments. Pubescence not apparent. Head subquadrate, very 
convex above, a little wider behind than in front, as long as wide, 
the sides convex, the posterior angles strongly rounded, the posterior 
margin almost straight. Median area of clypeus bicarinate, the space 
between the carinae excavated, the carinae ending in front in two acute 
teeth, the margin between the carinae concave. A smaller but acute 
tooth lies outside each of the larger teeth. Mandibles sparsely and 
coarsely punctured, with three blunt teeth. The scape of the antenna 
short, extending back a little beyond the posterior third of the head, 
widened gradually in its apical half ; 1st joint of flagellum about as 
long as the four following joints taken together ; 2nd and 3rd joints 
about as long as wide ; 4th-7th slightly wider than long ; the 8th and 
9th, forming the club, thick and five-sixths as long as the rest of the 
flagellum. Eyes small, placed well in front of the middle of the sides 
of the head. Frontal carinae longitudinally striate, slightly divergent 
behind. A poorly defined frontal area lies behind the prolongation of 
the clypeus, and is continued into a short frontal sulcus, which ends 
at about the level of a line joining the eyes. 

Pronotum produced neck-like in front. Pro-mesonotal suture very 
indistinct dorsally ; sides of pro-mesonotum very convex. Thorax 
strongly constricted at the meso-epinotal suture, the dorsal profile 
sloping downwards from the front to the brow of the declivity. 
Dorsum of epinotum widening posteriorly, passing by a low curve 
into the vertical declivity, the margins of which are rather prominent. 
First joint of petiole with a short peduncle; the node thick, squami- 
form, as high as wide, wider above than below ; the dorsal surface not 
linear, convex transversely ; the anterior and posterior faces sub- 
vertical ; the ventral lamella produced in front (under the peduncle) 
into a small, broad tooth. Second node, seen from above, subglobose ; 
a little wider than long, and about one-fifth narrower than the 1st 
node. The abdomen ovate, the basal margin wide, the basal angles 
rounded, but fairly prominent. 

^ . Minor and minima, 3-1 "8 mm. Entirely pale ochreous ; pilosity 
shorter and less abundant, the puncturation scantier; head a little 
more elongate, with the sides less convex. Otherwise like the ^ 
maxima. 

? . 6 - 5 mm. Head and thorax black ; nodes and abdomen dark 
brown; legs, antennae and mandibles brownish yellow. Pilosity as 
in the ^ maxima. Head a little narrower in front than behind ; 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 245 

almost quadrate ; longitudinally striate, and also sparsely and 
coarsely punctured. The striae are narrow and deep. Ocelli not 
large ; rather wide apart. Clypeus as in the £ . Thorax a little wider 
than the head ; sparsely but strongly punctured laterally above ; the 
median area almost impunctate. Pronotum not exposed above; the 
apical half of the dorsum of the epinotum shallowly excavated, the 
excavation widening towards the brow of the declivity, and margined 
on each side by a long, oblique, rounded ridge (hardly a carina). The 
vertical declivity is finely and transversely striate, as are also the sides 
of the epinotum. The 1st node of petiole without a distinct peduncle. 
Seen from in front, it is an elongate triangle with the base at the 
dorsal surface, the latter narrowly emarginate in the middle ; the 
posterior face of the node is sub vertical. The 2nd node is globose. 
The abdomen and nodes are sparsely and fairly strongly punctured. 
Wings hyaline, nervures brown. 

$ . 5 mm. Black ; flagellum ochreous ; tarsi and tibiae brownish 
yellow. Pilosity as in the ? . Head widest in front, trapezoidal, the 
angles considerably rounded. Eyes large, placed in the anterior half 
of the head ; ocelli on a slightly raised area. Anterior margin of 
clypeus convex ; the median area raised and bearing a squarish 
tubercle, not carinate or dentate. Mandibles short, narrow, tridentate, 
the hindmost tooth very small and obtuse. Antennae 12-jointed ; the 
scape very short, when extended laterally, only just reaching the inner 
margin of the eye ; the 1st joint of the flagellum swollen and globose ; 
the remaining joints much longer than wide. Head densely and finely 
reticulate-striate. Thorax widest across the tegulae. Pronotum not 
exposed above. Mesonotum as wide as long, narrow and gibbous in 
front. The dorsum of the epinotum is wider than in the ? , and 
merges more gradually into the declivity, and is barely excavated. 
The whole thorax very finely reticulate-striate ; the disc of the 
scutellum smooth, shining, and sparsely punctured. The 1st node 
similar to that of the ? ; but the anterior face is more quadrate and 
less oblique, the dorsal edge shallowly and more widely emarginate, 
the corners slightly raised; the posterior-dorsal face very finely and 
concentrically striate. The 2nd node is one- third wider than the 1st ; 
longer than wide ; its sides are parallel along their posterior two- 
thirds, and converge sharply inwards at the anterior third, forming a 
distinct but wide angle on each side. Abdomen broad, the 1st 
segment occupying more than half its length. Legs slender. Wings 
as in the ? . 

Widely distributed throughout S. Africa. Sometimes forming very 
large colonies containing many hundreds of workers. 



246 Annals of the South African Mtcseum. 

The above descriptions of the <$ and $ have been drawn up from 
specimens taken with typical ^ punctaticeps, by Mr. E. Wroughton 
at Estcourt, Natal. They agree with those described by Forel as 
form B of punctaticeps, so that the identity of the latter as the true 
£ $ and $ ? of the species is thereby definitely settled. The status 
of form A, originally described as var. caffra, remains undetermined. 
It was taken by Mr. Wroughton in a nest of punctaticeps, which also 
contained $ ? and g g of the form B. 

(S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) . 

Var. caffra, Forel. 

Mitth. Schweiz Ent. Ges., vol. 9, p. 99, $, ?, 1894. Ann. Soc. 
Ent. Belg., vol. 54, p. 431, form A, ? , 1910. Mayr (S. capen 
sis), Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 16, p. 905, J , 1866 (?). 

^ . This differs from the type only in the following characters ■ 
The head is more strongly and more closely punctured in all the $ ? » 
and the teeth on the carinae are shorter. The head of. the £ maj. is 
less rectangular, being distinctly narrower in front than behind. 

" $ . (?) 3'5-4 mm. Yellowish brown, with the legs, antennae 
and mandibles yellow. Anterior wing 5 - 5 mm. long (6 mm. in 
punctaticeps type), tinged with brown; nervures pale. Head quad- 
rate, a little wider than long. Clypeus with the carinae ending in two 
obtuse teeth, and without distinct lateral teeth. Thorax narrower 
than the head. Epinotum without a trace of tubercles. Abdomen 
small. Puncturation fairly coarse and abundant on the head, very 
fine and sparse on the mesonotum. Pilosity moderate." 

Dr. Forel suggests the possibility of this $ being a parasitic 

microgyne in the nests of the type. In that case it can hardly be the 

$ of the ^ , var. caffra, since the description of the latter given 

above has been made from specimens taken by myself on Table 

Mountain, and found in an independent and unmixed colony. 

(R.M., G.A. colls.) 

Var. cyclops, Santschi. 

Goteborgs K. Vetensk. o. Vitterh. Handl., xv, 2, p. 19, $, g, 1914. 

^ • l'6-4 - 5 mm. Head a little longer than wide, distinctly 
narrowed in front, slightly emarginate in the middle of the posterior 
margin. The median area of the clypeus projecting further forwards 
than in punctaticeps i. sp., the teeth more acute. Mandibles with 
four distinct anterior teeth and an obtuse posterior one, the teeth more 
acute than in punctaticeps. The 2nd, 3rd, and 8th joints of the 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 24)7 

flagellum as long as wide (a trifle wider than long in punctaticeps). In 
the largest £ $ the median ocellus is present, but it is very small. 
The thorax is a little stouter and wider across the meso-epinotal 
suture. The 1st node of the petiole is a little thinner above. The 
pilosity is less regular and less abundant than in punctaticeps. In the 
smaller ^ ^ the head is less strongly punctured than in the type of 
the species. 

" <$ . 4-5 mm. Black, hardly brownish. Legs, mandibles and 
scapes yellowish brown; flagellum, excepting the 1st joint, pale 
yellow. Wings hyaline. Pilosity as in punctaticeps. Shining, head 
dull, finely rugose, striate above. The thorax is finely striate (in 
punctaticeps the thorax is more punctured). Clypeus truncate in 
front. Mandibles 3 dentate. Otherwise like the type of the species." 
Natal. (Traegaordh.) Durban. (Marley and Cooper.) 
The specimens collected by Messrs. Marley and Cooper are un- 
doubtedly to be referred to this form, on account of the shape of the 
head and the presence of the ocelli in the large $ £ . Nevertheless, 
the other differences mentioned by Santschi as distinguishing this 
form from the type of the species appear to me to be relative to the 
greater size, and not sufficient to justify sub-specific rank. The $ of 
punctaticeps has the thorax distinctly striate, and does not differ in 
that particular from the variety. 

Var. Diversipilosa, Mayr. 
Ann. K.K.N.H. Mus. Wien, vol. 16, p. 15, $ , 1901. 

" ^ . 2-3 mm. With more abundant and longer pilosity than in 
the type of the species, the hairs of medium length being intermixed 
with longer ones, especially on the tibiae. In the larger $ £ the 
2nd- 7th joints of the flagellum are not wider than long, as in the 
type of the species and the var. caffra, the 6th and 7th being even 
slightly longer than wide." 

Port Elizabeth. (Dr. Brauns.) 

In view of the slight differences which may be found in the different 
nests of a species, it is exceedingly doubtful whether a variety should 
be considered valid, when founded on such slender distinctions as 
those enumerated in this case by Mayr. 

S. semilaevis, Mayr. 

Loc. cit, £' . 

" ty: l'l— 1*3 mm. Eeddish yellow, the abdomen slightly browned. 
The upper surface of the head with fairly short hairs ; the clypeus with 



248 Annals of the South African Museum. 

longer hairs ; the dorsum of the thorax with hairs like those on the 
head, intermixed with a few longer ones. The abdomen has a mode- 
rately long pilosity, without pubescence ; the legs and antennae with 
oblique hairs. Mandibles moderately shining, sparsely punctured. 
5-dentate. The head smooth and shining, with piligerous punctures, 
which are as far apart as the length of the hairs. Cheeks finely 
longitudinally striate, the frontal carinae also with a few such striae. 
The head is distinctly longer than wide, hardly narrower in front than 
behind. The median area of the clypeus feebly concave transversely, 
margined at the sides by carinae which diverge in front and merge 
into the anterior margin without ending in teeth. The scape of the 
10-jointed antenna does not extend back as far as the posterior margin 
of the head; the 2nd-7th joints of the flagellum wider than long. 
the 3rd-5th only half as long as wide ; the 1st joint of the club but 
little longer than wide; the apical joint large, a little longer than the 
flagellum without the club. Eyes very small. Pro- and mesonotum 
smooth and shining, with sparse piligerous punctures ; the epinotum 
and the sides of the mesonotum finely reticulate-punctate and more or 
less dull. The thorax is moderately constricted in front of the epi- 
notum, the latter unarmed, the dorsum merging arcuately into the 
declivity, which is somewhat longer. The first node of the petiole is 
finely reticulate ; the 2nd smooth and shining, transversely ovate and 
wider than the 1st. Abdomen smooth and shining, with very sparse 
piligerous punctures." 

Port Elizabeth. (Dr. Brauns.) 

Tribe PHEIDOLOGETIKI, Emery. 

Three genera of this tribe are found in our region. The £ ^ and 
$ $ are usually enormously larger than their ^ ? ■ -A- 1/ caste 
occurs in some genera; the 1/ 1/ of the genus Aneleus, Em., have very 
large and parallel-sided heads. 

Genus CAREBARA, Westwood. 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist,, vol. 6, p. 86, 1841. 

Characters. 

5 . Antennae 9-jointed, the club 2-jointed and very distinct. Eyes 
and ocelli entirely absent. Frontal carinae very short. Thorax 
unarmed; pro-mesonotal suture obsolete. First joint of the petiole 
with a short peduncle ; both nodes transverse, subovate. 

$ . Antennae 10-jointed, without a distinct club. Eyes and ocelli 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 249 

large. Head triangular. Frontal carinae very short. Clypeus with 
a wide, convex, and raised median area. Thorax robust, much wider 
than the head, and very convex ; pronotum not exposed above, lying 
entirely beneath the mesonotum ; the latter with well-defined parap- 
sidal sutures, Mayrian furrows absent. Scutellum high, much above 
the level of the metanotum. Epinotum unarmed. First node of 
petiole more or less cuneiform ; 2nd node transverse, flattened above. 
Abdomen very large. All the tarsi densely clothed with stiff bristly 
hairs. Wings long; anterior wing very pointed, 1 cubital arid 1 dis- 
coidal cell, the radial cell closed. 

$ . Antennae 13-jointed, the scape short. Also much larger than 
the ^ , and not very much smaller than the 9 > which it resembles in 
general features. The nodes of the petiole are not so high as in the 
$ , and the 1st node is thicker above. 

C. vidua, Smith. (Plate VI, figs. 79, 80.) 
Cat. Hymen. B.M., vol. 6, p. 179, ? , J, 1858. Forel, Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Belg., vol. 45, p. 392, £, 1901. Santschi, Boll. Lab. Zool. 
Sc. Agri. Portici, vol. 8, p. 363, 1914. 

£ . 1 '6-2 mm. Pale ochreous yellow ; inner margin and teeth of 
the mandibles brown. Smooth and shining. Head, pro-mesonotum 
and nodes with a sparse and rather coarse puncturation ; epinotum 
and abdomen very shallowly and sparsely punctured. Pilosity short, 
scanty and yellowish, longest on the thorax, most abundant on the 
legs. Legs and . antennae also with pubescent hairs. Head rect- 
angular, hardly longer than wide, the sides feebly convex, the 
posterior angles rounded, the occipital margin shallowly concave ; 
about as wide in front as behind, but occasionally some individuals 
from the same nest have the head a little narrower in front than 
behind. Mandibles smooth and shining, quadridentate ; the two 
anterior teeth large and sharp, the two posterior smaller and less 
acute, and separated from the anterior pair by a short space ; occa- 
sionally the hindmost tooth is obsolete. Clypeus produced, truncate 
in front, the median area raised and convex, the anterior margin 
straight. Eyes entirely wanting. Antennae 9-jointed; the scape 
short, hardly extending back as far as the posterior third of the head ; 
1st joint of the flagellum quite twice as long as wide, nearly as long as 
the five following joints taken together, the latter all very short and 
much wider than long. The last two joints of the flagellum form the 
club, the last joint being three times as long as the preceding. Thoi'ax 
fairly flat above. Pro-mesonotal suture absent, meso-epinotal distinct. 



250 Annals of the South African Museum. 

The thorax is fairly strongly constricted laterally at the meso-epinotal 
suture. Pro-mesonotum about one-third longer than wide, the sides 
convex. Dorsum of the epinotum shorter than the oblique declivity, 
into which it merges by a gentle curve ; sides of the declivity distinctly 
margined, the raised margins extending indistinctly almost to the 
base of the dorsum. First joint of petiole very shortly pedunculate, 
the node wider than long, ovate, convex above. Second node as 
wide, or nearly as wide, as the 1st, of similar shape, but a trifle 
longer. Abdomen ovate, all the segment wider than long. 

$ . 24 mm. Length of anterior wing, 23'5 mm. Head, thorax 
and petiole black ; abdomen varying from dark red to reddish brown. 
Mandibles and legs dark brown ; tarsi and antennae reddish brown. 
Thorax shining, the rest of the body nitidulous. Head, thorax and 
nodes with a sparse, yellowish and adpressed pubescence (coarse and 
almost pilose) ; abdomen sparsely and finely pubescent. Clypeus 
with a few fairly long pilose hairs. Antennae densely pubescent. 
Tibiae and tarsi densely clothed with long and almost bristly hairs, 
which form dense tufts at the apical margins of the tibia and of the 
first four tarsal joints. Head closely and very coarsely punctured, 
each puncture with a piligerous prominence in its centre ; the space 
between the punctures rugose. Mandibles longitudinally striate and 
strongly punctured between the striae. Mesonotum and petiole 
sparsely punctured, the punctures similar to those on the head, but 
smaller and shallower. Sides of thorax closely striate and more or 
less punctured. Epinotum dull, very closely and minutely punctured, 
the sides with a few strong striae ; the dorsum with a few large and 
deep punctures ; the declivity with its upper margin more or less 
rugoso-striate. Abdomen microscopically alutaceous, and also sparsely 
punctured, the punctures strong, but not so large or deep as those of 
the mesonotum. Head, including the mandibles, triangular, much 
wider behind than in front, the posterior angles widely rounded. 
Clypeus short, the median area raised, convex transversely, truncate or 
deeply impressed in front, and with a small tubercle behind the 
middle of the anterior margin. Frontal carinae short. Mandibles 
quadridentate ; the teeth somewhat obtuse. Antennae 10-jointed, the 
scape extending back as far as the posterior ocelli ; the 1st joint of 
the flagellum a little longer than wide, the 2nd-6th joints wider 
than long. Eyes fairly large, oblique and ovate. Ocelli not large. 
Thorax much wider and higher than the head. Only the shoulders of 
the pronotum are visible from above ; mesonotum very high and 
convex in front, hiding the pronotum ; parapsidal sutures distinct. 
The scutellum semicircular, somewhat pointed posteriorly, and sepa- 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 251 

rated from the mesonotum by a deep and broad sulcus ; metanotum 
prominent and very convex. Dorsum of epinotum very short in the 
middle, longer at the sides, the declivity vertical, with raised and 
sharply defined lateral margins, which are distinctly curved inwards. 
First node of the petiole, seen from the side, subtriangular, the 
anterior face slanting obliquely forwards ; the dorsal edge is thickest 
at the sides, truncate behind. The 2nd node transverse, rectangular, 
almost twice as wide as long, the dorsal surface inclined forwards, 
convex transversely. Abdomen very large, somewhat flattened above, 
very little narrowed at the base or apex, the sides almost parallel, the 
apex widely rounded, as long as the thorax and petiole together, all 
the segments much wider than long, the first three a little more than 
twice as wide as long. Wings very long, the anterior subacute at the 
apex, brownish, the nervures dark brown. 

<$ . 17-18 mm. Length of anterior wing, 16 mm. Dull; head, 
thorax and 1st joint of petiole brownish black ; the dorsal sui'face of 
the 2nd node more or less dark yellow ; mandibles, antennae, legs and 
abdomen dark ochreous. Head, mesonotum and scutellum fairly 
strongly and very closely punctured ; the dorsum of the epinotum 
transversely and also somewhat obliquely striate ; the declivity finely 
reticulate-punctate and also transversely striate. Petiole finely and 
closely punctured. Abdomen finely coriaceous. Femora and tibiae 
finely and closely punctured, slightly shining. Head, mandibles, 
thorax and petiole densely clothed with a short, suberect, yellowish 
brown pilosity, the hairs slightly curved. The abdomen has a fine but 
very dense decumbent pubescence, intermixed with some longer pilose 
hairs. Legs and antennae with a very fine and dense pubescence, the 
pilosity on the legs less abundant and less coarse than in the $ , not 
forming dense tufts at the apices of the joints. Head subtriangular, 
the width between the eyes two and a half times as long as the 
distance from the anterior margin of the eve to the posterior border of 
the head. Clypeus produced in the middle, very prominent and convex, 
rounded in front, with a transverse impression behind. Mandibles 
convex lengthwise, quadridentate, the apical tooth very large and 
acute. Antennae 13-jointed; the scape short, one quarter longer than 
wide; the 1st joint of the filiform flagellum very small, hardly more 
than one-quarter the length of the scape ; all the remaining joints 
much longer than wide, the 3rd-llth joints widest in the middle. 
Eyes very convex, occupying more than half the sides of the head ; 
ocelli slightly raised. Thorax similar to that of the ? , but not so 
massive ; the mesonotum less gibbous anteriorly ; the brow of the 
epinotum rounded. The 1st node is flatter than in the ? , the posterior- 



252 Annals of the South African Museum. 

dorsal face less raised arid more rounded ; the 2nd node is almost half 
as wide again as the 1st, flatter than in the $ , its posterior-dorsal 
margin strongly convex. Abdomen subovate, narrowing towards the 
apex. Wings as in the $ . 

S. Rhodesia ; Natal ; common over the greater part of the Ethiopian 
region. (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 

The <$ <$ and ? ? of this species are occasionally very plentiful 
after rains, but the minute ^ £ are rarely seen. The first specimens 
of the latter were found, together with the ? , by Haviland in Natal, in 
the nest of a termite. Some specimens in my collection were taken 
by Mr. Zealley at Hartley, S. Rhodesia, and were issuing from holes 
in the ground with the winged sexes, far removed from any termite 
mound. Others were taken by myself under similar conditions at the 
Yictoria Falls. Since on the latter occasion different $ $ , with 
the coloration of the abdomen varying from red to dark brown, were 
emerging from the same hole, it would seem that the distinction of the 
race abdominalis, Santschi (Bull. Soc. Ent. France, p. 285, 1912), based 
only on the colour of the abdomen, can no longer be maintained. 

It is probable that the dense tufts of hairs on the tarsi of the $ 
serve an important purpose — that of enabling some of the minute 
^ ^ to attach themselves to the body of the $ when the latter is 
about to leave the parental nest. Several specimens of the $ have 
been taken by me with one or more ^ 5 biting on to the tarsal 
fimbriae. I am inclined to suspect that the young cpaeen cannot start 
a new nest without the help of one or more of the $ ? from the old 
nest, on account of the size of her mouth -parts, which would probably 
be too large and clumsy to tend the tiny larvae of her first brood, and 
that it is therefore essential that she should have with her some £ $ 
which are able to feed the larvae by conveying to them the nourish- 
ment taken from the mouth of the queen. 

Race JmsroDi, Forel. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 48, p. 154, ? , 1904. Rev. Zool. Afric, 
vol. 2, p. 336, £ , 1913. 

" ^ . 1' 7-1*9 mm. Differs from vidua s. str. by having the eso- 
epinotal suture distinctly constricted and by the mandibles, which 
have three distinct teeth in front and a small, obtuse, and indistinct 
tooth behind. The size is also somewhat greater. Otherwise identical 
with vidua." 

" $ . 23 mm. Very similar to vidua type, but the thorax and 
abdomen narrower and more elongated in proportion. The head is 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 253 

more triangular, wider behind and narrower in front. Frontal sulcus 
much deeper. The clypeus, which is more strongly and abruptly 
truncate in front, has its upper surface strongly truncate and widely 
emarginate, which is not the case in vidua. The frontal carinae short, 
wide, and forming a marked lateral ridge, which is much more diver- 
gent than in the type, where it is hardly apparent. The dorsum of the 
epinotum is almost obsolete in the middle. The posterior metatarsi 
very little shorter than the tibiae (much shorter in the type). Punc- 
turation stronger, the punctures closer together and larger than in 
vidua, especially on the thorax and abdomen. The mesonotum has 
some diffuse but distinct rugae between the punctures. Pilosity and 
pubescence a little less abundant than in the type. Dull rusty red, 
slightly brownish. Abdomen, petiole, metanotum, three longitudinal 
bands on the mesonotum and some vague spots on the sides of the 
thorax and epinotum, dark brown. Deiilated." 
Shiluvane. (H. Junod.) 

C. Arnoldi, Forel. 

(Oligomyrmex) Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. 123, $ , 1913. 
Santschi, Boll. Lab. Zool. Scu. Agric. Portici, vol. 8, p. 363, 1914. 

5 . P7-P9 mm. Pale ochreous yellow ; the teeth of the mandibles 
brownish. Smooth and shining. Head and anterior half of the pro- 
mesonotum finely and sparsely punctured, the punctures regularly 
spaced and distinct. Pubescence yellowish and long ; not very dense 
on the head and thorax ; more abundant and much longer on the 
abdomen. Mandibles with three distinct and acute teeth, and some- 
times with a trace of a fourth tooth posteriorly. The dorsal profile of 
the thorax slopes in a continuous and slightly convex line, broken 
only at the meso-epinotal suture, from front to back. This, and the 
slightly longer pubescence and pilosity, are the only differences which 
I am able to see between this species and the £ ^ of vidua, (from 
Hartley S. P.), described in the preceding pages. Since the latter 
were taken with the ? ? and $ <$ , which are typical vidua, Smith, 
I believe that there can be no doubt as to the correctness of the 
identification. In those specimens the dorsal profile of the thorax is 
inclined backwards as far as the meso-epinotal suture, beyond which 
it rises along the dorsum of the epinotum, the latter shorter than the 
declivity. On the other hand, the <£> $ from the "Victoria Palls, also 
taken with typical $ ? and $ $ of vidua, have the declivity as long 
as, or a little longer than, the dorsum, therein agreeing with Santschi's 
description of vidua. The dentition on which that author bases the 



254 Annals of the South African Museum. 

differences between vidua, junodi, arnoldi, and silvestri is too variable, 
even in examples taken from the same nest, to be considered reliable. 
I am therefore inclined to believe that arnoldi is only a variety of 
vidua; but in the absence of the $ $ and g <$ of the former, the 
question cannot be definitely decided. 

Bulawayo. Found under the soil in small numbers on a single 
occasion. (S.A.M., KM., G-.A. colls.) 



Genus ANELEUS, Emery. 
Term. Fiizetek, vol. 23, 1900. (Pheidologeton, Mayr, pars.) 

Characters* 

1/. Antennae 11-jointed. Head very large, elongate, longer than 
wide, more or less abruptly truncate behind. Mandibles triangular, 
with 5 or more distinct but blunt teeth. Eyes very small or absent. 

^ . Antennae 11-jointed ; the club distinct and composed of the 
last two joints. Eyes very small. Mandibles elongate triangular, 
with 5 or more acute teeth. Clypeus usually more or less distinctly 
bicarinate. Pro-mesonotal suture absent ; meso-epinotal suture 
distinct. Epinotum bidentate or unarmed. Tibiae and femora more 
or less swollen in the apical half. 

A. perpusillum, Emery. 

{Pheidologeton) Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 26, % , $ , 1895. 

" 1/. 2-2 - 5 mm. Reddish yellow, head rufous, shining, very 
smooth, with sparse piligerous punctures ; meso- and metapleura 
closely punctured and dull. Head elongate, sub-parallel, widely 
emarginate behind, and with a transverse crest or thin carina, in- 
terrupted in the middle, in front of the occipital margin. Cheeks 
and front of the head striate ; frontal carinae short. Clypeus flat or 
nearly so ; widely emarginate in front. Eyes very small. Mandibles 
sparsely punctured, shining, striate at the base outwardly, quinque- 
dentate. Antennae short, the scape hardly exceeding half the length 
of the head. Thorax with the meso-epinotal suture deeply impressed, 
the pro-mesonotal suture obsolete, pro-mesonotal disc convex, scuti- 
form, obtusely margiuate in front, narrow behind. Epinotum armed 
with an acute tooth on each side. First node of petiole small, squami- 

* These characters are based on the species described below and politus 
diabolus and silvestrii Santschi. I have not been able to see a copy of Emery's 
paper. Pheidologeton hostilis, Smith, is unknown to me, but owing to its 12- 
jointed antennae cannot belong to this genus. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 255 

form ; the 2nd node larger, transversely ovate, subangulate on each 
side." 

" ^ • 1'5 mm. Reddish yellow. Head elongate, the sides mode- 
rately convex, the occipital margin concave and sharp. Pro-mesonotum 
marginate in front, the anterior angles acute. Epinotmn armed with 
a triangular tooth on each side. Petiole narrow ; 2nd node hardly 
wider than the 1st ; the 1st abdominal segment truncate in front. 
Sculpture as in the 1/." 

Pretoria, Kimberley. (Simon.) 

Race Akkoldi, Eorel. (Plate VI, figs. 81, 81a.) 

Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat., vol. 50, p. 242, £ , 1914. 

1/ (hitherto undescribed) . 2 - 8-3T mm. Head parallel-sided, vary- 
ing from one-seventh to one-fourth wider than long. Eyes entirely 
absent, or composed of four or five ill-defined facets. Mandibles not 
striate at the base. Otherwise exactly like the type. 

§' . 1T-T4 mm. Epinotum, excepting the declivity, and sides of 
the mesonotum reticulate and somewhat dull, the rest of the body 
entirely smooth and shining. Erect pilosity very scanty, absent from 
the legs and antennae, which have a feeble pubescence, wanting else- 
where. Eyes composed of a single facet. Eirst joint of flagellum a 
little more than twice as long as wide, about as long as the five 
succeeding joints taken together ; 2nd-8th joints much wider than 
long; the club not quite twice as long as the rest of the flagellum. 
Mandibles quadridentate, smooth and shining, very sparsely and very 
feebly punctured. The anterior angles of the pro-mesonotum sharply 
defined, subdentate. Declivity of epinotum concave from above to 
below, smooth and shining ; very distinctly margined at the sides, 
the margin continued up to the epinotal teeth, and slightly beyond 
them along the sides of the dorsum ; the dorsum longer than the de- 
clivity, and one-third longer than wide. 

" Median area of clypeus subtruncate in front, which is not the case 
in the type, . . . ; peduncle of the 1st joint of petiole short, shorter 
than in the type " (Eorel). 

Two out of the three If. 1/ which I have before me were taken on 
the same occasion. Both lack eyes. In one the head is one-fifth 
longer than wide ; in the other one-quarter longer than wide. The 
remaining If. has the head a little less than one-seventh longer than 
wide ; but the eyes are distinct, though small. The ^ ^ of the two 
series do not differ in the least, so that there is no reason to suppose 
that the 1/ 1/ do not all belong to the same species. 

17 



256 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Bulawayo. Two 1/ 1/ and about three dozen $ $ were taken in a 
rotten beech-nut in the ground. On another occasion one 1/ and half 
a dozen £ ty were found in a decaying grain of maize. Also taken 
running under a stone. I have also received specimens from Durban 
(Marley and Cooper), which do not differ from this race except in the 
carinae on the clypeus being a little more distinct and a little closer 
together posteriorly. 

(S.A.M., K.M., G-.A. colls.) 

Genus AEROMYRMA, Forel. 
Grandidier's Hist. Madagascar, 20, p. 198, 1891. 

Characters 

Strongly dimorphic. 

1/. Antennae 10-jointed ; club 2-jointed. Head much longer than 
wide ; sometimes with a small tooth on each side above. Mandibles 
with about 6 teeth. Eyes small; composed of a single facet. Thoracic 
sutures distinct. Epinotum dentate or unarmed. Abdomen long, 
longer than the rest of the body. 

$ . Head not much longer than wide. Abdomen of the usual 
shape ; not longer than the rest of the body. Otherwise like the 1/ . 
This genus contains three species, one of which is found in Madagascar. 

A. African a, Eorel. 

Schultze's Reise Siidafrika, vol. 4, p. 15, 1/, 1910. 

"1/. 2 - 7-2 - 9 mm. Mandibles smooth and shining, with about 
6 teeth. Clypeus very short, arched, without emargination, not 
truncate, with only a small impression in front in the middle, hardly 
produced backwards between the frontal carinae. Frontal area, 
triangular ; frontal carinae very short, hardly divergent, not far apart, 
without lobes. Head large, rectangular, quite one-quarter longer than 
wide, the sides hardly convex in front and behind, with a small tooth 
or horn at about the outer fourth of the width of the head, like that 
of Oligomyrmex corniger, Eorel, but somewhat smaller. The margin of 
the head behind, between the two teeth, is concave. The exceedingly 
small eye is composed of a single facet, and is placed within the 
anterior third of the head. The scape of the 10-jointed antenna 
hardly extends beyond the middle of the head. Last joint of flagellum. 
quite three times as long as the preceding joint. The pronotum is 
strongly convex, and steep in front. . . . Thorax with both sutures 
distinct, but not in the least constricted, shoi't and wide. Epinotum 



A Monograjjh of the Formicidae of South Africa. 257 

without a trace of teeth, only excavated lengthwise, with two elongate 
and obtuse swellings. Both nodes rounded, wider than long, the 1st 
pedunculate, tl#2nd nearly twice as wide as the 1st, which is narrow. 
Abdomen very long, longer than the rest of the body, with a honey- 
yellow translucency. Legs short. Head glossy, finely reticulate. 
The rest of the body smooth, shining and with piligerous punctures. 
Erect hairs very fine, pointed, short and scanty, absent from the legs. 
Pubescence oblique, somewhat woolly, more abundant than the 
pilosity and present all over, without, however, being at all dense. 
Dirty yellow ; head yellowish red ; abdomen pale translucent yellow ; 
legs and antennae yellow." 

Kooa-Sekgoma, Kalahari. (L. Schultze.) 

A. Traegaordhi, Santschi. 

G-oteborgs K. Vetensk. och Vitterh. Handl., xv, 2, p. 20, £ , 1914. 

" ^ minor. l - 5 mm. Yellow, slightly reddish. Mandibles, clypeus, 
antennae, tarsi and abdomen yellow. Smooth and shining. Epi- 
notum, posterior half of mesonotum and the 1st node reticulate, 
punctate and nearly dull. The smooth areas with a fine and sparse 
piligerous puncturation. Pubescence fairly exserted and distributed 
all over the body and the limbs. A few rare erect pilose hairs. Head 
longer than wide, the sides moderately convex, the hind margin feebly 
concave. Eyes composed of a single facet, placed a little in front of 
the middle of the sides. Mandibles with five teeth. Pronotum 
marginate in front. Meso-epinotal suture deep. Dorsum of epinotum 
a little convex, wider than long, hardly marginate. The declivity 
longer, marginate. The junction of the two planes of the epinotum 
angular, with a very small tubercle, often indistinct, and not dentate 
as in nosidambo, Forel. First node short, thick at the summit, as high 
as the length of the joint, with a very small tooth below in front. 
Second joint globose, wider than the 1st." 

Balgowan and Stamford. Hill, Natal. (Traegaordh.) 

Tribe LEPTOTHORACINI, Emery. 

Genus LEPTOTHOEAX, Mayr. 
Verb. Zool. Bot. Ver. Wien, vol. 5, p. 431, 1855. 

Characters. 
$ . Antennae 11 or 12-jointed (12-jointed in our three species), 
with a distinct club formed of the three apical joints. Mandibles 
with four or five teeth. Clypeus fairly large. Epinotum armed with 



258 Annals of the South African Museum. 

a pair of teeth or spines. First joint of petiole with a short peduncle, the 
ventral lamella sometimes bearing a small tooth. Hairs usually clavate. 

$ . Not much larger than the £ ■ Wings with one cubital and 
one discoidal cell. Otherwise like the $ , except for the usual sexual 
differences. 

£ . Antennae 12 or 13-jointed. Mandibles narrow, the masticatory 
margin truncate. Clypeus arched, convex. Mayrian furrows present. 
Petiole and wings as in the ? ; abdomen narrower. 

The species of this genus are rather timid and slow ants, forming 
small communities in hollow stems or under bark. Certain species of 
the genus in N. America and Europe house in their nests other para- 
sitic ants which are closely allied generically to themselves (Harpago- 
xenus, etc.). These have ergatoid queens, whose progeny is reared by 
the workers of the host. 

Key to the ^ $ of Leptothorax. 
(4). 1. Shoulders of the pronotum sharply angulated ; dorsal profile of thorax 

straight and horizontal, or nearly so. 
(3). 2. 1st node of petiole a little wider than long, convex above ; 2nd node 

twice as wide as long. .... latinodis, Mayr. 

(2). 3. 1st node of petiole as wide as long, flat above ; 2nd node of petiole one 

and a half times as wide as long. . . angulatus, Mayr. 

(1). 4. Shoulders of the pronotum not sharply angulated ; thorax depressed in 

front of the epinotum, not straight in profile. denticulatus, Mayr. 

L. ANGTJLATTjs, Mayr. (Plate V, figs. 56, 56a.) 
Verb. Zool. Bot. G-es. Wien, vol. 12; p. 739, $ , 1862. 

$ . 3 - 2 mm. Reddish ochreous, club of antennae and lateral 
dorsal margins of the thorax and petiole brownish. Head reticulate- 
rugose, coarsely so at the sides in front of the eyes, the space between 
the rugosities finely reticulate, and some of the rugae emphasised 
longitudinally. Upper surface of thorax and of both joints of the 
petiole strongly reticulate-rugose ; sides of meso- and metathorax 
finely reticulate. Abdomen and legs microscopically rugulose, smooth 
and shining. Legs and antennae with a very short and fine pubes- 
cence, absent from the rest of the body, which has a sparse pilosity 
consisting of short, thick, erect and clavate hairs. Head, excluding 
the mandibles, a little longer than wide, a little wider behind than in 
front, the sides feebly convex, the posterior angles very sharp, the 
posterior margin straight. Clypeus raised in the middle and pro- 
longed back between the frontal carinae, with a well-defined median 
carina and a finer lateral carina on each side. Frontal area indistinct. 
The frontal carinae are rather wide apart, divergent posteriorly. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 259 

Mandibles finely striate, armed with five teeth, the apical tooth acute. 
The scape extends back as far as the occipital margin ; 1st joint of 
flagellum nearly as long as the 2nd-4th taken together ; 2nd-8th 
joints wider than long. Eyes not large, situated a little in front of 
the middle of the sides. Thoracic sutures obsolete. Thorax widest 
anteriorly,' the shoulders sharply defined, subangular. The epinotum 
is armed with a tooth on each side, which is directed upwards and 
slightly outwards, and is not longer than it is broad at the base ; the 
declivity is almost vertical. The dorsum of the thorax is widened and 
subdentate at the lateral margins, above the posterior stigmatic 
orifices. The 1st joint of the petiole has a short peduncle ; the node 
is as wide as long, moderately convex above, and, seen from above, 
more or less hexagonal in outline ; the anterior face of the node slopes 
forwards ; the ventral lamella at the base has a small downwardly 
directed spine. The 2nd joint of the petiole is subquadrangular, one 
and a half times wider than long, nearly one and a half times as wide 
as the 1st. Abdomen oval. All the femora swollen in the middle ; 
middle and hind tibiae without calcaria. 

Khami R. and Matopo Hills, S. Rhodesia. 

I have met with this species only on the trunks of trees, previously 
mentioned as being the habitat of Monomorium arnoldi. (S.A.M., 
R.M., G.A. colls.) 

L. latinodis, Mayr. 

Ann. K.K.N.H. Mus. Wien, vol. 10, p. 130, £ , 1895. 

" ^ . 3-2 mm. Reddish yellow, last joint of flagellum brownish, 
mandibles pale yellow with dark brown teeth. The clavate hairs are 
moderately sparse ; the fine pubescence of the abdomen very sparse. 
Mandibles longitudinally striate, quadriclentate. Head rectangular, 
longer than wide, with rounded corners, narrower in front than 
behind ; longitudinally striate ; the middle of the vertex less coarsely 
striate and somewhat coriaceous and feebly shining ; the outer thirds 
of the head more reticulate- rugose, and round the eyes clearly punctu- 
late. The disc of the clypeus is flattened (more so than in angulatus), 
and has a median carina and two lateral carinae, which separate it 
from the lateral portions of the clypeus ; the median carina is not 
continued back on to the posterior portion of the clypeus, which lies at 
a different level to the rest of the clypeus. . . . The scape does not 
extend back as far as the posterior margin of the head ; the 2nd-8th 
joints of the flagellum wider than long ; and the joints which form the 
club, especially the last two, are only feebly constricted off from each 



260 Annals of the South African Museum. 

other. The eyes are placed a little in front of the middle of the sides. 
The thorax is moderately finely reticulate, finely reticulate-punctate in 
the interspaces, and shows no constrictions or sutures above. The 
pronotal angles are produced into distinct triangular teeth (in angu- 
latus less pronounced and much smaller) ; the pronotuin is wider than 
the rest of the thorax, but a little narrower than the head. . . . ■ The 
epinotum has two short small spines, which are only a little longer 
than their basal width. The sculpture of the petiole similar to that 
of the thorax ; the 1st joint shortly pedunculate, the node a little 
wider than long, and, seen in profile, moderately convex above length- 
wise ; the 2nd node is quite twice as wide as long (in an gulatus hardly 
one and a half times as wide as long), and wider than the 1st. 
Abdomen shining and very finely rugulose. The legs and antennae 
without erect hairs. The femora are swollen, much the same as in 
angulatus. Like other species of the genus, the middle and hind tibiae 
are without calcaria," 

Delagoa Bay. (Dr. Brauns.) 

L. denticulattjs, Mayr. 
Ann. K.K.N.H. Mus. Wien, vol. 16, p. 5, $, 1901. 
" ^ . 3-8" 1 mm. Yellow or reddish yellow, the legs a little paler, 
the teeth of the mandibles brown. The upper surface of the body is 
clothed with short and very feebly clavate hairs ; the fine, decumbent, 
and very short pubescence is very scanty, especially on the abdomen ; 
the outer margins of the tibiae with decumbent hairs. Mandibles 
5-dentate, longitudinally striate, and sparsely punctured. The head 
is fairly rectangular, a little longer than wide, with round corners, 
narrower in front than behind. It is rather coarsely and longi- 
tudinally rugose, partly coarsely reticulate, between the rugae finely 
reticulate-punctate ; the vertex and occiput with fairly straight longi- 
tudinal striae. Clypeus rugose, distinctly produced in front, the 
auterior margin arcuate, fairly flat and tricarinate, the median carina 
becoming indistinct behind, the lateral carinae less pronounced than 
the median, and not reaching the anterior margin. The clypeus is 
wider posteriorly than in either angulatus or latinodis. The scape of 
the 12- jointed antenna does not extend bach as far as the hind margin 
of the head ; the 2nd-8th joints of the flagellum about twice as wide 
as long, the joints of the club fairly clearly separated, the first being 
about as wide as long. The sides of the head show faint traces of an 
antennal scrobe. The eyes lie a little in front of the middle of the 
sides. Thorax rather coarsely and longitudinally striate, partly longi- 
tudinally rugose, finely reticulate-punctate between the rugae, widest 



A Monograph of the Formiciclae of South Africa. 261 

anteriorly, rounded at the sides of the pronotum. The margin of the 
thorax between its sides and upper surface is Insinuate, shallowly so at 
the pro-mesonotal suture, more deeply at the meso-epinotal, the latter 
being distinctly impressed ; the dorsum of the epinotum is feebly 
convex, a little longer than wide, with two blunt spines behind, which 
are about half as long as the dorsum, and directed backwards, out- 
wards and upwards. The 1st joint of the petiole has a short 
peduncle, and is closely reticulate-punctate and also coarsely rugose ; 
its node has a quadrangular dorsal surface, which is feebly convex 
transversely and lengthwise, and distinctly wider than long, the 
anterior corners strougly rounded. The dorsal surface is delimited 
from the anterior face by a nearly rectangular margin ; the anterior 
face is vertical above, sloping forwards below ; the posterior face of 
the node is very short and vertical, and merges gradually into the 
upper surface. On each side of the node, a little below the hind 
angles, there is a small pointed tooth with a hair or bristle at its apex, 
and there are one or two similar but smaller projections in front of 
these on the dorsal lateral margins of the node. The 2nd node of the 
petiole is about one and a half times as wide as long, somewhat wider 
than the 1st, and has traces of two small teeth or tubercles like those 
of the 1st node on each of its rounded sides. The abdomen is shining, 
very shallowly rugulose, and with some scattered piligerous punctures, 
almost smooth. 

^ . 3*5 mm. Reddish yellow; mesonotum and scutellum brownish; 
the abdomen, excepting the front half of the 1st segment, light brown. 
Pubescence and sculpture as in the £ . The mandibles more coarsely 
and more abundantly punctured ; mesonotum and scutellum longi- 
tudinally rugoso-striate, finely reticulate-punctate between the striae ; 
the declivity of the epinotum only reticulate-punctate. Head as in 
the ^ • The epinotal teeth triangular and blunt, which are not, or 
only slightly, longer than wide at the base. Petiole and abdomen as 
in the £ . One dealated £> . In hollow stems." 

Port Elizabeth. (Dr. Brauns.) 

Thibe MYRMICARIINI, Forel. 

Genus MYRMICARIA, Saunders. 

Trans. Ent. Soc. London, iii, p. 57, 1841. 

Characters. 

ty . Antennae 7-jointed, the scape cylindrical ; all the joints of the 

flagellum, except the 1st, much longer than wide; no distinct club. 



262 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Clypeus broad, convex in the middle. Frontal area not clearly denned 
posteriorly. Frontal carinae wide apart, fairly short. Eyes prominent 
and convex. Pro-mesouotal suture feeble or obsolete ; meso-epinotal 
suture deep ; the thorax more or less constricted or excised laterally at 
the suture. Ventral anterior angles of the pronotum produced into 
distinct spines or teeth. Scutellar portion of mesonotum with an 
elongate tubercle or carina on each side. The epinotum armed with 
two long and acute spines ; sometimes also with the base expanded or 
lobate on each side. First joint of petiole with a long peduncle, dis- 
tinctly delimited from the node. Both nodes usually more or less 
conical, the 1st often compressed laterally at the summit. Abdomen 
subglobose ; somewhat truncate at the base. Legs long and slender. 

? . Antennae 7- jointed. Ocelli small. Thorax very gibbous and 
convex in front. Pronotum very slightly exposed above at the sides 
only. The level of the dorsum of the mesonotum and scutellum much 
higher than that of the epinotum. Mesonotum and epinotum simple, 
without lateral carinae or lobes. The dorsum of the epinotum short, 
much shorter than the declivity ; epinotal spines much shorter and 
broader than in the <J . Petiole as in the $ . Abdomen subovate, 
longer than wide, truncate at the base. Wings with 1 cubital and 
1 discoidal cell ; radial cell open. 

c? . Antennae 13- jointed, filiform. The scape short, usually about 
as long as the 2nd joint of the flagellum ; 1st joint very short, all the 
remaining joints much longer than wide. Head transverse. Eyes 
large. Ocelli fairly large, slightly raised. Frontal carinae moderately 
distinct and short. Clypeus convex. Mandibles small and edentate. 
Dorsum of epinotum bituberculate at the apex. Petiole very long, 
the 1st joint with the peduncle shorter and broader than in the ? , 
both nodes flatter and elongate, not conical. Abdomen broad, cordate, 
hardly longer than wide, convex above, concave below. Legs long and 
slender. Wings as in the $ . 

Distribution : Ethiopian and Indo-Malayan regions. 

Key to the £ £ of Myrmicaria. 

(S). 1. Larger species, 5 mm. or more; sculpture coarse, head striated all 
over. 

(3). 2. Head distinctly emarginate behind. . . Bamni, Forel. 

(2). 3. Head straight or convex behind. 

(7). 4. Tibiae and scapes longitudinally striate ; larger species, 6o mm. or 
more. 

(6). 5. Sculpture strong; head reticulate (with transverse as well as longi- 
tudinal striae) ; 1st node as high as the 2nd, pointed above, conical. 

evmenoides, Gerst. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 263 

(5). 6. Sculpture less strong; head with only longitudinal striae; 1st node 
higher than the 2nd, not conical, slightly flattened above. 

striata, Stitz. 
(4). 7. Tibiae and scapes smooth ; smaller species, less than 6 mm. 

nigra, Mayr. 

(1). 8. Smaller species, less than 5 mm.; sculpture feebler and much more 

sparse ; head striated only on the cheeks. 

(10). 9. Dark black, pilosity also black ; scape extending beyond the occipital 

margin by almost one-third of its length ; mesonotum with high 

posterior lateral carinae. . . . nigemma, Arnold. 

(9). 10. Brownish, pilosity yellowish; scape extending beyond the occipital 

margin by one-quarter to one-fifth of its length ; mesonotum with 

feeble and low lateral carinae behind. . . laevior, Forel. 



M. Eumenoides, Gerstaecker. (Plate VII, figs. 87, 87a, 88, 89a, b.) 
(Heptacondylus), Monatsb. Ak. Wiss. Berlin, p. 263, ? , 1858. 

(H. sulcatus), Mayr, Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, vol. 12, p. 756, 

£, 1862. 

$. 6 - 5-7'7 mm. Head, thorax and petiole dark red, somewhat 
brownish red, the nodes a little darker. Abdomen, legs and antennae 
dark brown, the base of the abdomen a little paler. Shining, espe- 
cially the dorsum of the epinotum ; the basal fourth of the 1st 
abdominal segment very finely and closely punctured and subopaque. 
Head, pro-inesonotum and dorsum of epinotum with a few strong, 
more or less longitudinal rugae, connected by transverse anastomoses 
(almost reticulate round the eyes). Sides of thorax faintly and longi- 
tudinally striate ; the spaces between all the striae or rugae smooth 
and shining. Nodes of petiole with a few feeble striae. The abdomen 
smooth and shining. Femora very shallowlv and sparsely punctured. 
Scapes and tibiae longitudinally striate on the upper surface. Man- 
dibles closely and longitudinally striate. Whole body, including legs 
and antennae, with a strong but rather sparse pilosity, consisting of 
stout, more or less erect, blackish hairs. The flagellum has in addition 
a sparse, decumbent pubescence, which is absent elsewhere. 

Head subcircular, a little wider behind than in front, about as long- 
as wide, the posterior margin straight, the angles rounded. Clypeus 
broad, the anterior margin convex. The median area has about 7 or 
8 longitudinal raised lines (hardly carinae) ; the posterior margin, 
between the frontal carinae, broad; frontal area indistinctly defined. 
Frontal carinae parallel, widened and sublobate in front, extending 
back nearly to the level of the anterior margin of the eyes. The latter 
convex and prominent, placed behind the middle of the sides of the 
head. Mandibles with 5 teeth, the tw r o anterior ones large and acute. 



264 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Scape of antenna fairly long, extending bast well beyond the occipital 
margin ; all the joints of the flagellum much longer than wide, the 
2nd and apical joints longest. Pro-mesonotal suture faintly indicated. 
Pronotum with strong transverse and oblique rugae, those on the 
margius of the dorsum very distinct ; the ventral anterior angles pro- 
duced into strong teeth. The mesonotum is raised posteriorly, and 
has a very steep posterior face, the sides of which are sharply margined 
and slightly expanded, or ear-shaped. The dorsum of the epinotum is 
distinctly margined (the rugae which form the margius being con- 
tinued along the outer sides of the spines), and is sublobate on each 
side at the base, narrowed towards the apex. The spines are acute, 
as long as the dorsum, slightly divergent apically, directed slightly 
upwards. The declivity of the epinotum is very steep ; as long as, or 
a little longer than, the dorsum ; distinctly margined laterally, the 
margins being coutinued along the lower sides of the spines. Peduncle 
of the 1st joint of the petiole flattened, one-quarter louger than the 
node ; the latter more or less conical, as long as wide, somewhat com- 
pressed laterally at the summit, the anterior face vertical and feebly 
convex from above to below, the posterior face longer than the 
anterior, and sloping downwards. The 2nd node about one-quarter 
longer than wide ; widest at its posterior third. Seen from above, 
the outline is subovate ; seen from the side, the anterior face is 
convex, and slopes in a sharp curve forwards ; the posterior face is 
shorter than the anterior, and vertical. The base of the abdomen 
straight, with prominent but rounded lateral angles. The 1st segment 
is about as wide as long, and much wider and longer than the remain- 
ing segments taken together, which are hardly visible from above. 

$ . 14 mm. Pilosity and colour as in the ^ , but the colour is a 
little darker, the sides of the mesonotum behind, and the middle 
portion in front, dark brown. The hairs on the legs are more oblique 
than in the £ . The sculpture is very similar to that of the ^ > but; is 
stronger on the head, the region behind the eyes very coarsely reticu- 
late, the space between the reticulations almost dull. Mesonotum and 
scutellum strongly and fairly closely longitudinally striate, the pro- 
notum with a few longitudinal and feeble striae. The epinotum is 
very coarsely and longitudinally rugose on the dorsum, striate on the 
sides, the median area of the declivity smooth. A narrow median area 
on the anterior third of the mesonotum is without striae. A broad 
transverse band on the apical margins of all the abdominal segments 
subopaque and microscopically rugulose. The dorsum of the meso- 
notum and scutellum is raised high above the level of the head and 
epinotum. The mesonotum is very convex in front, lengthwise and 



A Monograph of the Formieidae of South Africa. 265 

transversely, and as long as wide. The scutellum is nearly one and a 
half times wider than long, a little more than one-third the length of 
the mesonotum, and is a little higher than the latter. Dorsum of 
epinotum very short — much shorter than the declivity, which is 
vertical. The epinotal spines are shorter and broader than in the ^ > 
almost triangular, and very little longer than their basal width. A 
rounded, lobe-like expansion covers the stigmata on each side, and 
projects beyond the lateral profile of the thorax. Wings dark brown, 
the nervures and stigma piceous. Otherwise like the $ . 

<$ . 13 - 5 mm. Black, flagellum and tarsi dark brown. Pilosity 
moi*e abundant, but much finer than in the $ , the hairs being 
thinner, especially on the abdomen, whei*e they are also more oblique. 
Flagellum densely and very finely pubescent. Thorax and upper 
surface of the nodes with a whitish pubescence ; sparse and oblique on 
the thorax ; dense, erect, and longer on the dorsum of the epinotum 
and anterior face of the 1st node (more easily seen when looked at 
from the side). Head very coarsely rugoso-striate, transversely so on 
the posterior half, more or less longitudinally on the anterior half, the 
space between the rugae shining. Thorax coarsely and longitudinally 
rugoso-striate, the striae interrupted, stronger on the scutellum and 
posterior half of the mesonotum. Epinotum very coarsely reticulate- 
rugose, the declivity with some transverse striae. Thorax rather dull, 
declivity of epinotum smooth and shining. Nodes of petiole micro- 
scopically alutaceous, also longitudinally striate, the 1st node some- 
what coarsely so, the 2nd node much more closely and finely striate, 
its median area smooth. Abdomen, except for a narrow median area 
on each segment, microscopically alutaceous and dull. Head longer 
than wide, the posterior margin concave. The eyes large, placed some- 
what obliquely, occupying quite half the sides of the head. Ocelli 
fairly large, slightly raised. Clypeus less convex than in the £ or ? . 
Mandibles oblong, edentate, obliquely truncate apically. Scape short, 
hardly longer than the distance between the two posterior ocelli ; 1st 
joint of flagellum as wide as long, about one-third the length of the 
scape ; 2nd joint as long as, or a little longer than, the scape ; all the 
remaining joints at least twice as long as wide. Thorax similar to 
that of the ? , but narrower, the mesonotum nearly one-quarter longer 
than wide. Dorsum of epinotum longer than in the ? , at the base 
nearly three times wider than long, shorter than the declivity, bluntly 
angulate on each side at the apex ; the declivity vertical. Petiole very 
long, as long as the abdomen, and nearly as long as the thorax ; the 
peduncle of the 1st joint is as long as the node, the latter one-third 
longer than wide, and flattened. Second node oblong, rounded 



266 Annals of the South African Museum. 

behind, nearly parallel-sided, or only a trifle wider behind than in 
front; almost twice as long as high, highest behind. Abdomen 
cordate, moderately convex above, the ventral surface concave, all the 
segments much wider than long. Legs long and thin. Wings paler 
than in the ? . 

S. Rhodesia, widely distributed, but chiefly on granite soil ; Durban ; 
German S.W. Africa. 

The colonies of this species are xisually very large, often comprising 
1000 or more ^ £ . The latter bite and sting fiercely, but the sting is 
rather blunt, and does not easily pierce the human skin. Although 
their gait is slow, they are nevertheless active insects, travelling over 
large areas in search of food, which seems to consist chiefly of other 
insects. They do not appear to be aphidicolous, nor to attend Mem- 
bracid or Lepidopterous larvae for their seci'etions, yet they are known 
to harbour in their nests many myrmecophilous insects. A nest 
examined by me * contained the following species of beetles : Allodi- 
narda myrmicariae, Brauns ; Ogmocerus raffrayanus, Brauns ; and 
Batrisus myrmicariophilus, Brauns. The Botanical Gardens in 
Durban are infested with this species, but the examination of a large 
number of nests revealed only one species of myrmecophile, Allodi- 
narda Kohli, Wasm., which, however, was plentiful, as many as three 
dozen being taken in one nest. The nest has numerous entrances, and 
is surrounded by large heaps of excavated material, often covering an 
area of several square feet. 

(S.A.M., R.M., G.A. colls.) 

M. Batjmi, Forel. 
Mitth. Schweiz. Ent. Ges., vol. 10, p. 307, £ , 1895. 

"5- 7"7-9 - 5 mm. Dark red brown; abdomen dark brown; 
antennae and legs nearly black. Pilosity blackish brown. The 
pilose hairs on the tibiae are very oblique, partly adpressed. Sculp- 
ture as in evmenoides, but more densely reticulate-rugose. The 
clypeus has a median carina. More especially, the head is distinctly 
emarginate behind, and wider than in eumenoides, with the posterior 
corners somewhat angularly elongated downwards, and with less 
convex sides. The eyes are a little larger, more convex, and placed 
further forwards than in eumenoides. Mossamedes." 

Also between Severelela and Khakhea, and Kooa, Kalahari. 
(Schultze.) 

* See ' Proc. Rhod. Sc. Assn./ vol. xiii, pt. 3, 1914, pp. 25-42. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 267 

M. Laevior, Eorel. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 54, p. 445, $ , 1910. 

" £ . 3'9-4 f 2 mm. Mandibles striate, quadridentate. Head trape- 
zoidal, narrowed in front, at least as wide behind as long, the posterior 
margin fairly strongly convex. Eyes placed in the posterior thu-d of 
the head. Clypeus entire, tricarinate, otherwise hardly striate. The 
scape extends beyond the occipital margin by about one-fifth or one- 
quarter of its length. The last joint of the antenna is not much 
thicker than the two preceding. Dorsum of thorax equally convex 
from front to back ; meso-epinotal suture narrow and not deep. The 
pronotum has lateral teeth below, pointed, and longer than wide ; 
above, it is one and a half times wider than long, slightly narrowed 
behind and depressed, Avithout lateral margins or ridges. Mesonotum 
transversely trapezoid, but with the lateral margins feebly raised 
behind, and ear- shaped ; these form the only prominences on the 
dorsum of the thorax. Dorsum of the epinotum two and a half times 
longer than wide, continuing the convexity of the upper surface of the 
thorax, and margined by two even and parallel ridges, but nowhere 
raised. Spines horizontal, only slightly divergent, slightly longer 
than the space between them. Declivity of epinotum margined, 
shorter than the dorsum. First node a little wider than long, wider 
behind than in front, rounded above, nearly vertically truncate in 
front and behind, a little shorter than its peduncle. Second node 
hardly wider than the 1st ; wider behind, where it is as wide as long. 

<; Shining. Cheeks longitudinally striate as far as the margins of the 
eyes, without reticulations. There are some feeble longitudinal striae 
on the sides of the irons, and some transverse striae on the pronotum : 
all the rest of the head and body smooth, without striae or reticula- 
tions even on the vertex, occiput, mesonotum, epinotum and nodes, 
which distinguishes this species from all the others (except nigerrima) . 
Erect pilosity fairly fine, long, pointed, yellowish, sparse all over, 
slightly oblique on the limbs, on which the hairs rise from raised 
points. Pubescence almost nil. More or less reddish brown ; legs 
brownish yellow." 

Natal. (Haviland.) 

M. Striata, Stitz. (Plate VII, figs. 90a, b, c.) 
Wissen. Ergeb. Z. Afr. Exped., 3, pp. 382-5, 1911. 

^ . 6'5-8 - 2 mm. Reddish brown ; the front of the head, the 
antennae, legs and peduncle of the 1st joint of the petiole lighter. 



268 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Yery similar to eumenoides, and differing from it in the following 
characters. The pilosity is shorter and more oblique, somewhat 
scanty. More shining, especially the head, pro-mesonotum, 2nd node 
of the petiole, and the legs; the tibiae are shining (dull in eumenoides). 
The sculpture is feebler and less close. The head has only longi- 
tudinal striae, without any transverse anastomoses or reticulations. 
The pro-mesonotum has fewer and more continuous longitudinal 
striae, and is less strongly marginate at the sides and in front. There 
is no trace of the pro-mesonotal suture on the dorsum (faintly in- 
dicated by a depression in eumenoides). The pronotum below has far 
larger lateral teeth, these being plainly visible, and projecting well 
beyond the lateral outline, when viewed from above. The posterior 
lateral lobes or carinae of the mesonotum are lower and less divergent 
outwardly ; the lateral margins of the dorsum of epinotum are straighter 
and less raised. The meso-epinotal suture is not so deep, and the base 
of the epinotum is narrower. The spines are thinner and relatively 
longer. The 1st node of the petiole is higher, higher than the 2nd (as 
high as the 2nd in eumenoides), and is somewhat truncate behind (in 
eumenoides the dorsal and posterior outlines form a continuous curve) . 
The peduncle of the 1st joint is also a little shorter, being only as long 
as the node. The tibiae and scapes are less strongly striated. 

5 . 15 mm. Entirely dark brown, almost piceous, except the 
anterior half of the head, which is reddish brown. It differs from 
eumenoides, to which it bears a close resemblance, in the following- 
characters. The head is less narrowed in front, being almost as wide 
in front as behind ; the posterior angles are less rounded, and the 
posterior margin is straight, not convex, as in eumenoides. The 
sculpture of the head is not quite so strong, and the space between 
the reticulations is shining. The sculpture of the mesonotum stronger, 
and composed of fewer striae. The dorsum of the epinotum, although 
short, is distinctly delimited from the declivity, and the space between 
the spines is widely arcuate, not acutely angular, as in eumenoides 
(see PL VII, figs. 89a, o; 90a, o). The lobe-like expansions covering 
the stigmata are also more angular and dilated than in eumenoides. 
The spines are shorter, and hardly divergent. The peduncle of the 
1st joint of the petiole is wider posteriorly and shorter. The wings 
are much paler coloured, being ochreous, not brown as in the other 
species. The anterior face of the 1st node has a dense yellowish 
pubescence, fairly long, entirely absent in the § of eumenoides. 

$ . 13 - 5 mm. Black. This differs from the $ of eumenoides in 
having a much finer sculpture and finer, less dense, but longer pilosity. 
The pubescence of the thorax is also less noticeable. The dorsum of 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 269 

the declivity is much longer and more oblique, quite as long as the 
declivity, or a little longer ; the apical angles of the dorsum are also 
narrower and more dentiform. Otherwise similar. 

Bembesi, Plum tree, and Bulawayo, S. Ehodesia. The nest is 
smaller and less populous than that of eumenoides. (S.A.M., P.M., 
G. A. colls.) 

M. Nigra, Mayr. (Plate VII, fig. 91.) 
Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, vol. 12, p. 755, $ , 1862. 
$ . 5'5 mm. Brownish black ; antennae and legs a little lighter. 
Pilosity long, yellowish, fairly abundant, erect on the head and thorax, 
slightly oblique on the abdomen and petiole. Shining. Very strongly, 
but not densely, longitudinally striate on the head, the striae more or 
less interrupted in the occipital region. Pronotum also strongly 
striate transversely ; mesonotum Avith about 8 longitudinal striae ; 
epinotum with 3 or 4 transverse striae on the raised basal half of the 
dorsum, and about 5 or 6 longitudinal ones on the posterior half, 
which do not reach quite as far as the brow of the declivity. Sides of 
thorax more or less obliquely striate, the striae finer than on the 
dorsum. Tibiae and scapes smooth, not striate as in eumenoides and 
striata. The clypeus has one long median stria or cannula, and two 
or three shorter lateral striae. Mandibles strongly and longitudinally 
striate, quadridentate. The scape extends beyond the occipital margin 
by nearly one-third of its length. Head as long as wide, very little 
narrower in front than behind, the posterior margin shallowly con- 
cave. Eyes convex, fairly prominent, placed just behind the middle 
of the sides. Pronotum three times wider than long, the teeth below 
prominent, triangular, about as long as their basal width. Pro- 
mesonotal suture obsolete, meso-epinotal not deep, much shallower 
than in eumenoides. Mesonotum only slightly raised behind, hardly 
expanded laterally, not auriculate-carinate as in eumenoides. Dorsum 
of epinotum horizontal, only feebly lobed at the base, almost twice as 
long as the nearly vertical declivity, twice as long as it is wide at the 
base. The spines are almost horizontal, slightly divergent, acute, as 
long as the declivity. Peduncle of 1st joint of petiole thick, hardly as 
long as the node ; the latter a little longer than wide, flattened above, 
not conical, the anterior face much shorter than the dorsal surface, 
and compressed laterally, so as to form a sharp vertical edge ; the 
posterior face very oblique, about half as long as the dorsal. Second 
node a little higher than the 1st, subconical, the apex behind the 
middle, the anterior face oblique and twice as long as the vertical 



270 Annals of the South African Museum. 

posterior face, barely wider than the 1st node. Base of abdomen 
hardly truncate, the lateral angles considerably rounded. 

<$ (hitherto undescribed). 6 6 mm. Dark brown, the anterior half 
of the head, the antennae, mandibles and legs paler, more reddish 
bi'own. Pilosity finer and more abundant than in the $ . Flagellum 
with short, erect, pilose hairs, and also finely pubescent. The rest of 
the body without pubescence. Shining. Head longitudinally sti-iato- 
rugose, more strongly on the cheeks than elsewhei'e. Mesonotum and 
scutellum feebly and longitudinally rugose, strongest on the posterior 
half of the mesonotum. Epinotum strongly and transversely striate. 
A few feeble striae on the 1st node, the sides of the thorax finely and 
longitudinally striate ; the rest of the body smooth. Head distinctly 
wider than long. Eyes very large, occupying two-thirds of the sides 
of the head. Mandibles edentate, oblong, slightly acuminate at the 
apex, not touching when closed. Scapes rather long, reaching the 
occipital margin of the head, one and two-thirds longer than the 2nd 
joint of the flagellum. Dorsum of epinotum widely expanded above 
the stigmatic orifices, nearly three-quarters as long as wide at the 
base, moderately convex transversely and lengthwise, oblique, twice as 
long as the declivity. Brow of declivity rounded, not bituberculate or 
bidentate. First joint of petiole nearly twice as long as the 2nd, the 
node not distinctly delimited. Both nodes considerably flattened, the 
2nd a little wider than the 1st. Wings pale ochreous, the nervures 
and stigma dark ochreous. 

Montagu Pass, Cape Prov. (Brauns.) . . . Cape Prov. (ex 
S.A.M. coll., £ and J). (S.A.M., P.M., C.A. colls.) 

M. Nigekrima, n. sp. (Plate VII, fig. 92.) 

^ . 4 - 8 mm. Allied to laevior, Forel. Entirely black, except the 
mandibles, which are slightly brownish black. Pilosity long and 
black, sparse, erect ; slightly oblique on the legs and abdomen. 
Smooth and shining. Mandibles striate and quadridentate. Scapes 
striate. The clypeus has three feeble longitudinal stidae, which do 
not reach the convex auterior margin. Cheeks feebly and longi- 
tudinally striate in front of the eyes. A median stria extends over 
the whole of the vertex, head otherwise smooth. Pronotum finely but 
distinctly margined. It has a median longitudinal stria, which is con- 
tinued over the mesonotum. The latter has in addition one or two 
lateral striae. The rest of the body smooth, without striae or 
punctures. Head rather quadrate, hardly narrower in front than 
behind, as wide as long, the posterior margin convex. Eyes very 
convex and prominent, placed a little behind the middle of the sides. 



An rials S. Afric. Mvus. Vol. XIV. 



PL 2. 




II Opthalmopone Berthoudi ForelM ' 4 



I 

13 
14 C 

IV 

14'' 



hottenfota Emerg 4 
Bertioudi Foret 4. 



itromyrmex Canstanciae_4rrtt>M.X X 9. 

^ tibia pi tarsus hindleg". 
; profile, 
profile. 



l5Pachycondvla laevissima Arnold. 



4 



I.",- 1 1';i<'h\( oinl\ hi la.evissima.. Arnolds. ; node 4. 

IG ' » granosa Roger. - 4. 

17 Euponera caffraria. Smith V X4. 

17'' « » » X 5 profile . 

I.". WrovghtoniForel ■ i\ 

l!) m Perinjruevi Emery 42. 

jo ■ fossifera Mogr. \ ■ i) 

21 sennaarensis Wayr. ^ X 9. 



Annals S. Afric. Mm. Vol. XIV. 



PL 3. 




22 Euponera caifvaxia^Smith. d* X 4. 

23 [Meet roctena sTxbterrameai. Arnold. ^ X 6. 
23- ■ head in profile 

24 Leptogenys maxillosa Smith.ty x6. 

25 Anochetus Levaillantei Emery. - fr. 
- ; >" . . node X 9. 



X16 



25* Anochetus Levaillantei mandible X 20. 

26 • puTictaticeps Mayr ^nodeX 12. 

27 Leptogenvs Arnoldi Forelc? X6. 

27? • node X 9. 

28 • » ■ V X9. 



ERRATA. 

PL 4, description of Fig. 33, for 32 a. x 20. 32 b. $ X 3 read 33 a. x 20. 
33 b. $ x 3. 

PI. 4. description of Fig. 43, for 3 x 10 reaf? $ x 10. • 



Annals S.Afric.Mus. Vol. XIV. 



M. 4. 




>l Dt.r.vliiNlulvu.s.r.-u-cUiilius.^/'.v/.. - K4. .'Sla.X20. 

d.s. 32a.l>.X :;. 
belvolus, L. ..,,,, ■ 9. 32auX 20. 32t.dfX3 

6. 3*a.> 3. 
all'mis. .J'/W/ . (3 
RhogTnus) I'milnial us, Shack. n.s. 

eiUCtuS rohiml.it lis, J/,/y/' 111. 



33 
35 



38 Aenictus &agemau6,JSmera. H X 9. 
3S39aleclniomyrinex Arnoldixtus, JfbreZ. \ X16. 
W » alLipes Smithxajce Forely£TO^?WX16. 

41 Iritloiiivrmcx btmxilis Memr. >' XK>. 42.-:' \ 10. 
4:! TapmoiiiaVoj'll /.kowi./Wv.'/.r.T.c fliodosiae. <? X10. 
W Arnold i. Ford . : ; 1(1. 

4> Scmomius SchajltzeLForel. t / Hi. 



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ANNALS 



SOUTH AFRICAN MUSEUM 



VOLUME XIV 



PART II T, containing : — 

1. — A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa (Myrmi- 
cinae). By GTeorge Arnold, M.Sc, A.R.C.S., F.E.S., 
Curator of the Rhodesia Museum, Bulawayo, pp. 271-402. 




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A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 271 

Scapes long, extending beyond tlie occipital margin by nearly one-third 
of their length. The pro-mesonotal suture faintly indicated by a 
shallow impression ; the ineso-epinotal suture very deep. The anterior 
and posterior lateral dorsal angles of the pronotum fairly pronounced, 
the ventral lateral angles produced into large triangular teeth, a little 
longer than their basal width, very prominent, and projecting well 
beyond the lateral outline of the thorax, when viewed from above. 
Pronotum twice as wide as long. Mesonotum posteriorly with the 
lateral carinae high, almost angular when seen from the side, but not 
expanded outwards. Base of the epinotum feebly raised and slightly 
expanded outwards at the sides. The dorsum of the epinotum 
margined, about one-quarter longer than wide at the base, distinctly 
concave transversely. The spines are horizontal, subparallel, about as 
long as the distance between them. The declivity is sharply margined 
at the sides, nearly vertical, shorter than the dorsum. The peduncle 
of the 1st joint of the petiole long and thin, a trifle longer than the 
node. The latter is compressed above, as high as long, its dorsal 
profile convex, and including the narrow posterior portion as long as 
wide, the anterior and posterior faces nearly vertical. The 2nd node 
is also laterally compressed above, but not so much as the 1st node, 
longer than the 1st, but hardly wider, subconical, highest posteriorly. 
Base of abdomen straight, the corners rounded. Legs long and 
slender. 

Matopo Hills, S. Rhod. 1 y. In my collection. 



Tiube TETRAMORIINI, Emery. 

This tribe includes the following genera: Tetramorium (with 
sub-genera Triglyphothrix, Xiphomyrmex and Becamorium), Tetra- 
myrma and Rhroptromyrinex. 



Genus TETRAMORIUM, Mayr. 
Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, v, p. 423, 1855. 

Characters. 

$. Antennae 10-, 11- or 12-jointed, with a 3-jointed club; 
maxillary palpi 4-jointed, labial palpi 3-jointed. The posterior 
margin of the clypeus is raised on each side into a ridge or carina, 
which separates the front of the clypeus from the antennal socket 
(see Text-fig. 19, a and b). Frontal carinae short and fairly wide 

18 




272 Annals of the South African Museum. 

apart, or long and forming the upper margin of a scrobe. Antennal 
scrobes frequently present. Promesonotal suture generally obsolete 
or feebly defined, meso-epinotal suture usually distinct. Epinotum 
armed above with two spines or teeth, and below with two episternal 
teeth or lobes. Nodes of petiole variable, the 1st node always 
pedunculate, the 2nd node usually wider than the 1st. Abdomen 
oval, 

$ . Like the $ but larger. Pronotum usually very little exposed 
above ; mesonotum and scutellum raised above the level of the pro- 
and epinotum. The latter with stouter and shorter spines or teeth 
than in the ty . Fore wing with one cubital, one discoidal and a 
closed radial cell. Otherwise like the $ . 



xf- -ri- 



se 



Fig. 19. — A. Dorsal. B. Profile, m. Median area of the clypeus. 
Ir. Lateral ridges of the clypeus. of. Antennal fossa or socket. 
sc. Scape, j. Mandible. Anterior portion of the head of a 
Tetramoritim, the depth of the antennal fossae slightly 
exaggerated. 

^ . Antennae 10-jointed,* the 2nd joint of the flagellum very 
long and representing four joints fused together. Head small, eyes 
large. Mandibles small but distinctly dentate. Pronotum not visible 
from above ; mesonotum gibbous, Mayrian furrows present. Epinotum 
truncate and bidentate. 

The clypeus has usually at least one median and longitudinal raised 
line, which when fairly high may be termed a carina. It should be 
noted, however, that the clypeus very often bears other raised lines 
on each side of, and quite as strong as the median carina. 

The lateral ridges are almost obsolete in the sub- genus Decamorium. 
The frontal carinae are often produced backwards almost to the 

* T. solidum, var. grootensis, Forel, is an exception, having 12-jointed 
antennae, and T. Emeryi, Mayr, has 13-jointed antennae. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 273 

occipital margin, and are also somewhat expanded outwardly, forming 
the upper wall of a groove, the scrobe, which lies below them. This 
groove is sometimes divided into two halves by a longitudinal carina, 
the upper and lower halves receiving the folded scape and flagellum. 
The scrobe in such a case is complete, and is usually distinguished 
from the rest of the cheeks by its smoother and more shining surface- 
It is particularly well developed in the sub-genera Triglyphothrix and 
Xiphomyrmex. But in most species of Tetramorium (s. str.), only 
the upper half of the scrobe, that which accommodates the scape, 
is distinct, forming only a demi-scrobe ; or again, it may be defined 
only in its anterior region, in which case it is referred to in the 
following pages as a " trace of a scrobe." The sides of the declivity 
of the epinotum are usually bounded by a raised margin, which 
terminates below in two small teeth or lobes. These episternal teeth 
are in most cases much smaller than the epinotal teeth above them. 

It should be observed that the 1st node of the petiole is inclined 
at various angles, and that it is therefore impracticable to take 
the measure of the length of the node through its thickness, as 
unfortunately some authors appear to have done. In the following 
pages, the length of the 1st node is measured from the anterior to 
the posterior margin of the dorsal or posterior-dorsal face. It is 
also necessary to define some of the terms used in these pages in 
describing the sculpture of the chitin. 

In regard to such terms as "rugose," "rugulose," "striate," &c, 
a certain looseness of definition exists, which is plainly apparent, if 
the reader will compare half a dozen insects of different orders with 
their original descriptions. The term " striate," for example, has 
been used to express a form of sculpture consisting of raised lines, 
as well as one which is made up, of incised lines or fine grooves. 
Similarly, that which some authors describe as "coarsely striate" 
has been termed " rugose " by others. It has therefore seemed 
desirable to append a short glossary, defining the sense in which I 
have used certain words. 

rugae (adj. rugose) = raised lines, usually rather coarse, which may 
be more or less parallel over their whole length, but which 
in part are also somewhat irregular, broken, wavy, sinute or 
zigzagged. 

striae (adj. striate) = raised lines which are parallel, straight and 
continuous. 

reticulate = a sculpture consisting of a network, the strands of 
which are composed of raised lines. 

reticulate-rugose = a sculpture consisting of rugae, more or less 



274 Annals of the South African Museum. 

broken up in parts and connected by transverse strands or 
branches to form a more or less distinct network. 

sulcate = a sculpture composed of incised lines or fine grooves (not 
common in South African ants). 

rugulose = a sculpture composed of very fine wavy lines. 

alutaceous = a sculpture composed of a very fine or microscopic 
network. 

reticulate-punctate = a close and even puncturation, in which the 
spaces between the punctures are not wider than the punctures 
themselves, and form more or less of a network around them. 
I have used the term as an equivalent of the German 
" Fingerhutartig punktiert" (punctured like a thimble). 

The sense of such combinations as " striato-rugose," " rugoso- 
striate " are sufficiently evident, and need no further comment. 

The genus Tetramorium is well represented in our regions, and is 
composed of active species which generally nest in the ground. The 
colonies are often large, and are in some cases known to harbour 
many myrmecophilous insects. I have not, however, found any in 
the nests of our Ehodesian species. 

I have thought it necessary to reduce Triglyphothrix, Forel, to the 
rank of a sub-genus of Tetramorium, since there is not one character 
or even a set of characters which can be used consistently as a basis 
of differentiation. 

In Triglyphothrix Arnoldi, Forel, the hairs are simple as in 
Tetramorium s. str. ; in Triglyphothrix Marleyi which has branched 
hairs, there is no scrobe. Also no reliance can be placed on the 
width of the nodes, which varies considerably. In the new species, 
Tetramorium Ericae, the shape of the nodes and the general facies 
of the insect is decidedly like that of Triglyphothrix, but the hairs 
are simple, and the nodes only moderately wide, so that it might 
just as well be assigned to that sub-genus as to Tetramorium. 

The sub-genera of Tetramorium may be distinguished as follows : 

1. $ and ? , antennae 12- jointed ; <J, antennae 10- jointed. 

(a) Hairs usually branched, or, if not, both nodes much wider than long, 
the 1st node never squamiform . Triglyphothrix, Forel. 

(6) Hairs not branched; the 2nd node generally wider than long, or, if 
both nodes are much wider than long, then the 1st is squamiform 

Tetramorium, Mayr. 

2. $ and ?, antennae 11- jointed; & , antennae 10- jointed. 

Xiphomyrmex, Forel. 

3. £ , ? i and <? , antennae 10- jointed . . . Decamorium, Forel. 



A Monograph of the Formiciclae of South Africa. 275 

• / 

Key to the $ ^ of Tetramorium (s. str.). 

(8) 1. First node of petiole more or less squamiform. 

(3) 2. First node of petiole strongly and transversely striate ; large species, 

4"5-5 mm. . grandinode, Santschi, and var. hopensis, Forel. 

(2) 3. First node of petiole smooth ; small species, 3 mm. 

(5) 4. Second node of petiole less than twice as wide as long, its sides 

rounded ..... squami node, Santschi. 

(4) 5. Second node of petiole twice as wide as long. 

(7) 6. Sides of 2nd node, seen from above, angular ; head broAvn. 

squaininode, race do, Forel. 

(6) 7. Sides of 2nd node straight ; head dark yellow. 

squaminode, var. flaviceps, Arnold. 
(1) 8. First node of petiole not squamiform. 

(12) 9. Eyes very small, composed of a single facet. 

(11) 10. First node of petiole considerably narrowed in front ; seen from 
above, the anterior margin acutely convex or conical. 

subcoecum, Forel, var. inscia, Forel. 
(10) 11. First node not much narrower in front than behind ; seen from 
above, the anterior margin feebly convex or straight. 

Traegaordhi, Santschi. 

(9) 12. Eyes not very small, composed of several facets. 

(28) 13. Scape extending back as far as, or beyond the occipital margin.* 

(15) 14. Promesonotum smooth and shining . . laevithorax, Emery. 
(14) 15. Promesonotum sculptured, not very shining. 

(17) 16. First node wider than long . . . Frenchi, Forel. 

(16) 17. First node longer than wide, or at least as long as wide. 

(23) 18. First node coarsely sculptiu-ed, rugoso -punctate. 

(20) 19. A demi-scrobe present . setigerum, Mayr, race quaerens, Forel. 
(19) 20. Scrobes entirely absent. 

(22) 21. Clypeus convex transversely ; epinotal spines short, shorter than the 
interval between their bases ; eyes not very large . Gladstonei, Forel. 

(21) 22. Clypeus flat transversely; epinotal spines long, longer 'than the 

interval between their bases ; eyes decidedly large . longicorne, Forel. 

(18) 23. First node finely sculptured, at least not rugoso-punctate. 
(27) 24. Pronotum with at least a few longitudinal rugae. 

(26) 25. Reddish-brown; 1st node distinctly longer than wide. 

Blochmanni, Forel, race continentis, Forel. 
(25) 26. Yellowish-red ; 1st node barely longer than wide. 

Bequaerii, Forel, race bulawayensis, Forel. 

(24) 27. Pronotum very finely reticulate only . quadrispinosum, Emery. 

(13) 28. Scapes not extending back as far as the occipital margin. 

(32) 29. Pubescent hairs on the body flattened, almost scale-like and closely 

adpressed. 
(31) 30. First node above, nearly twice as wide behind as in front; epinotal 

spines as long as the interval between their bases. 

setuliferum, Emery 

* Jauresi, Forel, has the scapes almost reaching the occipital margin, and is 
therefore included in the alternative series (28). 



276 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(30) 31. First node above, one and a half times as wide behind as in front; 
epinotal spines shorter than the interval between their bases. 

setuliferum, race cluna, Forel. 
(29) 32. Pubescent hairs simple, not scale-like. 

(34) 33. Epinotal spines very long, as long as the dorsum of the epinotum. 

Joffrei, Forel. 
(33) 34. Epinotal spines shorter, not as long as the dorsum of the epinotum. 

(42) 35. Epinotal spines distinctly longer than they are wide at the base. 

(39) 36. Pronotum finely striated, not reticulate. 

(38) 37. Dorsal face of 1st node distinctly longer than wide ; dark yellowish- 
red ....... Popovici, Forel. 

(37) 38. Dorsal face of 1st node as wide as, or a little wider than long ; pale 
ochreous . . capensis, Mayr., and var. Braunsi, Forel. 

(36) 39. Pronotum reticulate or sparsely rugose. 

(41) 40. Pronotum merely rugose, joining the mesonotum in a curve. 

Grassi, Emery. 

(40) 41. Pronotum with very strong and wide reticulations, its junction with 

the mesonotum angular. .... guineense, Fab. 

(35) 42. Epinotal spines not longer than they are wide at the base. 

(52) 43. Larger species, not less than 35 mm. long. 

(47) 44. No trace of a scrobe. 

(46) 45. Epinotal spines (teeth) longer than the episternal ; scapes not nearly 
reaching the occipital margin . solidum, Emery, var. signata, Forel. 

(45) 46. Epinotal teeth not longer than the episternal ; scapes almost reach- 
ing back as far as the occipital margin . . Jaurtsi, Forel. 

(44) 47. A more or less distinct demi-scrobe present. 

(51) 48. Dorsal profile of thorax feebly convex or straight; epinotal teeth 
distinct. 

(50) 49. Larger species, 5 mm. or more ; 1st segment of petiole with the ped- 
uncle less than half as long as the node . simulator, Arnold. 

(49) 50. Smaller species, 3"5 mm. ; peduncle of 1st segment as long as the node. 

lobulicorne, Santschi. 

(48) 51. Dorsal profile of the thorax strongly angulated at the pro-mesonotal 

junction ; epinotal teeth almost obsolete. 

Emeryi, Mayr, race cristulatum, Forel. 

(43) 52. Smaller species, less than 35 mm. long. 
(54) 53. Abdomen dull, closely and finely punctured. 

semi-reticulatum, Arnold. 

(53) 54. Abdomen shining, not closely puncttired, or only at the extreme base. 
(64) 55. Epinotal teeth fairly large, at least distinctly larger and longer than 

the episternal. 

(57) 56. Colour entirely black .... oculatum, Forel. 
(56) 57. Colour more or less yellow or yellowish-red. 

(59) 58. Second node of petiole as wide as long; a trace of a scrobe present. 

simillimum, Smith, var. shilohensis, Forel. 

(58) 59. Second node wider than long. 

(61) 60. Sculpture fine ; no trace of a scrobe ; 2*2 mm. long. 

pusillum, Emery, var. mossamedensis, Forel. 

(60) 61. Sculpture coarse. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 277 

(63) 62. A slight trace of a scrobe present ; 2'5-2 - 9 mm. long . longoi, Forel. 
(62) 63. A very distinct demi-scrobe present . . Ericae, Arnold. 

(55) 64. Epinotal teeth small, as large as or smaller than the episternal, or 
nearly obsolete. 

(66) 65. First node, seen from the side, subcorneal ; its anterior margin strongly 

convex ; episternal teeth larger than the epinotal. 

simillimum, race isipingense, Forel. 
(65) 66. First node merely slightly convex or even flat in profile ; its anterior 
margin almost straight. 

(68) 67. Pro-mesonotum shining, almost smooth. 

simillimum, var. Poweri, Forel. 

(67) 68. Pro-mesonotum dull, distinctly sculptured. 

(70) 69. Scrobes entirely absent; the frontal carinae do not extend back 

beyond the middle of the head . pusillum, race tablense, Forel. 

(69) 70. Either a trace of a scrobe present, or the frontal carinae extend back 

nearly as far as the occipital margin. 

(72) 71. Dorsum of epinotum two and a half times longer than the declivity. 

pusillum, race ladismit7iensis, Forel. 

(71) 72. Dorsum of epinotum less than twice as long as the declivity. 
(74) 73. Head slightly shining, not longer than wide; 2*5 mm. 

intextum, Santschi, var. cataractae, Santschi. 

(73) 74. Head dull, a little longer than wide ; 22 mm. . simillimum, Smith. 

The following species, which I have not seen, have been omitted 
from the above key : Blochmanni, race Petersi, Forel ; bacchus, Forel • 
titus, Forel ; setigerum, Mayr, i. sp. ; Emeryi, Mayr, i. sp. ; caespitum, 
race Schnitzel, Forel ; Grassi,\a,v. laevigatum, Mayr, and var. simulans, 
Santschi ; solidum, race lugubre, Forel ; Simoni, Emery ; sericeiventre, 
race femoratum, Emery ; simillimum, races Bothae and delagoensis, 
Forel ; guineense, var. erectum, Emery. 

T. quadkispinosum, Emery. 

Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital., vol. 18, p. 362, £ , 1886. 

$ . 3 - 3 mm. Dart brown or piceous ; the anterior half of the head 
and the mesonotum lighter and more reddish-brown ; coxae, tibiae, 
antennae, and mandibles dark reddish-yellow, tarsi brownish-yellow. 
A few whitish and thick, blunt hairs on the clypeus, nodes, and 
abdomen. Legs and antennae with a very sparse, short, and decum- 
bent pubescence, the rest of the body without pubescence. 

Exceedingly minutely reticulate or alutaceous on the head, thorax, 
and nodes, the sculpture of the head and epinotum being a little 
stronger than the rest. In addition, the head is fairly strongly reti- 
culate in front, between the eyes and frontal carinae. The vertex and 
frons are also very finely and longitudinally striate. There are a few 



278 Annals of the South African Museum. 

very shallow punctures on the posterior half of the head and on the 
pronotum. Abdomen smooth and moderately shining, microscopically 
alutaceous near the base. Nodes nitidulous, head and thorax rather 
dull. 

Head hardly longer than wide, the sides feebly convex, the posterior 
margin sti'aight, the posterior angles moderately rounded, as wide in 
front as behind. Eyes placed at the middle of the sides of the head. 
Clypeus with a distinct median carina, not very convex transversely, 
the anterior margin almost straight. Frontal area distinct; a shallow 
frontal sulcus present, not extending beyond the middle of the vertex. 
Frontal carinae short. Mandibles 6-dentate, closely and finely striate. 
The scape of the antenna extends back beyond the occipital margin by 
not more than its own thickness ; 1st joint of flagellum not quite as 
long as the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th joints taken together. Thoracic sutures 
obsolete. The thorax is feebly marginate in front, the shoulders of 
the pronotum subangular and low. The anterior third of the pro- 
mesonotum slopes downwards and forwards, the remaining portion is 
level with the epinotum. The thorax is not strongly constricted 
between the meso- and epinotum. Dorsum of epinotum nearly twice 
as long as the declivity ; epinotal spines divergent, directed upwards 
and backwards, a little longer than their basal width, distinctly shorter 
than the interval between their bases ; epistemal teeth almost as long 
as the epinotal. First node of the petiole wider behind than in front, 
about one-third longer than wide, feebly convex transversely above, 
the anterior face short and oblique, the posterior face short and ver- 
tical. The node is twice as long as its peduncle, the latter bearing 
a small tooth below. Second node a little wider than long, widest 
behind, wider than the 1st, subglobose. Sides of abdomen moderately 
convex. Legs slender and rather long ; femora hardly swollen in the 
middle. 

Table Mountain. (S.A.M., R.M., G.A. colls.) 

T. Blochmanni, Forel, race contistentis, Forel. 

Mitth. Schweiz. Ent. G-es., vol. 7, p. 384, £, 1887. 

(Eace) Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 54, p. 426, £, 1910. 

^ . 38 mm. Head, thorax, and nodes dark castaneous, abdomen 
brownish-black. Occasionally the head, thorax, and nodes are paler, 
more yellowish-red, with the abdomen brown. Antennae and legs 
reddish-brown, the middle and hind femora dark brown. Pilosity 
and pubescence as in quadrispinosicm. 

Head, thorax, and nodes dull, finely reticulate -punctate, and also 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 279 

longitudinally striate and partly rugose. The head is longitudinally 
striate all over, not merely on the frons, cheeks, and vertex, as in the 
preceding species. Prothorax fairly strongly and longitudinally 
rugose. Epinotal spines longer than in quadrispinosum, almost as 
long as the interval between their bases ; the episternal teeth not much 
shorter than the epinotal. The 1st node of the petiole is not so narrow 
as in the quadrispinosum. Abdomen microscopically rugulose near 
the base, the remaining portion smooth and shining. The sculpture 
of the head, thorax, and nodes is decidedly coarser than in qtcadris- 
pinosum, but otherwise the two species are very similar and closely 
allied. In some specimens- the puncturation and rugae are stronger 
than in others, and the meso-epinotal suture is also sometimes fairly 
clearly defined. 

? . 4"2 mm. Head, thorax, nodes, legs, and antennae dark red 
(burnt sienna), abdomen reddish-brown, the apical margins of the 
segments paler. The sculpture of the head is like that of the ^ . 
Pronotum coarsely reticulate-rugose, mesonoturn strongly and evenly 
longitudinally striate (more finely so on the anterior half of the 
scutellum), dorsum of epinotum with 4 or 5 strong and transverse 
rugae, the declivity finely l'eticulate, the sides of the thorax finely and. 
longitudinally striate, the nodes of the petiole dull, granulate, and] 
very sparsely and shallowly punctured. Abdomen dull, very finely 
rugulose. Head and thorax feebly shining between the striae. Pro- 
notum exposed above only at the shoulders. Mesonoturn feebly 
convex in front transversely, fairly flat behind. Dorsum of epinotum 
as long as the scutellum. Epinotal spines stouter than in the ^ • 
First node of petiole wider than in the ^ , as wide as long. Second 
node more or less spherical, moderately convex above from side to side. 
Wings tinged with yellow, nervures and stigma brownish-yellow. 
Otherwise like the £ . 

$ . 4 - 5 mm. Head brownish yellow, the vertex, in front of and 
between the ocelli, brown. Thorax brownish-yellow or reddish- 
yellow, the pronotum paler, the base of the scutellum, the apical half 
of the epinotum, and the nodes pale brown ; abdomen brownish-black. 
Legs, antennae, and mandibles dirty yellow. Head dull, very finely 
reticulate and striate. The striation is longitudinal in front, trans- 
verse between the ocelli and at the posterior corners. Pronotum 
exceedingly finely reticulate ; mesonoturn posteriorly and the scutellum 
very finely, regularly, and longitudinally striate. The scutellum is 
also somewhat reticulate-punctate. Epinotum and nodes reticulate- 
punctate and dull. Mesonoturn smooth and shining in front. 
Abdomen microscopically reticulate and shining. Head as long as 



280 Annals of the South African Museum. 

wide, about as wide in front as behind, widest across the eyes ; the 
the latter occupy about one-third of the sides and are placed a little 
in front of the middle. Scape of antenna as long as the 2nd joint of 
the flagellum, and extending back as far as the anterior ocellus. 
Clypeus with a median carina. Frontal carinae well developed. 
Mandibles triangular, 5-dentate, dull and finely rugulose, the masti- 
catory margin dark brown. Mayrian furrows on the mesonotum 
distinct. Mesonotum and scutellum raised above the level of the 
dorsum of the epinotum. The latter is oblique, sloping down to the 
brow of the declivity, and is about one-third longer than the declivity. 
Epinotal spines well developed, the episternal very obtuse. The 1st 
node of the petiole is nearly twice as long as wide, the lateral margins 
of the dorsal face almost parallel. Second node like that of the 9 
but longer, as long as wide, less convex above transversely than in the 
$ . Legs long and thin. Wings as in the $ . 

Bulawayo and S. Rhodesia generally, common. The nest, which is 
in the ground, is usually surrounded by a more or less circular crater 
of earth. (S.A.M., E.M., G-.A. colls.) 

Eace continentis, var. Eudoxia, Forel. 

Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat., vol. 50, p. 231, £ , 1914. 

$ . 3*8-4 mm. Darker than the type of the race ; dark brown, the 
abdomen black, the mandibles and limbs rusty-red. The sculpture is 
finer than in the race, the longitudinal striae being much less coarse. 
The epinotal spines are slightly longer. This variety is almost inter- 
mediate in its structure and general appearance between quadris- 
pinosum and race continentis. 

Willowmore, Cape Prov. (S.A.M., E.M., G.A., colls.) 

Eace Petersi, Forel. 

Schultze, Eeise Siid Afrika, vol. 4, p. 19, £ , 1910. 

" £ . 2*8-3-2 mm. Mandibles sharply striated, with a feebly 
convex external margin, 3 strong teeth in front and 4 or more smaller 
ones behind. Clypeus sharply carinate. Frontal area triangular. 
Frontal carinae divergent, not long. No scrobe and no depression 
for the scape. Head rectangular, distinctly longer than wide, mode- 
rately concave behind, the sides feebly convex, as wide behind as in 
front. Eyes not large, convex, placed in the middle of the sides. 
The scape extends beyond the hind margin of the head by about 
twice its own thickness ; 3rd and 4th joints of the flagellum about as 
wide as long, the rest all longer than wide. Pronotum convex in 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 281 

front. Dorsum of the thorax almost straight, widely and shallowly 
impressed in the middle. Dorsum of epinotum much longer than 
wide, moderately convex, much longer than the declivity. Epinotal 
spines small, acute and nearly as long as the interval between them ; 
the episternal spines as long and as acute as the upper ones. 
Petiole, particularly the 1st segment, shaped as in Blochmanni, i. sp., 
and also similarly curved. Second node somewhat longer, nearly as 
long as wide (the 1st node is much longer than wide). Shining. 
Head, thorax, and petiole irregularly and feebly reticulate-rugose. 
Abdomen quite smooth. Pilosity moderate, yellowish ; the pubescence 
almost decumbent and very sparse. Tibiae, femora, and scapes with 
almost decumbent pubescence. Yellowish-red to reddish-yellow. 
Mandibles and tarsi a paler yellow. Abdomen brownish. 
Okahandja, S. W. Africa." 

T. Bequaerti, Forel. 
Eev. Zool. Afric, vol, 2, p. 318, £ , 1913. 

" £. 3 - 7-41 mm. Closely allied to Blochmanni, Forel, from 
which it may be distinguished by having the whole body, legs and 
scapes covered with short, erect and reddish-yellow hairs. Those 
on the legs and scapes are very short, somewhat truncate at the 
apex and slightly oblique. The head is still more emarginate behind 
than in the Blochmanni, and has the sides straighter. A little more 
shining than • in Blochmanni, but sculptured as in race continentis 
of that species, reticulate or reticulate-punctate, with some distinct 
but sparse punctures on the head and thorax. The thorax has also 
some coarser and more accentuated longitudinal rugae ; on the head 
these are finer, and mostly in the middle. The petiole has some 
reticulate and very coarse rugae. Abdomen subopaque, only finely 
reticulate. Rusty-red, with posterior half or two-thirds of the 
abdomen brown. Otherwise like Blochmanni. 

"Lake Kabwe, Katanga. (Dr. Bequaert)." 

Although this species has not yet been recorded from our region, 
I include it here, as it is likely to be found within the same. 

Race BULAWAYENSis, Forel. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol, 57, p. 119, £, 1913. 

^ . 3 mm. Much smaller than the type of the species. Yellowish- 
red (burnt sienna), the legs, antennae and mandibles dark yellow, 
somewhat - reddish. The head is shorter than in the type, being 
barely one-sixth longer than wide (mandibles excluded), the 



282 Annals of the South African Museum. 

posterior margin is convex, and the posterior angles are much more 
rounded and obtuse. The scape extends beyond the hind margin of 
the head by about as much as the length of the 1st joint of the 
flagellum. The frontal carinae extend back as fine raised lines as 
far as the level of the eyes. Head and pro-mesonotum longitudinally 
rugose, mesonotum and epinotum also reticulate - punctate, the 
epinotum also transversely rugose. Epinotal spines acute, shorter 
than half the length of the interval between their bases. The 
episternal spines are not much shorter than the epinotal. Dorsum 
of epinotum one and a half times longer than wide, quite twice as 
long as the oblique declivity, moderately convex transversely, feebly 
so lengthwise. The 1st node of the petiole is widest behind, nearly 
as wide there as it is long, and nearly twice as long as its peduncle. 
The 2nd node is two-thirds wider than long, and about that much 
wider than the 1st, and nearly twice as wide at its posterior third 
as it is at the anterior margin. Both nodes reticulate, with a few 
longitudinal and raised lines. Basal third of the 1st abdominal 
segment dull and very finely reticulate, the rest of the abdomen 
smooth and shining. 

$ . 4*4 mm. (Hitherto undescribed). Colour like that of the ^ 
but darker, the apical half of the abdomen reddish-brown, the middle 
of the apical margins of the segments paler. Pilosity and pubescence 
as in the ^ . Head longitudinally striate above in the middle, strongly 
reticulate-rugose in front of the eyes, very finely so behind them. 
The frontal carinae extend back beyond the level of the anterior 
ocellus. Mandibles longitudinally striate and strongly punctured. 
Pronotum coarsely rugose in front, rather finely so at the sides. 
Mesonotum and scutellum strongly and longitudinally rugose. 
Epinotum above and at the sides coarsely and transversely rugose. The 
rugosities extend over the upper half of the declivity, the lower half 
of which is smooth and shining. Peduncle of petiole finely granulate, 
the nodes coarsely rugoso-punctate. Head, thorax and nodes faix-ly 
dull, the spaces between the rugae slightly shining. Abdomen dull, 
very finely but distinctly striate, somewhat concentrically near the 
basal angles, longitudinally elsewhere. The epinotal teeth are very 
little longer than the episternal, and not longer than they are wide 
at the base. The 1st node is a trifle wider than long, hardly longer 
than the peduncle, the anterior margin of its upper face moderately 
convex ; 2nd node widest behind, almost hemispherical, two-thirds 
wider than the 1st. Wings tinged with brownish-yellow, nervures 
and stigma brown. 

Very much like the $ of continentis, fro it which it may be 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 283 

distinguished by its smaller size, lighter colour and stronger 
sculpture, especially on the nodes and epinotal spines. The latter 
are more divergent and shorter, hardly half as long as the interval 
between their bases (distinctly longer in continentis). The 1st node 
is also more convex, the sides not forming an obtuse angle with the 
anterior margin as in continentis. 

Bulawayo ; nesting in grassy soil, not common. (S.A.M., P.M., 
G-.A. colls".) 

T. longicobne, Forel. (Plate VII, figs. 96, 96a). 

Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung., vol. 5, p. 13, $ , 1907. 

$. 47 m.m. Very dark reddish-brown, the head paler or more 
reddish, the apical two-thirds of the abdomen brownish-black, legs, 
antennae, mandibles, and clypeus rusty-red or dark reddish-yellow. 
A very short and sparse pubescence on the legs and antennae, and 
a few yellowish hairs on the abdomen and clypeus, otherwise glabrous. 
Head, thorax and nodes reticulate-rugose, very coarsely so on the 
head and the dorsum of the thorax. The rugae are longitudinal 
on the vertex and the pro-mesonotum. The clypeus has one median 
carina and three others or raised lines on each side of the same. 
Abdomen nitidulous and alutaceous, distinctly but very finely and 
longitudinally striate over the basal third. Legs and antennae finely 
reticulate and dull. Head, thorax and nodes dull, the spaces between 
the rugae scabrous. 

Head about as long as wide, the posterior margin strongly concave, 
the posterior angles rounded and turned downwards. Mandibles 
large, subopaque, very finely striate and punctate, with three strong 
teeth in front, and indistinctly dentate behind. Median area of 
clypeus flat transversely, the anterior margin feebly arcuate; the 
lateral ridges of the clypeus are very prominent. Frontal carinae 
more widely separated from each other at their base than they are 
from the sides of the head, somewhat expanded above the antennal 
sockets, furnishing a slight depression below for the base of the 
scapes, and extending back beyond the level of the posterior margin 
of the eyes. The latter large, convex and very prominent, placed a 
little behind the middle of the sides. Scapes long, extending beyond 
the hind margin of the head by nearly one-third of their length ; all 
the joints of the flagellum longer than wide. 

Pronotum distinctly marginate in front and at the sides, the 
anterior angles fairly sharp. Below the raised anterior margin there 
is a short vertical face which joins the rather long and finely granulate 



284 Annals of the South African Museum. 

neck. The pronotum is rather flat transversely, and slopes downwards 
and forwards ; above, it joins the mesonotum in an obtuse angle, 
and bears a small tubercle on each side. Thorax fairly long, not 
much constricted between the meso- and epinotum and not depressed 
between them above. Pro-mesonotal suture obsolete, meso-epinotal 
suture very shallow and faintly indicated. Dorsum of epinotum 
two and a half times longer than wide, slightly concave in its apical 
half, and at least twice as long as the declivity. Epinotal spines 
long, thin, and acute, subparallel, oblique, one-third longer than the 
interval between their bases. The declivity of the epinotum sub- 
vertical, smooth, distinctly margined at the sides, the margins being 
continued into the episternal teeth, which are short and triangular. 
The peduncle of the 1st segment of the petiole is as long as the node ; 
the latter seen from above, is more or less oval, slightly longer than 
wide, fairly convex transversely, less so lengthwise ; 2nd node 
subhemispberical, half as wide again as it is long, and one and a half 
times wider than the 1st node ; the ventral surface bears a tubercle 
on each side. Legs rather long, femora only moderately and gradually 
swollen. 

Bulawayo ; not common. These specimens are decidedly larger 
than those from East Africa, on which the species was founded 
(3-8-4 mm.), but there is no other difference. (S.A.M., E.M., Gr.A. 
colls.) 

T. G-ladstonei, Forel. 
Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr, Beiheft, p. 219, £, 1913. 

y . 4' 3 mm. Very dark brown ; abdomen and femora, except the 
bases of the latter, black ; tibiae, tarsi, antennae and mandibles 
brownish or reddish-yellow. A few yellowish, stiff hairs on the 
clypeus and abdomen. Legs and antennae with a very short and 
scanty pubescence. Head fairly sti*ongly striato-rugose. Thorax 
longitudinally rugose, more coarsely so on the dorsum than on the 
sides, also somewhat reticulate ; dorsum of epinotum strongly and 
transversely rugose, the declivity transversely rugulose. Nodes very 
strongly reticulate-rugose. Head and thorax subopaque, the spaces 
between the rugae shining. Abdomen smooth and shining, except 
the extreme base, which is somewhat dull and finely striate. 

Head rectangular, excluding the mandibles very little longer than 
wide, the sides and posterior margin almost straight, the posterior 
angles rounded. Clypeus with a strong median carina, convex 
transversely and lengthwise, the anterior margin straight. The 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 285 

lateral ridges of the clypeus are prominent, but not so much so as 
in longicorne. Frontal carinae subparallel, not raised as in longicorne, 
and not extending back as far as the middle of the vertex. Scapes 
extending just beyond the hind margin of the head, the 3rd-6th 
joints of the flagellum as wide as long, the rest longer than wide. 
Mandibles with three distinct teeth in front, indistinctly dentate 
behind, very evenly and longitudinally striate, and with a row of 
punctures along the masticatory margin. Thorax fairly long, twice 
as long as it is wide in front. Pronotum with fairly sharp anterior 
angles, submarginate anteriorly, convex transversely and lengthwise, 
joining the mesonotum in a gradual curve, not obtusely angularly 
as in longicorne. Dorsal profile of meso- and epinotum flat and 
horizontal. Pro-mesonotal suture obsolete, meso-epinotal suture 
shallow. The thorax is but little constricted at the sides at the 
meso-epinotal suture. Dorsum of epinotum two and a half times 
longer than wide, its apical half and the declivity marginate. The 
declivity is very oblique and about two-thirds the length of the 
dorsum. Epinotal spines acute, shorter than the space between their 
bases, directed upwards and slightly backwards, hardly divergent. 
The episternal teeth are large, not much shorter than the upper 
spines. The 1st node of petiole, seen from above, is suboval, a 
little narrower in front than behind, moderately convex transversely, 
one-fifth longer than wide, the anterior face nearly vertical ; the 
peduncle is about two-thirds as long as the node and concave below. 
The 2nd node nearly one-third wider than long, higher behind than 
in front, not so high as, and only little wider than, the 1st node. 
Shiloh, S. Rhodesia, in sandy soil. (S.A.M., E.M., G-.A. colls.) 

T. Frenchi, Forel. 
Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat., vol. 50, p. 229, £ , 1914. 

£ . 3-2 mm. Black ; mandibles and legs reddish-brown, the tarsi 
brownish-yellow. Pilosity fairly long, yellow and sparse, almost 
absent on the thorax, entirely so on the legs and antennae which 
are only finely pubescent. Head longitudinally rugose above and 
reticulate between the rugae ; the sides of the head, the dorsum 
of the thorax, and the nodes reticulate- rugose. The sculpture is 
fairly strong in front of the eyes and on the dorsum of the thorax, 
and the spaces between the reticulations are very finely reticulate- 
punctate, as also the sides of the thorax. Abdomen smooth and 
shining, except the baaal fourth which is dull and alutaceous. Head 
and thorax subopaque. 



286 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Head, excluding the mandibles, one-quarter longer than wide, 
parallel-sided, a trifle wider behind than in front, the posterior 
angles very rounded, the posterior margin straight. Eyes not large, 
placed in the middle of the sides. The clypeus has three raised 
longitudinal lines on the median area, and its lateral ridges are 
small. Mandibles triangular, closely and finely striate, subopaque, 
armed with 5 or 6 small teeth. The frontal carinae extend back 
almost to the occiput ; they are slightly raised and on each side 
below them there is a smoother space, merely reticulate-punctate, 
which forms an indistinct demi-scrobe for the scapes. The latter 
are rather thin, and extend beyond the hind margin of the head by 
almost the length of the eye. The 1st joint of the flagellum is as 
long as the three following joints taken together. 

Thorax rather narrow, very slightly constricted at the meso-epinotal 
suture, twice as long as it is wide in front. The pronotum is convex 
transversely and longitudinally, and joins the mesonotum in a gentle 
curve. Pro-mesonotal suture obsolete, meso-epinotal very feeble. 
Dorsum of meso- and epinotum horizontal. Dorsum of epinotum 
twice as long as wide, and nearly twice as long as the oblique declivity. 
Epinotal spines thin, a little shorter than the interval between their 
bases ; episternal teeth small and obtuse. The declivity is narrow 
and margined at the sides. The peduncle of the 1st segment of the 
petiole is longer or at least as long as the node. The latter is 
one and a third times wider than long, convex above from side to 
side, the anterior face vertical, the short posterior face oblique. The 
2nd node is a little wider than the 1st and a little wider than long, 
narrower in front than behind. 

A very distinct species, easily recognised by its long head, and the 
wide first node. 

Krantz Kloof, Natal. (H. B. Marley.) (G. A. coll.) 

T. laevithobax, Emery. (Plate VIII, figs. 110, 110a.) 

Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 39, $ , 1895. 

^ . 2 - 7-3 mm. Brownish-yellow, the head and abdomen darker 
and more reddish-yellow. Legs and antennae pale ochreous. Head, 
pro-mesonotum, and abdomen shining, epinotum and nodes only 
slightly so. Pilosity yellow, long and suberect, more abundant on 
the abdomen than elsewhere. Pubescence of the legs and antennae 
rather long, yellow and oblique. Head above, longitudinally striate 
between the frontal carinae (about 5 striae), the striae connected by 
a few feeble transverse strands. Sides of head below the demi-scrobe. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 287 

reticulate-rugose. The demi-scrobes are fairly wide but not deep, 
very finely reticulate-punctate. The clypeus has a strong median 
carina and one or two finer lines on each side. The pro-mesonotum is 
almost smooth and impunctate. Dorsum of epinotum very shallowly 
reticulate, the sides of the thorax reticulate-punctate. Nodes of the 
petiole very finely and superficially punctate on their posterior faces, 
otherwise smooth. Abdomen smooth and shining. Head a little 
longer than wide, the sides feebly convex, the posterior margin 
shallowly concave, the^posterior angles rounded. The scapes are thin 
and long, extending beyond the hind margin of the head by a length 
about eaual to their apical width. Flagellum long, rather thin in its 
basal half, the 9th and 10th joints quite half as long again as wide, 
the 1st joint as long as the three following joints taken together, the 
2nd joint half as long again as wide, the 3rd-8th joints at least as 
long as wide. Mandibles triangular, finely striate, pubescent, with 
three acute teeth in front. Clypeus convex, the frontal area depressed 
and well defined. Frontal carinae long, extending back almost to the 
occiput. Below them there is a smooth and shallow demiscrobe. 
Eyes fairly large and' convex, placed a little in front of the middle. 
Thorax narrow, twice as long as it is wide across the shoulders of 
the pronotum ; the dorsal profile slopes downwards from front to back. 
The pronotum has a very short declivous anterior face above the neck, 
and is moderately convex transversely. The dorsum of the epinotum 
is twice as long as it is wide at the base ; epinotal spines acute, 
slightly divergent, as long as the interval between their bases ; the 
declivity is oblique and shorter than the dorsum. The episternal 
teeth are reduced to two rounded angles. The peduncle of the 1st 
segment of the petiole is as long as the node ; the latter, seen from 
the side, is cuneiform or subsquamiform, with a short and vertical 
anterior face and a longer posterior-dorsal face, which, seen from 
above, is hexagonal in outline. Second node wider than the 1st, its 
sides distinctly angular in the middle. Abdomen subglobose. 

A very distinct species, easily recognised by the smooth pro- 
mesonotum, the demi-scrobe, and the shape of the petiole. 

Pietermaritzburg (Weitzaecker) ; Port Elizabeth (Dr. H. Brauns). 

T. setigerum, Mayr. 

Ann. K.K.N.H. Mus. Wien, vol. 16, p. 22, £, 1901. 

Forel, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 54, p. 424, $ , £, 1910. 

" ^ . 3 - 3 mm. Yellowish-red-brown, the upper surface of the 
head and abdomen darker, the mandibles, antennae, and legs more 

19 



288 Annals of the South African Museum. 

yellowish-brown. The upper surface of the head bears moderately 
long, blunt, pilose hairs ; on the under surface of the head and 
abdomen and on the coxae these hairs are more pointed, and the legs 
have only a short and decumbent pubescence. Mandibles sparsely 
punctured and shallowly striate, more strongly and closely striate on 
the basal third. Head moderately shining, rectangular, longer than 
wide, the angles rounded, the posterior margin slightly concave. 
Clypeus with a strong median carina and some longitudinal lines 
laterally. The f rons, and vertex as far as the hind margin, with widely 
spaced longitudinal striae, between which are some weaker longitudinal 
rugae and a somewhat indistinct reticulation. Cheeks and sides of 
the head coarsely and longitudinally rugose and reticulate. The well- 
defined and long scrobe is finely reticulate, and, like the frontal carina 
above it, reaches nearly to the posterior margin of the head. The 
scapes extend to the posterior margin ; 2nd-6th joints of theflagellum 
about equal in length and width, 7th and 8th distinctly longer than 
wide, the 1st and 2nd joint of the club quite one and a half times 
longer than wide, the last joint about three times longer than wide. 

" Thorax not short ; coarsely reticulate, and more or less coarsely and 
longitudinally rugose, the sides behind the pronotum reticulate- 
punctate, and with fewer longitudinal rugae, the epinotum between the 
spines finely but not sharply reticulate, and with or without a few fine, 
indistinct, and transverse rugae. The thorax above is constricted, and 
the profile, from the hind margin of the pronotum as far as the 
epinotal spines is fairly straight, only slightly depressed in front of 
the epinotum ; the epinotal spines are not long, about as long as the 
interval between their bases, and are directed steeply upwards, not 
strongly divergent; the episternal teeth form equal-sided triangles. 
Petiole coarsely reticulate, 1st node slightly wider than long, and 
somewhat higher than the 2nd node, the anterior face vertical and 
convex transversely, separated by a semi-circular margin from the 
upper surface and the sides ; the upper face merges gradually into the 
posterior ; 2nd node somewhat wider than the 1st, transversely oval. 
Abdomen smooth and shining." 

" $ . 4" 7 mm. Strongly and longitudinally rugose and reticulate. 
Dull. Petiole as in the £ , the basal third of the 1st abdominal 
segment longitudinally striate. Hairs obtuse as in the $ . Colour 
yellowish-brown. Dealated." 

" <$ . 35 mm. Dirty brownish-yellow. Mandibles quadridentate. 
Head oval, longer than wide, striate, and reticulate, the posterior 
margin straight. Thorax shining, with a few striae. Epinotum un- 
armed, the declivity marginate. The 1st node with a feeble and 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 289 

arcuate dorsal margin as in the $ » otherwise rather round. Wings 
pale, hard] j yellowish, nervures yellow. Hairs of the head and 
thorax blunt as in the $ ." 

Bothaville (Dr. H. Brauns) ; Natal (Wroughton, Schaufuss). 



Race quaerens, Forel. 
Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat., vol. 50, p. 226, £ , 1914. 

" ^ . 39 mm. Larger than the type of the species, and of a 
darker colour, which is blackish or dark brown-black. Legs, antennae, 
and mandibles brownish-yellow, the apical half of the flagellum darker. 
The epinotal spines are much longer, at least as long as the space 
between them. The meso-epinotal suture is feeble, forming no con- 
striction. The pro-mesonotum forms a longer convexity and the 
thorax is also longer (in the type of the species the pronotum only is 
more abruptly convex). The pilosity is much scantier. Otherwise 
almost identical with the type." 

Bulawayo, not common ; Durban (H. B. Marley), the colour some- 
what paler than in the Rhodesian examples. (S.A.M., R.M., Gr.A. 
colls.) 

T. setuliferum, Emery. (Plate VII, figs. 101, 101a.) 

Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 36, g, 1895. 

£ . 4-4*5 mm. Castaneous red or burnt sienna, the thorax a 
little darker, the 1st node almost brown, legs paler and more yellowish. 
Exserted pilose. hairs absent except on the clypeus. Head, thorax, 
petiole, and abdomen evenly but not very densely clothed with flat, 
almost scale-like, closely adpressed and silvery hairs, which lie some- 
what transversely on the thorax. The hairs on the legs are also 
silvery, but cylindrical and oblique. The antennae are finely pubes- 
cent, the hairs simple. The silvery and flattened hairs on the body 
sufficiently distinguish this species from all others in our region. 
Head very finely and longitudinally striate, with a row of fine granules 
between all the striae ; the cheeks, in front of the eyes, also slightly 
rugose. Clypeus with a strong median carina, and several finer 
lateral carihae or lines. Mandible closely striate. Thorax very finely 
and closely rugulose ; the sculpture of the nodes similar but stronger, 
almost granulate, especially the 1st node. Basal third of the abdomen 
dull and finely aciculate, the rest smooth and shining. Head, thorax 
and nodes dull. 



290 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Head robust, as long as wide, the sides moderately convex, the 
posterior angles rounded, the posterior margin straight, the upper 
surface distinctly convex. Anterior margin of clypeus widely but not 
deeply emarginate in the middle. Mandibles with 6 blunt teeth. 
Frontal carinae short, divergent, not extending beyond the first third 
of the head. Scapes short, extending back very little beyond the 
middle third of the head. Thoracic sutures obsolete. Shoulders of 
the pronotum angular. Thorax much wider in front than across 
the epinotum, hardly constricted between the meso- and epinotum, 
distinctly convex lengthwise, short, hardly one-third longer than it is 
deep. .Epinotal spines long and acute, longer than the interval 
between their bases, slightly divergent along their basal half, parallel 
along the apical half, directed obliquely upwards. Episternal teeth 
small and obtuse, forming almost triangular lobes. The peduncle 
of the 1st segment of the petiole is a little more than half the length 
of the node, and furnished below with a small tooth near the base ; 
the node is truncate in front, seen from above trapezoidal, with dis- 
tinct but rounded anterior and posterior lateral angles, the posterior 
margin nearly twice as wide as the anterior, the sides barely convex. 
Second node transversely oblong, two and a half times wider than 
long, nearly one-third wider than the 1st,' the posterior margin mode- 
rately convex. Abdomen truncate at the base, with pronounced lateral 
angles. 

$. 7 mm. (Hitherto undescribed ?) Sides of head less convex 
than in the ^ . Sculpture of the head stronger, mesonotum and 
scutellum longitudinally rugose, sides of pronotum reticulate-rugose 
and punctured in between the rugae, the dorsum and sides of the 
epinotum very closely granulate-punctate, with some more or less 
longitudinal rugae superimposed, the declivity coarsely and trans- 
versely striate. The epinotal spines are relatively shorter and thicker 
than in the ^ , about as long as their basal width, shorter than the 
interval between them, horizontal. The dorsum of the epinotum is 
very short, almost obsolete in the middle. The 1st node is shorter, 
quite twice as wide behind as it is long (only one-third wider than 
long in the ^). The raised anterior angles of the node bear a pair 
of minute and nearly vertical teeth, between which the surface of the 
node is concave. The 2nd node is much more convex at the sides, 
and is nearly two and a half times wider than long. Basal two-thirds 
of 1st abdominal segment finely and very closely, longitudinally striate, 
with punctures between the striae. 

Wings strongly tinged with yellow, the nervm-es yellow, the stigma 
yellowish-brown. Otherwise like the $ . 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 291 

3 . 6'8 mm. (Hitherto undescribed.) Black, flagellum and tarsi 
brownish-yellow, articulations of the legs reddish. The flat silvery 
hairs entirely absent; fairly abundantly clothed with a long and 
yellowish pilosity. On the head, thorax, and nodes the hairs are 
somewhat woolly and suberect, on the abdomen straighter and 
oblique. The legs have a sparse pilosity intermixed with a fine and 
short pubescence. Flagellum pubescent, scape with straight pilose 
hairs only. Head, thorax, and nodes very closely and sharply reticu- 
late, with some more or less longitudinal rugae superimposed on the 
head and thorax ; on the head these radiate outwards from the ocellar 
area. Mayrian furrows well defined, the V-shaped space between the 
furrows with wider reticulations than elsewhere. Scutellum less 
strongly rugose. The 1st node with a few longitudinal rugae on its 
posterior half, the 2nd node faintly striate at the sides. Head, 
excluding the mandibles, a little wider than long, widest across the 
eyes, narrowed in front and behind (but wider behind than in front), 
the hind margin shallowly concave, the posterior angles sharp, very 
convex transversely above and highest behind. Eyes convex and very 
prominent, occupying about one-third of the sides, and placed a little 
in front of the middle. Scapes extending back as far as the anterior 
ocellus. Mandibles closely striate, 6-dentate, the anterior tooth large 
and acute. Mesonotum gibbous, very convex in front, one-quarter 
wider than long ; scutellum semi-circular, half as long as the meso- 
notum. Epinotum armed with a short, subacute or dentiform tubercle 
on each side ; the dorsum as long as it is wide between the tubercles, 
sloping downwards and backwards and merging by a gradual curve 
into the vertical declivity. The latter is shorter than the dorsum 
and is concave lengthwise. First segment of petiole with a short and 
ill-defined peduncle. The node has an oblique anterior face, slightly 
convex lengthwise, and a shorter posterior-dorsal face ; the anterior 
angles rounded, each one furnished with a minute tooth as in the 9 • 
Second node hexagonal above, the anterior margin formed of three 
sides, the lateral margins slightly concave and forming distinct angles 
at their junctions with the front and hind margins. Abdomen 
very finely alutaceous, shining. Head, thorax, and nodes dull. 
Legs long and slender. Wings as in the 9 . but the nervures are 
darker. 

S. Ehode'sia, common ; Mafeking ; Orange Free State and Basuto- 
land. A harvesting and graminivorous species. The entrances to 
the nests are often surrounded by small accumulations of the husks 
of a grass seed. These heaps are smaller than those of Messor, and 
much less tidily disposed. 



292 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Var. Teiptolemtts, n.v. 

£ 5"5 mm. This differs from the type by its larger size and 
also in the following characters. The sculpture is stronger, especially 
on the thorax and nodes. The eyes are less convex, almost flat, 
the posterior margin of the head is shallowly concave, and the 
meso-epinotal suture is shallow but fairly distinct. The epinotal 
spines are shorter, distinctly divergent apically, as long as the interval 
between their bases. The peduncle of the 1st node is relatively 
shorter, and the node is a little longer in proportion to the width 
than in the type of the species, the anterior and posterior angles are 
also much more acute, not rounded as in the type. The sides of the 
2nd node divergent posteriorly, not subparallel as in the type of 
the species. The colour is darker, especially of the thorax and nodes, 
which are dark brown. 

(R.M., G.A. colls.) ; type in my collection. Closely allied to 
var. cucalense, Santschi, from which it would appear to differ 
(judging by the description only), in the shape of the nodes and 
the epinotal spines. 

Race cltxna, Forel. 
Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr. Beiheft, p. 218, $ , 1913. 

^. 3*5 -3'8 mm. Black, legs and antennae reddish-brown, 
mandibles reddish-yellow. The whole abdomen dull, otherwise the 
sculpture is like that of the species. From the latter it differs in 
the following characters. The dorsum of the epinotum is not convex, 
but shallowly concave ; the spines are shorter, being barely as long 
as the interval between their bases. The 1st node of the petiole is 
shorter, and wider in front (the hind margin hardly more than half 
as long as the front margin), the anterior margin above more convex. 
The 2nd node is narrower, about one- quarter wider than the 1st, 
convex at the sides, not straight as in the type. The flat scale-like 
hairs are smaller and less abundant, more golden than silvery in 
colour. 

This is an annectant form between setuliferum, i. sp., and solidum. 

Willowmore, Cape Prov. (Dr. H. Brauns). (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. 
colls.) 

T. solidum, Emery. 

Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital., vol. 18, p. 362, $ , $ , 1886. 

" £> . 35-4 mm. Piceous, mandibles, antennae and legs, except 
the middle part of the femora, rufescent and dull ; abdomen shining, 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 293 

sparsely pilose, hardly pubescent ; legs pubescent. Head subquadrate, 
longitudinally striato-rugose, the striae divergent on the occiput, 
between the striae very finely rugulose. Frontal carina not extending 
beyond the posterior third of the head. Mandibles striate, the 
margins black, the masticatory margin denticulate, the apex bidentate. 
Antennae 12-jointed, club 3-jointed and much shorter than the rest 
of the flagellum. Thoracic sutures entirely obsolete. Thorax obtusely 
marginate in front, widest in front and thence narrowed gradually 
backwards. Epinotal spines robust, suberect, acute, divergent. 
Thorax above longitudinally rugose, the sides closely and obliquely 
rugose, and also very finely reticulate-rugulose ; 1st segment of 
petiole pedunculate, the node trapezoidal, truncate behind, transversely 
rugulose and punctate ; 2nd node transversely ovate, rugulose and 
punctate ; apical portion of abdomen shining, the base subopaque, 
microscopically reticulate. 

" ? . 5-5"5 mm. Similar to the ty in colour and sculpture ; the 
thorax longitudinally striate ; epinotal spines shorter and stouter. 
Wings hyaline, costal margin testaceous, stigma brown." 

South Africa. 

Var. signattjm, Emery. (Plate VII, fig. 98). 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 35, $, 1895. 

" £ . 4 - 5-5 mm. Blackish-brown ; legs, antennae and mandibles 
castaneous brown, the middle portion of all the femora darker. 
This form differs from the type of the species by the presence of a 
well-defined, but not deep, meso-epinotal suture, and by the shape 
of the nodes. The 1st node, seen from above, is subcorneal, the apex 
anterior, slightly wider than long ; it has a short, vertical, posterior 
face, and a vertical anterior face which is convex transversely. The 
2nd node is not quite twice as wide as long, a little wider than 
the 1st; below and in front, it has on each side an obtusely triangular 
tubercle. The basal third of the 1st abdominal segment is very 
closely rugulose and dull. The epinotal spines are strongly divergent, 
fairly short, not longer than their basal width. The episternal lobes 
are shorter than the epinotal teeth. The scape does not reach the 
posterior fifth of the head." 

Willowmore, Cape Prov. (Dr. H. Brauns.) (S.A.M., R.M., G.A. 
colls.) 

Race lugtjbre, Forel. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 54, p. 425, £ , 1910. 
" ^ . 4 - 4-4 - 5 mm. Brownish -black, the mandibles, antennae and 



294 Annals of the South African Museum. 

tarsi reddish, femora brownish. The head is a little longer than 
wide (wider than long in the type of the species), the sides slightly 
compressed, and with a fairly distinct border on the sides of the 
occiput, which is hardly visible in the type of the species. Antennae 
somewhat more slender : the 9th and 10th joints of the nagellum 
decidedly longer than wide (as wide as long in the type, hardly longer 
than wide in var. signatum, Emery). Meso-epinotal suture obsolete. 
Epinotal spines a little larger. The 1st node of the petiole is rounded 
in front, and not truncate and marginate above as in the type and 
in var. signata; it is wider and the sides are more convex; 2nd node 
also wider. Otherwise similar to the type of the species. Mossamedes 
(Picard)." 

Var. grootensis, Forel. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. 118, $ , $ , 1913. 

" $ . 6 mm. A little larger than the type. Thorax a little wider. 
The 1st node is entire and obtuse in front, without the emargination 
and the two partly effaced angles which are seen on the upper margin 
in front in the ? of the type. 

" S (?) 4 - 8 mm. With the $ I received a $ , which I refer to 
this species only with great doubt. 

" It has the wings of a Tetramorium, but has 12 joints to the 
antenna, which become progressively shorter from the 2nd joint 
onwards. The insect is dull, densely l-eticulate-punctate and rugose, 
except the abdomen which is smooth. Ei-ect pilosity abundant ; the 
nodes shaped as in soliclum. The epinotum is only bituberculate. 
Head wider than long, strongly narrowed in front." 

Dr. Forel adds that it may belong to a distinct species, but the 
analogies with solidum-grootensis permit of doubt on that point. 
Or it may be a case of atavism, returning to a condition in which 
12-jointed antennae were present. 

Willowmore, Cape Prov. (Dr. H. Brauns) ; types in my collection. 

T. sericeiventre, Emery, race femoratum, Emery. 

Ann. Mus. Civ. Genoa, vol. 9, p. 370, £ , 1877. 

(Eace) Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 37, $ , 1895. 

"Differs from the type of the species in having the 1st segment 
of the petiole longer, less excavated at the base above, and by 
having the 1st abdominal segment finely striate transversely, and 
not longitudinally as in the type ; the striatiou is visible only under 



A Monograph of the Formiciclae of South Africa. 295 

a strong magnification. The colour is very pale, of a reddish-yellow, 
the abdomen, femora and tibiae partly blackish. 

"Makapan, Bechuanaland. (Simon)." 

The type species has not yet been recorded from our region, it is 
characterised as follows : 

" £ . 27 mm. Dull ; ferruginous, abdomen brown, with the 
margins of the segments paler and the apex rusty. Head reticulate, 
finely granulate in between. Mandibles striate, the clypeus depressed 
in front, finely carinate in the middle, distinct from the frontal area. 
Frontal carinae produced backwards over three-quarters of the 
length of the head. The 12- jointed antennae are rather slender, 
the 1st joint of the flagellum is as long as the two following taken 
together; the club three-jointed, only slightly incrassate and distinctly 
shorter than the rest of the flagellum. The thorax is longitudinally 
rugose on the pro- and mesonotum, transversely so on the epinotum ; 
the meso-epinotal suture deep. The epinotum is armed with two 
nearly horizontal spines, slightly divergent, wide at the base,, fairly 
acute ; there are two smaller episternal spines below. The petiole is 
finely coriaceous, the node of the 1st segment is hardly longer than 
wide ; the 2nd segment is subglobose, a little wider behind, slightly 
transverse. The abdomen is dull, with a velvety, silky sheen, due 
to the very dense and fine striation. The whole body is sparsely 
clothed with pale hairs, not clavate ; those on the abdomen are 
longer." 

T. simoni, Emery. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 35, £, 1895. 

" ^ . 4 mm. Piceous ; mandibles, tarsi and articulations of the 
legs rufescent ; dull ; barely pilose and very sparsely pubescent. 
Head reticulate-rugose lengthwise, clypeus striato-rugose, mandibles 
very finely striate, meso-epinotal suture deep, pro-mesonotal suture 
obsolete. Pro-mesonotum strongly convex, coarsely rugoso-reticulate, 
the convex epinotum also, but without the coarse reticulations. 
Epinotum armed with two minute spines, erect, acute ; episternal 
teeth absent. Nodes of petiole subequal, globose, hardly more finely 
reticulate than the epinotum. The abdomen subopaque, very finely 
punctured, the extreme base striolate. 

" Malcapan, Bechuanaland. (E. Simon). 

" Remarkable on account of the profile of the thorax and petiole, 
which forms a series of l'ounded bosses, and also by the sculpture. 
The latter consists of a network of coarse rugae, mostly longitudinal. 



296 Annals of the South African Museum. 

on the middle of the head and on the dorsum of the thorax. The 
coarsest rugae are on the pro-mesonotum, those of the head, epinotum 
and petiole becoming successively finer. In addition to the reticula- 
tions, there is a fundamental puncturation, which is fairly close and 

more or less visible, The frontal carinae ai-e produced 

backwards as feeble ridges, hardly more pronounced than the neigh- 
bouring rugae, and forming no distinct scrobe." 

T. jatjresi, Eorel. (Plate VII, fig. 99.) 
Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat, vol. 50, p. 226, £ , 1914. 

ty. 4 - 3-4*7 mm. Dark brown, abdomen piceous, femora and 
middle portion of the scapes lighter brown ; tibiae, tarsi, flagellum, 
base and apex of the scape, and the mandibles brownish-yellow. A 
few yellowish hairs on the clypeus and apex of abdomen, otherwise 
without pilosity. Pubescence very short and scanty, almost absent on 
the body, a little more noticeable on the legs and antennae. The 
middle of the head above, longitudinally striate. The clypeus has a 
median carina which is continued back to the posterior margin of the 
head ; sides of the head finely reticulate, somewhat more coarsely so 
on the anterior half, which is also partly rugose. Pronotum very 
finely and longitudinally striato-rugulose ; mesonotum smooth and 
shining in the middle, faintly striate at the sides ; epinotum, nodes, 
and basal half of abdomen closely and finely reticulate and dull. The 
rest of the abdomen, and also a narrow median area on the 1st node, 
slightly shining and almost smooth. 

Head about one-fifth longer than wide, the sides parallel, the 
posterior angles rounded, the hind margin shallowly concave. The 
scapes extend back almost as far as the hind margin of the head and 
are rather strongly curved near the base ; 2nd-8th joints of the 
flagellum wider than long. Eyes fairly large and prominent, convex, 
placed in the middle of the sides. Scrobes absent. Mandibles 
shining, finely striate, armed with 7 small and obtuse teeth, the 
masticatory margin black. Pronotum truncate in front, the face so 
formed short, the shoulders obtuse. Thoracic sutures obsolete. 
Mesonotum with a slight angular enlargement on each side behind 
the middle. Epinotum moderately oblique, the dorsum one and a 
half times longer than wide, widest near the base. The declivity is 
almost vertical, hardly half as long as the dorsum, margined at the 
sides by a ridge which ends above and below in the teeth. The 
epinotal teeth are shorter than the interval between their bases, as 
long as wide at the base, divergent, directed obliquely upwards ; 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 297 

episternal teeth as long and as wide as the epinotal. Peduncle of the 
1st segment of the petiole shorter than the node ; the latter is as long 
as wide, convex at the sides, narrowed towards the median line above, 
the anterior and posterior faces almost vertical ; the ventral lamella 
is produced at its extreme base into a small subacute tooth. The 
2nd node is transversely oval, one-tliii*d wider than long, a little 
wider than the 1st. Abdomen narrowly truncate at the base. Femora 
swollen in the middle. 

Park Rynie, Natal. (H. W. Marley.) (S.A.M., R.M., G.A. colls.) 

V 
T. simulator, n. sp. (Plate VII, fig. 102.) 

$. 4 - 7-5 mm. Head, antennae, mandibles, thorax, nodes, and 
femora dark castaneOus, abdomen piceous, tibiae and tarsi dark 
yellowish-red. Head and sides of thorax nitidulous, dorsum of thorax, 
nodes, and abdomen shining. Antennae, legs, nodes, and abdomen 
with a short, scanty, and decumbent pubescence ; head and thorax 
glabrous. Head strongly and longitudinally striate, more strongly 
so below the demi-scrobes than between them, the demi-scrobes finely 
reticulate-punctate. Clypeus with a median carina, and two or three 
strong lines on each side of same. Pro-mesonotum sparsely and 
longitudinally striate, the striae somewhat effaced towards the middle, 
also very shallowly and sparsely punctate, the epinotum fairly closely 
striato-rugose, except the space between the spines, and the declivity, 
which are smooth and shining. Sides of thorax fairly closely longi- 
tudinally striate, the outer sides of the epinotal spines finely rugulose. 
Nodes of petiole faintly rugulose and sparsely punctate, the punctures 
fairly strong. Abdomen sparsely, finely, and sharply punctate. Legs 
very shallowly and sparsely punctate. Head, excluding the mandibles, 
slightly longer than wide, widest in the middle, the sides feebly convex, 
the posterior angles slightly rounded and prominent, the posterior 
margin shallowly concave. Eyes large and convex, placed a little 
behind the middle of the sides. Mandibles large, triangular, sharply 
striate and also sparsely and strongly punctate, armed with 7 large 
teeth. Anterior "margin of clypeus feebly convex. Frontal carinae 
subparallel, extending back almost to the occipital margin, and form- 
ing the upper boundary of the demi-scrobes. Scapes not x*eaching 
the occipital margin. Flagellum thick, the 1st joint as long as the 
2nd and 3rd together, the 2nd-8th wider than long, the 9th and 10th 
subequal and a little longer than wide, the apical joint half as long 
again as wide. Shoulders of the pronotum angular. Thoracic sutures 
obsolete. The thorax is fairly elongate, slightly narrowed between 



298 Annals of the South African Museum. 

the pro- and mesonotum, more strongly so between the latter and the 
epinotum, not marginate laterally, the sides vertical, the dorsal profile 
horizontal. The dorsum of the epinotum is narroAvest at the base and 
widest at the basal third ; epinotal spines subparallel, directed back- 
wards and very little upwards, acute, compressed laterally, shorter 
than the interval between their bases and not longer than their basal 
width. The declivity is vertical, hardly half as long as the dorsum, 
marginate at the sides, the margins continued below into the rather 
short and rounded episternal teeth or lobes. Peduncle of the 1st 
segment of the petiole thick, less than half as long as the node ; the 
latter truncate in front, the anterior face vertical, the posterior face 
short, rounded above and subvertical. The node is quite one-third 
longer than wide, widest at its posterior third, convex transversely 
above, the sides feebly convex. The 2nd node is almost hemispherical, 
widest behind, nearly twice as wide as the 1st node. Abdomen oval, 
the 1st segment longer than wide, and forming almost the whole of 
the dorsum. All the femora swollen in the middle. 

Malindi, S. Rhodesia ; preying on termites. 

At first sight this species bears a resemblance to T. (Xiphomyrmex) 
decern, Forel, but is easily distinguished from it by its larger size and 
the 12- join ted antennae. 

(S.A.M., R.M., G-.A. colls.) ; type in my collection. 

T. lobtjlicorne^ Santschi. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 84, p. 504, £ , 1916. 

5 . 3' 5 mm. Reddish-yellow-brown (raw umber), the abdomen 
reddish-brown, the anterior fourth of the head, the mandibles, 
antennae and legs ochreous or reddish-yellow. A sparse and short 
pubescence on the legs and antennae, wanting elsewhere. The 
pilosity consists of short, suberect, blunt and yellowish hairs, very 
scanty on the head and thorax, a little more abundant on the nodes 
and abdomen. Head, between the frontal carinae, fairly strongly and 
longitudinally striate, the sides of the head in front of the eyes 
and the cheeks longitudinally rugose and reticulate, the demiscrobes, 
especially on their posterior halves, closely and finely reticulate. 
Thorax reticulate-rugose, the rugae uneven and emphasised longi- 
tudinally, shallowly reticulate-punctate between the rugae. The 
apical half of the epinotum and the peduncle of the petiole closely 
reticulate-punctate or granulate. Nodes sparsely rugose, reticulate- 
punctate and dull. Abdomen shining, microscopically rugulose. 
Thorax subopaque, head slightly shining. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 299 

Head, excluding the mandibles, a little more than one-fifth longer 
than wide, the sides moderately convex, the posterior angles widely 
rounded, the posterior margin shallowly concave, not much narrower 
in front than behind. Eyes not large, placed just in front of the 
middle of the sides. Median area of clypeus longer than it is wide 
across the middle, the anterior margin narrowly excised in the middle, 
the median carina feeble, not stronger than the lateral striae. Frontal 
carinae extending back as well-defined ridges almost to the posterior 
margin and forming the upper boundary of the shallow demiscrobes. 
Scapes incrassate apically, not reaching the posterior margin of the 
head ; 2nd-8th joints of the flagellum wider than long, the club 
longer than the rest of the flagellum. Mandibles finely and closely 
striate, feebly punctured, armed with 6 or 7 teeth, the posterior four 
indistinct. 

Thorax constricted at the meso-epinotal suture, the latter distinct 
but not deep. Shoulders of pronotum rounded ; pronotum convex in 
front. Pro-mesonotal suture feebly defined. Mesonotum marginate 
at the sides, the raised margins being continued along the dorsum 
of the epinotum as far as the base of the spines. Dorsum of 
epinotum widest at the base, a little longer than wide, joining the 
declivity in a gentle curve ; the declivity fairly steep, as long as 
the dorsum. Epinotal spines subacute, directed obliquely upwards, 
shorter than the interval between their bases, as long as their basal 
width, and not much longer than the broad episternal teeth. The 
peduncle of the 1st segment of the petiole is longer or as long as 
the node, and is rather wide, being almost as wide as the node. 
The latter is vertically truncate and convex from side to side in 
front, a little wider than long, the upper surface slopes steeply 
backwards into a short posterior face. The 2nd node is subglobose, 
two-thirds wider than, and a little longer than the 1st node. 
Abdomen oblong, the 1st segment a little longer than wide and 
forming nearly the whole of the dorsum. Femora only slightly 
swollen. 

$ . 3 - 5 mm. Black, antennae and legs reddish-brown, the 
articulations and tarsi paler, mandibles ferruginous. Frontal carinae 
wider apart than in the ^ • Pronotum transversely rugose ; meso- 
notum and scutellum strongly and fairly densely longitudinally 
striate ; dorsum of the epinotum short, oblique, transversely striate 
at the sides, reticulate-punctate in the middle, shorter than the 
declivity. Wings tinged with yellow, nervures pale yellow, stigma 
brownish-yellow. Otherwise like the £> . 

J . 3'4 mm. Black, legs, antennae and mandibles pale brownish- 



300 Annals of the South African Museum. 

yellow. Head dull, closely reticulate -punctate, sparsely striate 
between the frontal carinae and the ocelli. Mesonotum very sparsely 
punctured, and with faint traces of a longitudinal striation on its 
posterior half, otherwise smooth and shining. Scutellum dull, finely 
longitudinally rugulose. Dorsum of the epinotum, the upper 
two-thirds of the declivity, and the nodes finely reticulate ; the sides 
of the epinotum faintly striate lengthwise. Abdomen smooth and 
shining. 

Head widest in front, nearly as long as wide, the sides and hind 
margin moderately convex, the posterior angles widely rounded. 
Eyes fairly large, placed in the anterior third of the head, and 
almost touching the base of the mandibles in front. The scapes 
extend back as far as the posterior ocelli. Frontal carinae well 
defined, widely divergent posteriorly. Mayrian furrows of the 
mesonotum distinct ; mesonotum very convex and gibbous in front ; 
scutellum semi-circular. Epinotum with two feeble lateral ridges at 
the apical angles of the dorsum, the latter as long as the oblique 
declivity. Episternal lobes large. Nodes thicker than in the ? ; 
the peduncle of the 1st segment not distinctly defined (as is usually 
the case in the <$ $ of this genus), merging insensibly into the 
node. 

Bulawayo. (S.A.M., R.M., G-.A. colls.) 

T. Emerti, Mayr. 

Ann. K.K.N.H. Mus. Wien, vol. 16, p. 23, $, $ , J, 1901. 

" ^ . 3 - 5 mm. Red-brown, the mandibles, antennae and legs 
paler, head and abdomen dark brown. The pilosity is most abundant 
on the abdomen, and consists of partly pointed, partly blunt bristly 

hairs, Antennae and legs with a fairly abundant and 

oblique pubescence. Mandibles shining, smooth, sparsely and coarsely 
punctured, and also very finely and shallowly striate, more densely 
striate on the outer side near the base, armed usually with 7 teeth, 
the anterior pair large, the others small and indistinct. Head 
rectangular, the angles rounded, a little longer than wide, very little 
narrower in front than behind, coarsely striate (the clypeus finely 
striate), shining between the striae, partly smooth and partly 
punctate or rugulose, the sides and back of the head coarsely 
reticulate. Anterior margin of clypeus straight, without any 
emargination. The frontal carinae, and the fairly deep demiscrobes, 
extend back as far as the level of the eyes, the demiscrobes not 
much longer than the scapes ; 3rd-6th joints of the flagellum 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 301 

distinctly wider than long. Eyes placed in about the middle of the 
sides of the head. The fairly robust thorax is narrower than the 
head, with obtuse and not prominent shoulders, coarsely reticulate 
above, finely rugulose or punctate between the meshes, and seen in 
profile, straight from the front to the pro-mesonotal suture, and 
also straight from the latter to the epinotal teeth ; these two planes 
meet in an obtuse and rounded angle. The meso-epinotal suture is 
not very distinct, and the dorsum of the epinotum is only slightly 
depressed. The latter is longer than wide, feebly concave transversely 
behind ; the epinotal teeth are wide, almost blunt, fairly erect and 

moderately divergent ; episternal teeth rectangular, the 

sides of the thorax are in greater part finely and closely reticulate- 
punctate. Petiole moderately coarsely reticulate-rugulose and finely 
punctured ; the peduncle of the 1st segment moderately long, the 
node a little wider than long, the 2nd segment hardly as long as, and 
somewhat wider than the 1st node. Abdomen smooth and shining, 
with scattered piligerous punctures; the base of the 1st segment 
more or less distinctly and longitudinally striate. 

" ? . 45 mm. Very much like the ^ . The mesonotum and 
scutellum rugoso- striate lengthwise, the dorsum of the epinotum 
transversely rugose, the sides of the thorax longitudinally rugose 
and also closely and finely reticulate- punctate. The wings slightly 
infuscate, with pale yellow nervures. Otherwise like the ^ . 

" <$ . 4T-42 mm. Shining, brown, the mandibles, antennae and 
legs, particularly the last four tarsal joints, brownish-yellow. The 
long pilosity is scanty, more abundant on the ventral surface of the 
abdomen ; the antennae and legs have only short, fine and oblique 
hairs. Head fairly coarsely and longitudinally rugoso-striate and 
finely reticulate, between the eyes and ocelli finely reticulate-punctate, 
the ocellar area transversely rugose, the back of the head unevenly 
rugose and finely reticulate. In the 7 specimens before me, the 
antennae are 13-jointed, the scape extends back as far as the anterior 
ocellus, the 1st joint of the fiagellum is a little longer than wide, 
and wider than the 2nd joint, which is two and a half times, or a 
little more, longer than wide. The head is gradually narrowed from 
behind the eyes to the posterior angles, so that the latter project 
outwards and are almost dentiform, as in the $ of T. guineense. 
Thorax fairly finely and longitudinally rugose, the dorsum and 
declivity of the epinotum finely and closely reticulate. Wings as in 
the $ . The segments of the petiole are slender, much more so than 
in guiueense, the 2nd segment hardly wider than long. The abdomen 
in greater part smooth. Port Elizabeth." 



302 Annals of the South African Museum. 

It is to be noted that in the <$ $ of this species, the 2nd-5th joints 
of the flagellum remain separate, instead of being fused into one 
joint, as is the rule in the genus. 



Race ceistttlattjm, Forel. 
Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr. Beiheft, p. 218, £ , $, 1913. 

$ . 4 - 3 mm. Very dark brown or black, the pro-mesonotum 
somewhat paler or dark reddish-brown, the antennae, tibiae and 
tarsi yellowish-brown, femora brown, mandibles brownish-red, This 
race differs from the type of the species by its larger size, and by 
the more angular junction of the pro- and mesonotum. The 3rd-6th 
joints of the flagellum are as wide as long (wider than long in the 
type). The head is also more coarsely reticulate between the striae, 
and is also a little wider behind. The meso-epinotal suture is 
indicated by a raised line. Otherwise like the type. 

9 • 5 mm. (Hitherto undescribed.) Pronotum moderately ex- 
posed above in the middle, more exposed at the sides, the pronotal 
shoulders subangular. Pronotum very coarsely and transversely 
reticulate-rugose ; mesonotum and scutellum strongly and longi- 
tudinally striate, the epinotum transversely striate, more closely and 
finely so on the declivity than elsewhere. Dorsum of epinotum 
sloping steeply downwards, slightly longer than the vertical declivity; 
the epinotal teeth are represented by elongate tubercles, much smaller 
than the teeth of the $ . Wings slightly smoky, nervures and stigma 
pale yellow. Otherwise like the $ . 

$ . 4' 7-5 mm. Black, antennae, legs and mandibles yellowish- 
brown. Head more or less lozenge-shaped, widest across the eyes, 
wider in front than behind, without a distinct posterior margin like 
that of the type, in which the head is shorter and wider behind. 
Mesonotum very gibbous and convex in front, overhanging the 
pronotum, which is thereby entirely hidden from above. Epinotum 
unarmed, the dorsum merging into the declivity by a gradual curve ; 
the declivity fairly steep. The 1st node is more pointed above than 
in the type. Eyes very large and convex, occupying quite half of 
the sides of the head, and almost touching the base of the mandibles 
in front. As in the type of the species, the 2nd joint of the flagellum 
in some specimens is redivided into two or more of its component 
segments. 

Willowmore, Cape Prov. (Dr. H. Brauns.) (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. 
colls.) 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 303 

T. Joffrei, Forel. (Plate VII, fig. 97.) 
Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat., vol. 50, p. 228, £ , 1914. 

^ • 3 - 5-3*6 ram. Piceous, legs yellowish-brown, antennae and 
mandibles somewhat reddish-brown. Head sometimes paler. Pilosity 
yellowish, fairly long, composed of thin and pointed hairs, not very 
abundant. Legs and antennae with a scanty yellowish pubescence, 
which is absent from the body. Moderately shining, strongly rugose, 
longitudinally so on the head, and reticulate-rugose on the thorax. 
The rugae on the head connected by a few transverse branches. 
Apical half of the dorsum and the declivity of the epinotum, the 
nodes and abdomen smooth and shining. Head slightly longer than 
wide, the sides moderately convex, the posterior margin almost 
straight, the posterior angles rounded, hardly narrower in front 
than behind. Eyes occupying about one-quarter of the sides, placed 
a little in front of the middle. The frontal carinae extend back as 
strong ridges nearly as far as the occiput, and form the upper 
boundary of the demiscrobes, which are smooth and fairly deep. 
The scapes do not reach the occipital margin ; 2nd-7th joints of the 
flagellum wider than long. Clypeus coarsely and sparsely rugose, 
with a strong median carina. Mandibles closely and finely striate, 
armed with two distinct teeth in front, and five obtuse and smaller 
teeth behind. Pronotum submarginate in front and at the sides, 
the shoulders rounded. Pro-mesonotal suture feeble, meso-epinotal 
suture shallow and wide. Dorsum of epinotum longer than wide, 
hardly wider at the base than at the apex, a little longer than the 
vertical declivity ; the latter marginate at the sides. Epinotal spines 
very long, acute, strongly divergent and not very oblique, much 
longer than the interval between their bases and as long as the 
dorsum of the epinotum. Episternal teeth small. Peduncle of the 
1st segment of the petiole as long as the node ; the latter much 
higher than long, truncate in front, the anterior dorsal margin 
convex transversely, the dorsal face convex lengthwise and sloping 
downwards posteriorly ; seen from above, about as wide as long and 
wider in front than behind. 2nd node transversely oval, three-quarters 
wider than long, and a little wider than the 1st. Abdomen decidedly 
convex above. 

9 . 4 - 2 mm. Sides of the head behind the eyes more convex 
than in the <J . Pronotum coarsely reticulate-rugose. Mesonotum 
and scutellum sharply striate, the striae larger and wider apart on 
the scutelluui. Epinotum longitudinally rugose at the sides and 
above, near the base, fairly smooth elsewhere. Dorsum of the 
epinotum short, sloping from its base downwards to the longer and 

20 



304 Annals of the South African Museum. 

vertical declivity. Epinotal spines relatively shorter than in the $ , 
hardly divergent, not directed upwards as in the $ , but nearly 
horizontal. Nodes wider, the anterior dorsal margin of the 1st node 
less convex than in the ^ • Wings tinged with dirty yellow, nervures 
and stigma pale yellow. 

Durban ; nesting in a rotten and very moist tree stump. (S.A.M., 
E.M., G.A. colls.) 

V 

Yar. Algoa, n. v. 

$ . 35 mm. Differing from the type in the following characters. 
The colour is darker, on the body quite black. The demiscrobes 
are wider and deeper and more distinctly defined externally. The 
sculpture of the thorax is weaker, and almost effaced on the middle 
of the mesonotum. Pro-mesonotal suture obsolete, meso-epinotal 
shallower and narrower. Epinotal spines shorter, hardly as long as 
the dorsum of the epinotum, much more oblique and less divergent 
than in the type. The dorsal (posterior-dorsal) face of the 1st node 
is longer, a little longer than wide, and the 2nd node is longer and 
more convex above. 

$ . Like the $ of the type but a little smaller. The sculpture 
of the thorax is weaker, the anterior third of the mesonotum smooth 
and shining ; the epinotal spines nearly horizontal. 

The resemblance of this variety to T. Grassi and its var. laevigatum, 
Mayr, is even greater than in the type of the species. Joffrei and 
Grassi are evidently very closely allied. 

Port Elizabeth. ' (Dr H. Brauns.) (S.A.M., E.M., G-.A. colls.) ; 
type in my collection. 

T. Grassi, Emery. (Plate VII, fig. 105.) 

Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 37, $ , $ (?), 1895. 

Mayr, Ann. K.K.N.H. Mus. Wien, vol. 16, p. 25, $, 1901. 

^ . 2 - 7-3 mm. Brown, legs, antennae, mandibles and petiole 
brownish-yellow. Pilosity yellow, very sparse ; pubescence short, 
oblique, very sparse and present only on the legs and antennae. 
Head fairly strongly and longitudinally striate or striato-rugose, 
the striae rather wide apart, the sides of the head reticulate- 
rugose. Thorax longitudinally rugoso-reticulate, the rugae somewhat 
discontinuous, the median portion of the mesonotum smooth. Head 
and thorax moderately shining ; declivity of epinotum, petiole and 
abdomen smooth and shining. 

Head subrectangular, about as long as wide, a little narrower in 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 305 

front than behind, the sides moderately convex, the hind margin 
straight. Distinct demiscrobes present; the frontal carinae extend 
backwards as far as the posterior margin of the head, 2nd-8th joints 
of the flagellum wider than long. Clypeus with a strong median 
carina, and two weaker and broken lines on each side of it. 
Mandibles finely striate, armed with three distinct teeth in front, 
feebly denticulate behind. Sides of pro-mesonotum indistinctly 
marginate, the shoulders of the pronotum obtusely angular. Thoracic 
sutures obsolete. Dorsum of epinotum oblique, a little longer than 
wide, as long as, or a little longer than the declivity. The epinotal 
spines are longer than the interval between their bases, but shorter 
than the dorsum of the epinotum, divergent, acute and fairly oblique. 
Petiole similar to that of Joffrei, but the dorsal face of the 1st node 
is fairly distinct from the short posterior face, not forming a con- 
tinuous curve as in Joffrei. The femora are but slightly swollen in 
the middle. 

$ . 3*5 mm. The colour of the thorax is rather darker than in 
the $ . Pronotum reticulate-rugose, the sides and posterior third 
of the mesonotum longitudinally striate, the anterior two-thirds 
smooth. The dorsum of the epinotum is almost obsolete, being in 
very nearly the same plane as the declivity. The epinotal spines are 
parallel and nearly horizontal. Dealated. Otherwise like the £ . 

Table Mountain ; making small nests under stones in the pine 
woods. (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 

Var. laevigatum, Mayr. 
Ann. K.K.N.H. Mus. Wien, vol. 16, p. 25, £ , 1901. 

" The U differs from that of the type Species in having the thorax 
smooth, from the anterior margin of the pronotum as far as the 
epinotal spines." Port Elizabeth. (Dr. H. Brauns.) 

I possess some specimens from this locality, collected by Dr. Brauns, 
which appear to belong to this variety. The dorsum of the thorax is 
in greater part smooth, but there are distinct, though fine, short 
rugae near the lateral and anterior margins of the pro-mesonotum, 
and on the basal half of the epinotum. The size is a little larger, 
3 - 4 mm. 

Var. simulans, Santschi. 

Goteborgs E. Vetens. och Vitterh. Handl. XV, 2, p. 24, ? , 1914. 

" ^ . Brownish-black, abdomen black. Mandibles, antennae, 
tarsi and peduncle of the petiole rusty-red, the middle of the femora 



306 Annals of the South African Museum. 

and tibiae brownish. Larger than the type, 3'3-3 - 5 ram., and still 
more resembling Xiphomyrmex Weitzaeclceri, Em., the colour and 
pubescence being the same. The sculpture differs from that of 
Weitzaeclceri but little, the rugae not being effaced on the thorax. 
The epinotal spines are nearly twice as long as the interval between 
their bases. The 1st node forms a scale, as abrupt in front as 
behind, a little wider than thick. Otherwise like the type of Grassi" 
Richmond, Natal. (Traegaordh.) 

T. guineense, Fab. 

Ent. Syst. II, p. 357, 5 , 1793. 

Ny lander (Myrmiea bicarianata) , Act. Soc. Fenn. II, 3, p. 1061, 

$, 1846. 

Mayr (Myrmiea Kollari), Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, III, p. 283, 

S 1853. 

This species, whose original home was probably West Africa, has 
spread over a large part of the Tropics in both hemispheres, and has 
also been introduced into hot-houses in temperate countries. I have 
no records of it having been taken in our region, but as it is almost 
certain to be found sooner or later, I append a description of the £ • 
It is smaller than the various races and varieties which are described 
further on. 

^ . 3 - 5 mm. Head, thorax, and nodes bright reddish-yellow, 
abdomen brownish-black, legs and antennae ochreous yellow, the base 
of the 1st, and the apical margins of the remaining abdominal 
segments yellowish. The pilosity is fairly abundant on the body, and 
consists of long, erect, blunt, and rather thick hairs, which are some- 
what shorter and oblique on the head. Antennae and legs with a 
rather long, oblique, and yellowish pubescence, which is absent from 
the body. Vertex of the head between the demi-scrobes, thorax, and 
nodes strongly reticulate-rugose. The rugae, near the middle line of 
the head, are emphasised longitudinally, and the meshes there and on 
the pronotum are very wide, the spaces between the network shining 
and fairly smooth. In some specimens the reticulations become 
closer and less sharp on the meso- and epinotum, and even more so on 
the 2nd node. The sides of the head and thorax are more closely 
reticulate than elsewhere. Abdomen smooth and shining. 

Head, excluding the mandibles, nearly one-sixth longer than wide, 
hardly narrower in front than behind, a little more convex behind the 
eyes than in front of them, the hind margin nearly straight. Eyes 
placed in the middle of the sides, convex, and prominent. Clypeus 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 307 

with a median carina, and a lateral one on each side. Scape not 
reaching the posterior margin, somewhat curved near the base, 
2nd-8th joints of the flagellum wider than long, 2nd-5th twice as wide 
as long. Mandibles very finely striate, dull, armed with 7 teeth, the 
posterior four small. Pro-mesonotal suture obsolete, meso-epinotal 
suture indistinct above. Shoulders of the pronotum angular. Dorsum 
of the thorax marginate in front and at the sides, the margin uneven, 
being formed by the outermost rugae. The rugae of the head, 
thorax, and 1st node are brownish, darker than the ground colour. 
Thorax narrowed at the meso-epinotal suture, widening immediately 
behind the same at the base of the epinotum and thence narrowed 
again towards the spines. Seen in profile, the dorsum of the thorax 
is fairly straight except in front, where the pronotum joins the rneso- 
notum in an obtuse and indistinct angle. The dorsum of the epinotum 
is a little longer than wide ; the declivity is vertical and striate on its 
upper half. The epinotal spines are acute, moderately divergent, 
directed obliquely upwards, longer than the interval between their 
bases and longer than their basal width. Episternal teeth acute, less 
than half as long as the epinotal. Peduncle of the 1st segment 
of the petiole shorter than the node ; the latter, seen from above, 
hexagonal, the anterior lateral sides longest, wider behind than in 
front, the dorsal surface moderately convex ; seen from the side, the 
anterior face is shorter than the posterior ; the ventral lamella is 
produced into a minute tooth at the base of the peduncle. Second 
node transversely ovate or subglobose, one-quarter wider than long, 
and wider than the 1st node. Abdomen oval. Femora moderately 
swollen. 

Var. erecttjm, Emery. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 37, £ , 1895. 

" Differs from the type by being more robust and a little larger. 
The petiole is a little thicker, the nodes rounder. The epinotal spines 
fairly short but nearly erect, their posterior margin, in profile, being 
the continuation of the declivity, and nearly perpendicular to the 
dorsum of the thorax. The base of the 1st abdominal segment is 
more distinctly striate than in the type. Vrijburg, Bechuanaland. 
(Simon)." 

Var. phasias, Forel. 
Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat., vol. 50, p. 226, £ , 1914. ' 
$ . 3*6 mm. Yellow, the abdomen and nodes, clypeus and 
antennae more reddish-yellow. The sculpture is a little more 



308 Annals of the South African Museum. 

superficial than in the type, from which it differs, like the race 
striatum, in the much more angular junction of the pro- and meso- 
notum. The 1st node is also narrower above, and the base of the 1st 
abdominal segment more distinctly sti'iate. The frontal carinae are 
more prominent than in the type. 

Durban. (C. B. Cooper.) (E.M., G-.A. colls.) 

Eace striatum, Stitz. 
Mitth. Zool. Mus. Berlin, vol. 5, p. 144, $ , 1910. 

^ . 4"6 mm. Head, antennae, and nodes yellowish-red, thorax 
reddish-yellow, abdomen and legs bright ochreous yellow, the abdomen 
sometimes more or less brownish-yellow. Differs from the type by 
the stronger sculpture. The frontal carinae are decidedly stronger, 
forming prominent ridges bordering the demiscrobes. The junction 
of the pro- and mesonotum, seen in profile, is much more angular, 
even more so than in var. Phasias. The pro-mesonotal suture is 
indicated by a dark transverse ridge. First node of the petiole more 
abruptly truncate in front, the anterior face as long as the posterior. 
The sculpture of the 2nd node as strong as that of the 1st (distinctly 
weaker in the type and var. Phasias). The basal third of the 1st 
abdominal segment finely and longitudinally striate, and rather dull. 

9 . 5 mm. Mesonotum and scutellum longitudinally reticulate- 
rugose ; the posterior two-thirds of the mesonotum flat. Pronotum 
not much exposed above, the shoulders much less angular than in 
the ^ • Dorsum of epinotum moderately oblique, as long as it is wide 
between the spines. Wings hyaline, nervures and stigma pale yellow. 
Otherwise like the £ . 

£ . 4 - 2 mm. Head yellowish-brown, thorax and abdomen brownish- 
yellow, the parapsidal sutures of the mesonotum and the margins 
of the scutellum darker, legs, antennae, and mandibles ochreous. 
Pilosity and pubescence much sparser than in the $ . Head and 
nodes subopaque, thorax and abdomen nitidulous. Head finely 
reticulate, with a few fine longitudinal striae' on the vertex in front 
of the ocelli, and also some oblique striae behind them ; between the 
eyes and antennal sockets transversely striate. Thorax and nodes 
longitudinally striate, very finely and fairly closely so on the meso- 
notum and scutellum and 2nd node, more coarsely so on the epinotum 
and 1st node ; the latter are also partly reticulate, and the epinotum 
is also closely and shallowly punctate between the striae. Head 
narrower behind the eyes than in front, the posterior margin straight 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 309 

and reflected to form a collar, with prominent lateral angles. Eyes 
large, occupying nearly the whole of the anterior half of the sides ; 
ocelli large and prominent. Frontal carinae extend back almost as 
far as the anterior ocellus. Mandibles small, dentate. Scape not 
extending back as far as the anterior ocellus, twice as thick as the 
2nd joint of the flagellum ; the latter is longer than the scape and 
the 1st joint taken together. Pronotum slightly exposed above at the 
shoulders. Mayrian furrows well defined. Mesonotum separated 
from the scutellum by a wide and clathrate groove. The dorsum of 
the epinotum not distinctly delimited from the declivity, the profile 
of the epinotum forming a continuous curve from base to apex. 
First node of petiole somewhat pyriform, the ventral lamella produced 
into a rather large tooth near the base. Second node at least half as 
wide again as the 1st, wider than long, only slightly convex transversely. 
Wings as in the 9 . 

S. Rhodesia. Common in grassy soil. The entrance to the nest 
consists of one or more holes, which are rarely surrounded by mounds 
of earth. (S.A.M., R.M., G.A. colls.) 



T. bacchus, Forel. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 54, p. 426, £ , 1910. 

" ^ . 3 - 7 mm. Mandibles smooth, shining, with small scattered 
punctures, armed with 7 teeth, the posterior ones indistinct. Clypeus 
without a carina, the anterior border emarginate in the middle. Head 
as in guineense, but much wider, hardly longer than wide, distinctly 
narrowed in front. Club of the antenna more slender, composed of 
almost four joints. Thorax, especially the pronotum, decidedly wider 
than in guineense, and much more convex lengthwise, submarginate ; 
meso-epinotal suture a little stronger. Epinotal teeth more vertical, 
a little shorter, wider at the base, not curved at the extremity ; 
episternal teeth a little shorter. Nodes of the petiole thicker, wider 
and more rounded than in guineense. The 1st node is not truncate in 
front, but rounded, and with its peduncle forms a single concave curve 
in profile ; it is also rounded and much less truncate behind. Sculpture 
as in guineense, but closer, a little finer and less shining ; base of the 
abdomen longitudinally striate. Pilosity as in guineense. Brownish- 
red, legs paler ; abdomen a little darker, more yellowish-brown ; darker 
than guineense excepting the abdomen, which is paler. 

"Natal (Haviland). Closely allied to guineense, but nevertheless 



310 Annals of the South African Museum. 

clearly distinct ; larger, more robust, the mandibles smooth, the spines 
differently shaped, as also the 1st node, etc." 

T. capense, Mayr. 

Reise der Novara, Zool. Formicidae, p. 89, $ , 1865. 

Emery, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 36, $ , $ , 1895. 

" £ • 3*5 mm. This species bears a great resemblance to guineense, 
but nevertheless is easily distinguished from it. Yellowish-red, the 
legs more yellow, the abdomen faintly brownish, the masticatory 
margin of the mandibles, and the eyes black. The pilosity is very 
sparse on the body, whereas it is much more plentiful in guineense. 
The feebly shining mandibles are sharply and longitudinally striate, 
with single punctures between the striae (in guineense the mandibles 
are shining, very shallowly striate, and not over the whole surface). 
The clypeus has several carinae or longitudinal rugae, but the median 
one is strong and is continued on to the frontal area ; the latter is 
distinctly delimited from the clypeus, which is not the case in 
guineense, and the frontal area itself is more distinct than in that 
species. Frons and vertex as in guineense. The sides of the head are 
coarsely reticulate also, but the rugae are emphasised longitudinally, 
which is not the case in guineense. The flagellum is somewhat longer 
and more slender. The thorax is short and fairly high, as in T. 
caespitum, whereas in guineense it is longer and lower. The thorax 
above is finely coriaceous and reticulate-rugose (or finely reticulate 
punctate), with fewer longitudinal striae, which disappear on the 
epinotum. . . . The epinotal spines are wider at the base than in 
guineense, the space between the spines smooth and shining, the sides 
of the thorax reticulate-punctate. The 1st node of the petiole is wider 
than long (in guineense as long as wide), both nodes are coarsely and 
shallowly rugose (coarsely reticulate in guineense). The abdomen 
shining, exceedingly finely coriaceous at the base." 

" $ . Petiole wider than in the ^ , the 1st node truncate in front, 
with the anterior margin straight, ending in an angle on each side ; 
the wings are hyaline, the stigma and nervures brownish-yellow. 
<$ . Testaceous. The head striate, the scutellum, epinotum, and 
petiole very finely punctured and dull, the rest shining ; mandibles 
shining, 5-dentate ; . . .in profile, the 1st segment of the petiole 
forms a rounded rectangle, the 2nd is hardly wider than long, excluding 
the articular portion." 

Capetown. (S.A.M. coll.) 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 311 

Var. Braunsi, Forel. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57. p. 119, £, 1913. 
Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr. (Beiheft), p. 220, 1913. 

" ^ . 3 - 5-4 mm. Differs from the type by its larger eyes, longer 
epinotal spines, and the hind margin of the head, which is more con- 
cave. Otherwise like the type." 

Willowmore, Cape Prov. (Dr. H. Brauns) ; East London (ex 
S.A.M. coll.) (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 

It is misleading to compare this species with guineense, as its author 
has done. This species and its var. Braunsi, have a very different 
facies. The total absence of wide and coarse reticulations on the head 
and thorax (the latter dull), and the form of the pro- and mesonotum, 
which in profile form only a very slight convexity, suffice to remove it 
fairly far from guineense. 

T. popovict, Forel. 
Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat., vol. 50, p. 230, £ , 1914. 

$. 3" 7 mm. Rather dark yellowish-red, the 1st abdominal seg- 
ment more brownish, legs yellow. Pilosity yellowish and very scanty, 
the hairs on the petiole and abdomen obtuse. Legs without pilose 
hairs, merely sparsely pubescent. Head longitudinally, rugoso-striate, 
the striae not very strong ; the sides of the head are reticulate-rugose, 
the spaces between the reticulations finely reticulate-punctate. Dorsum 
of thorax finely and more or less longitudinally rugulose. Sides of 
thorax longitudinally rugose, partly reticulate. Head and thoi-ax 
slightly shining. Nodes dull, shallowly and irregularly reticulate. 
Abdomen smooth and shining. 

Head a little wider behind than in front, a trifle longer than wide, 
the sides and posterior margin nearly straight, the posterior angles 
widely rounded. Eyes rather small, placed in the middle of the sides. 
Clypeus very narrowly excised in the middle of the anterior margin, 
longitudinally striate, the median carina feeble. Frontal carinae well 
defined, divergent in front, nearly parallel along their posterior half, 
extending back almost to the occipital margin, hardly forming a demi- 
scrobe. The scape falls short of the occipital margin by twice the 
diameter of the eye; 2nd-7th joints of the flagellum wider than long. 
Mandibles closely and longitudinally striate, armed with 7 teeth. 

Thorax rather short, the shoulders of the pronotum rounded. Pro- 
mesonotal suture absent, meso-epinotal suture shallow, the lateral 



312 Annals of the South African Museum. 

profile slightly constricted between the meso- and epinotum. A fine 
transverse ridge separates the pronotum from the mesonotum. From 
the ridge forwards, the pronotum slopes downwards to the neck (not 
vertically so, as described by Forel). Dorsum of the epinotum one 
and a half times longer than wide, widest at the basal third, longer 
than the declivity. Epinotal spines acute, longer than their basal 
width and a little longer than the space between their bases, slightly 
divergent, directed very obliquely upwards. Declivity subvertical, 
margined at the sides, the episternal teeth small and triangular. 
Peduncle of the petiole a little shorter than its node. The latter 
truncate in front, the anterior face shorter than the oblique posterior 
face. The dorsal and posterior faces, taken together, longer than 
wide, the anterior border above margined with a dark line. Second 
node shorter than the 1st, nearly twice as wide as long, wider than the 
1st, transversely oval. Femora only slightly swollen. 

9. 52 mm. (Hitherto undescribed.) Colour like that of the £, 
but a little darker; tegulae, metanotum, and posterior margin of the 
scutellum almost black. Sculpture of the head stronger than in the 
ty ; the frontal carinae more pronounced, mesonotum and scutellum 
shining, more so than in the ^ , closely and finely longitudinally 
striate. Epinotum rugulose above, and also partly reticulate-rugose at 
the sides. " Epinotal spines much more robust than in the ^ , acute, 
about as long as their basal width. Nodes much shorter and wider 
than in the £ ; the dorsal face of the 1st node more sharply delimited 
from the oblique posterior face, and nearly three times wider than 
long ; the 2nd node has the anterior face almost vertical and the sides 
subangularin the middle. Deiilated. Otherwise like the ^ . 

Table Mountain, 1500 ft. Under stones in the Pine woods. 
(S.A.M., P.M., G.A. colls.) 

T. grandinode, Santschi. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. 308, £ , 1913. 
" ^ . 45 mm. Black ; mandibles, antennae, tarsi, peduncle of 
1st node of the petiole, and the apex of the abdomen rusty red. 
Middle of the femora brownish. Sometimes a part of the 2nd node 
and the base of the abdomen very dark red. Shining. Strongly and 
regularly striate, the intervals between the striae smooth, or here 
and there, finely reticulate. Striae on the head longitudinal, those 
above diverging from the occiput and anastomosing behind the eyes 
with the striae from below. Transversely striate on the pronotum, 
longitudinally so on the rest of the thorax, the striae forming con- 
centric curves on the pronotum. Declivity of epinotum smooth, with 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 313 

a few transverse striae between the spines. The two nodes trans- 
versely striate above, smooth below. There are some long reddish 
hairs round the mouth and below it, and on the coxae and the ventral 
surface of the abdomen. Tarsi and antennae furnished with shorter 
hairs, which are fairly oblique and abundant. A very fine, short, and 
very sparse pubescence present all over, but more distinct on the 
abdomen. Head quadrate, angles rounded, sides nearly straight, 
a little narrower in front, the vertex fairly gibbous. Frontal carinae 
very divergent, reaching back as far as the middle of the head, and 
forming only a short demiscrobe for the basal third of the scape. 
Eyes one-fourth the length of the sides of the head, placed in the 
middle, the margin angular below. Mandibles smooth, with a few 
striae near their masticatory margin, feebly and sparsely punctate, 
armed with 6 rather short teeth. Clypeus only slightly convex, the 
anterior margin nearly straight. The scape extends back nearly to 
the vertex, 2nd-8th joints of the flagellum nearly as long as wide- 
Anterior portion of the pronotum flat, transversely margined, the 
shoulders forming prominent and acute angles. The rest of the 
pronotum forms an even convexity with the mesonotum (segment of 
a sphere). Meso-epinotal suture feebly indicated. Dorsum of the epi- 
notum horizontal in profile, convex transversely, not margined. Spines 
stout, as long as two-thirds of the dorsum of the epinotum, fairly high 
and divergent. Declivity concave, with a triangular tubercle in the 
lower part, and a lamelliform expansion on each side of the articulation 
with the petiole. First node squamiform, as wide as the middle of 
the thorax, much wider than high, trapezoidal, the upper margin 
narrower, the lateral margins compressed, obliqiie below ; the posterior 
face convex, especially in its upper half, which appears horizontal in 
profile ; the anterior face slightly concave from above to below, and 
convex from side to side. The peduncle is as long as the scale is 
high, and bears a very small tooth below at its base. Second node 
wider than the 1st, lower, three and a half times wider than long, 
convex above, the sides sharply marginate, trenchant, and arcuate, 
transverse in front and slightly convex behind. Below it bears a 
fairly thick and transverse appendage. Abdomen a little more than 
one-quarter wider than the 2nd node, truncate at the base." 
Cape of Grood Hope. 

Var. hopensis, Forel. (Plate VII, figs. 103, 103a, 1036.) 
Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat., vol. 50, p. 223, £ , $ , 1914. 
" $> . 49 mm. Differs from the type of the species by the 



314 Annals of the South African Museum.' 

2nd node of the petiole, which is narrower and lacks the flattened 
and translucid upturned edge at the sides. The spines are also a 
little shorter." Abdomen smooth and shining, and in some examples 
also very faintly rugulose over the 1st segment. 

$ . 6 mm. Somewhat lighter than the £ > more reddish-brown, 
especially the thorax, nodes, and legs. Pronotal angle only just 
visible from above, prominent but not acutely angular as in the ^ . 
The mesonotum is longitudinally striate, the scutellum and epinotum 
transversely striate, the striae on the former more or less concentric. 
The head is as wide as the thorax, not considerably wider as in the 
case of the ^ . The 1st segment of the petiole differs from that of 
the ^ in not having a dorsal face. It is very comrjressed from front 
to back, almost laminate throughout, so that the posterior surface 
forms one continuous and oblique face, from the dorsal edge above to 
the ventral edge below. The 2nd node, four times wider than long, 
4s on the contrary less rounded above, so that the anterior and 
posterior faces meet above in a fairly acute angle ; the dorsal edge 
formed by the junction of the two faces, is slightly sinuate, curving 
forwards at the sides. Epinotal spines shorter and less acute than 
in the ^ , and only very slightly divergent, very little longer than 
their basal width, and hardly longer than half the interval between their 
bases. Wings tinged with yellow, nervures and stigma pale yellow. 

Hopetown, Orange River. 

The description of the petiole in the type of the species is not very 
clear, and requires amendment. 

The 1st node is more or less squamiform, but much thicker above 
than below, so that there is a distinct, but short, dorsal face. This 
meets the almost vertical posterior face at right angles. The dorsal 
face becomes narrower, i. e. thinner, laterally and is curved down- 
wards and is continuous with the sides of the node or squame. The 
sides end below in somewhat projecting and obtuse angles, which are 
turned a little bit forwards. The 2nd node, which is fairly convex 
transversely, has the .posterior third of its sides strongly flattened 
dorso-ventrally (laminate), so as to form a trenchant' edge at its 
lateral margins. 

(S.A.M., G.A. colls.) 

T. squaminode, Santschi, Race do, Forel. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 79, p. 356, 1910. 
(Race) Bull. Soc. Yaud. Sc. Nat,, vol. 50, p. 224, £ , $ , $, 1914. 
$ . 3-3 - 2 mm. Light reddish- brown, the mandibles and antennae 
paler ; nodes dark brown, abdomen black, legs pale yellow. Pilosity 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 315 

scanty, composed of pale, erect, arid thick hairs, absent from the legs 
and antennae, which have only a short, decumbent and yellowish 
pubescence. Body without pubescence. 

Head longitudinally and strongly rugose between the frontal 
carinae, the rugae connected by a few transverse branches, the sides 
of the head more distinctly reticulate, the spaces between the rugae 
fairly smooth and shining ; scrobes finely reticulate-punctate. Clypeus 
tricarinate, the median carina the strongest. Thorax very coarsely 
reticulate-rugose, the meshes wide, and the spaces between the 
reticulations shining. The sides of the pi'onotum smooth and 
shining, the sides of the meso- and epinotum more or less longi- 
tudinally rugose, but finer than on the dorsum. Between the 
epinotal spines there are a few transverse striae ; the declivity, 
nodes, and abdomen smooth and shining. Head hardly longer than 
wide, a little narrower in front than behind, the posterior margin 
straight, the sides almost so, the posterior angles moderately rounded. 
Eyes moderately convex and large, placed in the middle of the sides. 
Frontal carinae prolonged back almost to the occipital margin, and 
forming below distinct demiscrobes for the scapes. The latter as 
long as the demiscrobes, the 2nd-8th joints of the flagellum much 
wider than long. Mandibles shining, sparsely and finely punctured, 
6-dentate, the posterior 4 teeth small and indistinct. Thorax mar- 
ginate, moderately constricted between the pro- and mesonotum, 
strongly so between the meso- and epinotum. Pro-mesonotal suture 
nearly obsolete above, meso-epiuotal broad and shallow. Shoulders 
of pronotum subjugular. Pronotum nearly as wide behind as in 
front, sloping fairly steeply downwards. Dorsum of epinotum about 
as long as wide, widened angularly near the base ; epinotal teeth 
divergent, directed obliquely upwards, acute, as long as, or a little 
longer than, the interval between their bases ; the declivity vertical, 
the episterual teeth small, acute, 'and triangular. First node of 
petiole squamiform, inclined slightly forwards, the lateral and dorsal 
edges trenchant, the anterior face convex transversely, the posterior 
face feebly convex. The peduncle is nearly as long as the node. 
Second node twice as wide as long, wider than the 1st, the anterior 
and posterior faces steep and convex transversely, and meeting 
angularly at the sides. Abdomen smooth and shining, convex, the 
1st segment funning almost the whole of 'the dorsum. All the femora 
moderately swollen. 

9 . 3 - 6 mm. Like the ^ , but the thorax somewhat paler, more 
reddish. Mesonotum and scutellum fairly closely and longitudinally 
striate. Pronotum exposed above only at the shoulders. Dorsum of 



316 Annals of the South African Museum. 

epinotum wider than long, sloping steeply downwards to the declivity. 
Epinotal teeth horizontal. The dorsal edge of the 1st node is very 
shallowly concave. The 2nd node less angular at the sides than in 
the $ • Wings tinged with yellow. Otherwise like the £ . 

$ . 35 mm. Dark brown, the head black, the petiole paler, the 
legs, antennae and mandibles pale yellow. Head dull, very closely and 
finely reticulate-punctate, with a few striae radiating outwards from 
the ocellar region. The sides of the thorax and epinotum finely and 
longitudinally striate and also reticulate-punctate, nitidulous, the rest 
of the body smooth and shining. Head much wider in front than 
behind, the posterior margin and sides convex. Scapes hardly reaching 
back as far as the anterior ocellus. Mandibles small, with 3 or 4 
teeth. Dorsum of epinotum oblique, merging gradually into the 
declivity, and twice as long as the latter. First node of petiole not 
squamiform, about as wide as thick, seen from the side subcuneiforin, 
hardly wider than high. Second node wider than the first, widest in 
front, one and a half times wider than long, the anterior margin 
moderately convex. 

Bulawayo, nesting in sandy soil. 

This differs from the type species, which has not yet been recorded 
from our region, by the wider 2nd node, the more abruptly convex 
pronotum, and the coarser sculpture. 

(S.A M., R.M., G.A. colls.) 

Var. flaviceps, n. v. 

^ . 2'8 mm. Head, thorax, and nodes yellow, the head also 
slightly brownish, abdomen dark brown, legs pale yellow. Apart from 
the smaller size and the colour, this variety differs from the type 
of the species as follows. 

The lateral constriction of the thorax between the pro- and meso- 
notum is much less, almost obsolete. The 2nd node of the petiole 
has the sides straight, it is more rounded above, the anterior and 
posterior faces meeting much less angularly than in the type. The 
sculpture is also weaker, especially on the head, which is longitudi- 
nally striate rather than rugose. The pilosity is also more abundant 
on the abdomen. Otherwise like the type of the species. 

Matopo Hills, S. Rhodesia. (S.A.M., R.M., G-.A. colls.), type in my 
collection. 

Var. mus, n. v. 

^ . 2 - 8 mm Very similar to var. flaviceps, but differing from it in 
the darker colour of the head and thorax, which is brownish-yellow, 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 317 

and in the sculpture. This is much weaker, and the striatum of the 
head between the frontal carinae is sparser ; the spaces between the 
striae on the head and thorax are very finely reticulate and duller than 
in the type species or flaviceps. The 1st node of the petiole is a little 
thicker, and the dorsal face of the 2nd node much more convex length- 
wise. , The pilosity is shorter and scantier, especially on the abdomen, 
which is microscopically alutaceous. 

Hillside, Bulawayo ; forming fairly populous nests in the ground, 
and occasionally in the mounds of Platythyrea lamellosa-rhodesiana. 
(S.A.M., R.M., G-.A. colls.), type in my collection. 

T. Titus, Forel. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 54, p. 427, £ , 1910. 

" $ . 3 mm. Mandibles smooth, shining, finely and very sparsely 
punctured, with two teeth in front, and a denticulate margin behind. 
Clypeus not carinate, the anterior margin narrowly excised in the 
middle, behind which is an impressed line. Head quadrate, slightly 
narrowed in front, as wide as long, hardly concave behind. Eyes 
placed in the middle of the sides. The frontal carinae and the scapes 
extend back as far as the posterior 8th of the head. The scape lies in 
a demiscrobe which is decidedly shallow, entirely smooth, and not 
delimited externally except by the sculpture. The club of the antenna 
is about as long as the rest of the flagellum, of which the 2nd-8th 
joints are wider than long. Pro-mesonotuin without a suture, convex 
in all directions, feebly marginate, but fairly clearly marginate in front 
and laterally ; seen from above, it is shaped like a trapeze, narrowed 
behind, slightly longer than it is wide in front. Meso-epinotal suture 
deep. Dorsum of epinotum strongly convex in its anterior half, distinctly 
longer than wide, excavated between and in front of the spines, margi- 
nate at the sides. Declivity marginate by a downward extension of 
the edge of the spines. The latter wide at the base, pointed, as long 
as the interval between them. Episternal teeth small and triangular. 
The 1st node forms a thick scale, biconvex and narrow, hardly thicker, 
but much narrower, than that of T. {Xiphomyrmex) Weitzaeckeri, with 
a small and obtuse summit ; the peduncle as long as the base of the 
scale. Second node transversely oval, nearly twice as wide as the 1st. 
Head longitudinally striato-rugose, shining, reticulate-rugose at the 
sides. Clypeus and thorax very shining, with a feeble and not very 
close, longitudinal striation. Dorsum of the pro-mesonotum partly 
smooth. The rest of the body smooth and shining. Pilosity fine, 
yellowish, pointed, fairly short, sparse on the body and absent from 



318 Annals of the South African Museum. 

the tibiae and scapes. Pubescence very sparse, more apparent on the 
legs and antennae. Brownish rusty red ; head and abdomen brown. 
" Natal (Wroughton)." 

T. SUBCOECUM, Eorel, var. inscia, Forel. 

Rev. d'Ent., vol. 26, p. 135, $ , 1908. 
(Variety) Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr., Beiheft, p. 218, £ . 1913. 

ty . 3 mm. Ochreous, the head slightly reddish -yelloAv, the thorax 
dirty yellow, the legs pale yellow. The whole body shining, except the 
sides of the head and thorax which are somewhat dull. Head faintly 
and sparsely longitudinally striate above, more strongly and more 
densely at the sides. Thorax very finely and faintly striate at the 
sides and in front of the pronotum, almost smooth elsewhere. Nodes 
aud abdomen smooth. Pilosity yellow, moderately long, sparse and 
obtuse, absent from the scapes and legs, which have only a very fine 
decumbent pubescence. 

Head, excluding the mandibles, barely longer than wide, widest 
across the eyes, and wider in front of them than behind ; the sides 
fairly convex, the posterior angles slightly rounded, the posterior 
margin feebly concave in the middle. Eyes very small, composed of a 
single facet, placed in the middle of the sides. Clypeus with a feeble 
median carina which does not reach the anterior margin ; the latter 
narrowly emarginate in the middle. Mandibles shining, sparsely 
punctured, feebly striate near the apex, armed with 6 very obtuse 
teeth. Frontal carinae short, strongly divergent behind. The frontal 
sulcus narrow, extending back* almost to the occiput. The scapes are 
curved near the base, and reach back as far as the posterior sixth of 
the head ; 2nd-8th joints of the flagellum wider than long. Pro- 
mesonotal suture obsolete, meso-epinotal, shallow. Thorax marginate 
at the sides and in front, strongly narrowed towards the meso-epinotal 
suture. The pro-mesonotum is as long as it is wide in front, and 
nearly three times wider in front than at the meso-epinolal suture. 
Dorsum of epinotum almost twice as long as wide, longer than the 
declivity. Epinotal spines acute, not much longer than they are wide 
at the base, shorter than the interval between them, moderately 
divergent and oblique. Episternal teeth hardly shorter than the 
epinotal. Peduncle of the petiole as long as its node. The latter is 
as long as wide, narrower in front than behind. Seen from the side, 
it has a dorsal face which is feebly convex lengthwise, and a vertical 
anterior face which is shorter than the subvertical posterior face. 
Second node nearly one-third wider than long, its anterior margin 



A Monograph of the Formiciclae of South Africa. 319 

very convex, subglobose, wider than the 1st node. Abdomen truncate 
at the base, the lateral angles rounded. 

Bulawayo : Matopo Hills, S.E. (S.A.M., R.M., G.A. coll.) 



T. TRAEGAORDHI, Santschi. 

Goteborgs Kungl. Vetens. och Vitterh. Handl. XV, 2, p. 23, $ , 9 , 

1914. 

$. 2"5-2 # 7 mm. Pale yellow. Very similar to var. inscia of 
subcoecum, and differing from it chiefly in the following characters : 

The pilosity is longer, more abundant, and not obtuse. The 
sculpture of the head is finer and almost effaced above ; the sides 
of the thorax are dull, closely and very finely reticulate-punctate, not 
striate, as in inscia. Mandibles distinctly striate, with about 7 teeth. 
The thoracic sutures obsolete. The pronotum is much less convex 
lengthwise in front, and its lateral margins are not so convex. The 
thorax is also less narrowed than in inscia, and the lateral margins 
of the inesonotum are straight, or even slightly concave, whereas in 
inscia they are distinctly convex. The dorsum of the epinotum is 
wider and flatter, and the epinotal teeth are triangular and longer 
than the episternal ; the latter are merely rounded lobes, not distinct 
and pointed teeth as in inscia. The peduncle of the petiole is very 
closely and finely punctured (smooth in inscia), and the node, seen 
from above, is not subcorneal in front, but convex, or with a slight 
suggestion of an anterior and two lateral margins. The 2nd node is 
wider than the 1st and, seen from above, hemispherical in outline. 

" $ . 3"3 mm. Ocelli and mandibular margin brownish-black. 
Head duller than in the £ • Eyes as large as one-quarter of the 
sides of the head. Mesonotum and scutellum very polished and 
shining. First node higher than in the £ . Wings hyaline, with the 
nervures pale yellow, the anterior wing 4 mm. long. Stamford Hill, 
Natal (Traegaordh)." 
(G. A. coll.) 

T. SEMIRETICULATUM, 11. Sp. 

$ . 2 - 2-2'4 mm. Castaneous or reddish-brown ; the anterior third 
of the head, the basal third of the 1st abdominal segment, and the 
whole of the remaining segments somewhat paler, antennae, mandibles, 
and legs yellowish-brown. Pilosity sparse, composed of short, oblique 
thin, and pointed yellowish hairs. Pubescence very fine and short, 
present only on the legs and antennae. The whole body dull, except 

21 



320 Annals of the South African Museum. 

the 2nd and following abdominal segments, which are feebly shining. 
The body and the femora very closely and finely reticulate-punctate, 
almost granular. The reticulations are closer and finer on the 
abdomen and nodes, more open and coarser, but still very fine, on 
the sides of the thorax. In addition to this fundamental sculpture, 
the head has a few fine longitudinal striae in the middle, which do 
not reach quite as far as the occiput behind, but extend over the 
clypeus in front. The sides of the head, below and in front of the 
eyes, are also finely and widely reticulate-rugose. The anterior half 
of the pro-mesonotum has a very distinct and wide reticulation 
superimposed. 

Head, excluding the mandibles, slightly longer than wide, the sides 
almost straight or very feebly convex, the hind margin straight. 
Scrobes absent. Eyes rather small, distinctly angulated in front 
below, placed in the middle of the sides. Frontal carinae short, 
divergent, not reaching the middle of the head. Clypeus with a 
feeble median carina, the anterior margin angularly excised in the 
middle. The scapes extend back as far as the posterior sixth of the 
head, 2nd-8th joints of the flagellum wider than long, the club not 
thick. Mandibles dull, very finely and closely striate, armed with 
3 teeth in front and 4 very small ones behind. Thorax in front not 
quite as wide as the head, the sutures obsolete, not much constricted 
between the meso- and epinotum. Shoulders of the pronotum fairly 
prominent, but rounded. The thorax in profile is feebly convex above, 
with the anterior portion of the pronotum vertical. The meso- and 
epinotum feebly marginate at the sides. The dorsum of the epinotum 
is twice as long as it is wide at the base, where it is Avidest, and twice 
as long as the oblique declivity. The epinotal teeth are very small, 
shorter than their basal width, hardly as long as the episternal teeth, 
but more pointed. The 1st joint of the petiole resembles very closely 
that of subcoecum, var. inscia, but the peduncle is broader. The 2nd 
node is semicircular, wider behind than in front, and wider than 
the 1st. Both nodes have traces of fine rugae on the dorsal surface. 
Legs entirely dull, femora not much swollen. 

$ . 2'8 mm. Brownish-black; tarsi, flagellum, and apical half of 
the abdomen brownish-yellow ; mandibles yellow, scapes, tibiae, and 
femora yellowish-brown. Pilosity and pubescence as in the £' , the 
pilosity almost entirely absent from the head. Head, thorax, nodes, 
and basal third of the 1st abdominal segment very closely and finely 
reticulate-punctate and dull, the sculpture on the head very fine. 
The declivity of the epinotum marginate at the sides, and with some 
wider reticulations superimposed. The apical two-thirds of the 1st 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 32i 

and the whole of the remaining segments of the abdomen smooth and 
shining. Head subquadrate, widest across the eyes, wider than long 
(excluding the mandibles), the sides convex, the posterior margin 
straight, the posterior angles narrowly rounded. The eyes occupy the 
anterior two-fifths of the head, not touching the base of the mandibles. 
The latter very finely striate and dull, with 6 or 7 minute teeth. 
Scapes long, as long as the 1st and 2nd joints of the flagellum taken 
together, extending back as far as the posterior ocelli. The latter 
small, not raised. Clypeus reticulate-punctate ; frontal area distinct, 
frontal sulcus very shallow, shining, and extending back to the 
anterior ocellus. Mesonotum twice as wide as long, and twice as long 
as the scutellum. The parapsidal sutures and a median longitudinal 
line between the Mayrian furrows smooth and shining. In profile 
the dorsum and declivity of the epinotum form a continuous and 
steep curve. Peduncle of the petiole thicker than in the $ , the node 
thicker and shorter. The 2nd node like that of the '$ , but wider 
and more narrowed in front. Wings tinged with dirty yellow, nervures 
and stigma very pale yellow. 

A very distinct sj)ecies, easily recognised by the sculpture. It is 
found only in the mounds of Platythyrea lamellosa-rhodesianaj usually 
making its nest near the top and sides of the mound, or about 2 or 
3 in. down below the entrance. Its association with Platythyrea is 
probably an instance of what Wheeler has termed " xenobiosis." It 
may be found in about 50 per cent, of the mounds of Platythyrea 
in the Hillside district of Bulawayo, but I have never found it 
elsewhere. 

(S.A.M., E.M., G-.A. colls.) ; types in my collection. 



T. longoi, Forel. 

Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat., vol. 50, p. 344, $ , 1914. 

£> . 25-3 mm. Varying from brownish-yellow to dark yellowish 
red- brown, the 1st abdominal segment brown, except at the extreme 
base ; the posterior half of the head generally a little darker. Pubes- 
cence almost entirely absent. The pilosity is fairly abundant, and 
consists of short, thick, obtuse, and yellowish hairs, which are erect on 
the body, oblique on the legs and scapes. Head and thorax fairly dull, 
abdomen smooth and shining. Head strongly and longitudinally 
rugose, with strong transverse anastomoses between the rugae, the 
sides of the head more reticulate- rugose. Thorax reticulate-rugose, 
the reticulations becoming gradually finer and closer posteriorly ; 1st 



322 Annals of the South African Museum. 

node of petiole more finely reticulate than the epinotum, the 2nd node 
rugulose. 

Head rectangular, excluding the mandibles, very little longer than 
wide, a little wider behind than in front, the posterior angles rouuded, 
the posterior margin feebly concave in the middle. Eyes fairly large, 
placed in the middle of the sides. Frontal carinae divergent, 
extending back as far as the posterior fifth of the head, not forming a 
scrobe, although there is a slight depression below them along their 
basal half. Scapes extending as far back as the frontal carinae ; 
2nd-7th joints of the flagellum wider than long. Mandibles strongly 
striate, 5-dentate. Clypeus rugose, with a strong median carina, the 
anterior margin straight. Pronotum fairly convex lengthwise, the 
shoulders subangular. Thorax not greatly narrowed posteriorly, and 
not noticeably constricted between the meso- and epinotum. Pro- 
mesonotal suture obsolete, the meso-epinotal indicated by a shallow 
impression. Dorsum of the epinotum longer than wide, the spines 
acute, slightly divergent, and as long as the interval between their 
bases ; episternal teeth shorter than the epinotal. The declivity is 
shorter than the dorsum of the epinotum, vertical, maiginate at the 
sides. First node of petiole cuboid, a little wider than long, longer 
than its peduncle, vertically truncate in front, nearly so behind, wider 
behind than in front. Second node transversely oval, half as wide 
again as the 1st, abdomen subtruncate at the base. Femora swollen. 

George, Cape Prov. (Dr. H. Brauns.) (S.A.M., P.M., G.A. colls.) 

T. intextum, Santschi, var. cataeactae, Santschi. 

Voyage d'Allaud et Jeannel, p. 104, $ , 1914. 
(Variety) Ann. Soc. Ent., France, vol. 84. p. 506, £ , 1916. 

^ . 25 mm. Rusty red, the head a little paler, the nodes and 
abdomen darker or reddish-brown. Legs and antennae brownish- 
yellow. Head, thorax, and nodes subopacpue, abdomen smooth and 
shining. Pilosity very sparse on the head, thorax, and nodes, more 
abundant on the abdomen, composed of short, thick, blunt, and 
yellowish hairs. Legs and antennae finely pubescent. Clypeus and 
the head, between the frontal carinae, finely and longitudinally striate, 
with a few feeble transverse anastomoses, the spaces between the striae 
feebly shining. Sides of the head reticulate-rugose, the floor of the 
demiscrobes only finely reticulate. Dorsum of thorax and nodes 
closely rugose or rugulose, the sculpture emphasised longitudinally. 
The sides of the thorax, the epinotum except at the base, and the 
peduncle of the petiole finely reticulate-punctate. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 323 

Head a little longer than wide, tlie sides more convex behind the 
eyes than in front of them, hardly narrower in front than behind, the 
posterior margin shallowly concave. Eyes fairly large, placed in 
the middle of the sides. Frontal carinae divergent, extending back as 
far as the occiput, and forming the upper margin of shallow, but 
fairly distinct demiscrobes. Scapes not reaching the occipital margin 
by as much as their own width ; 2nd-7th joints of the flagellum wider 
than long, the 8th as long as wide. Clypeus carinate in the middle. 
Mandibles closely and very finely striate, with 3 distinct teeth in 
front, and 4 feeble teeth behind. Thorax moderately constricted 
between the meso- and epinotum, very slightly so between the pro- 
and mesonotum. Pro-mesonotal suture obsolete, meso-epinotal wide 
but shallow. Pronotum sloping fairly steeply downwards in front, the 
shoulders rounded. Thorax submarginate, narrower than the head. 
Dorsum of epinotum widest at the base, about one and a third times 
longer than wide, not much longer than the declivity ; epinotal teeth 
wider at the base than long, somewhat obtuse. Episternal teeth 
triangular, a little longer than the epinotal. Peduncle of petiole very 
wide and nearly as long as its node; the latter, seen from above, wider 
than long, transversely oval, narrower in front than behind, indistinctly 
hexagonal in outline ; seen in profile, the anterior face vertical, the 
posterior face oblique and merging gradually into the dorsal face. 
Second node transversely oval, one-third wider than long and wider 
than the 1st, convex above, transversely and lengthwise. Femora only 
slightly swollen. 

Victoria Falls. (P.M., G.A. colls.) 

T. pusilltjm, Emery. 
Ann. Soc. Ent., France, vol. 63, p. 38, $ , 1895. 

"^. 17 mm. Ferruginous-testaceous, head dark, abdomen piceous ; 
pilose hairs subclavate, scanty, legs with a shorter pubescence. 

" Head subrectangular, frontal carinae subparallel and extending 
back almost to the posterior margin; closely punctured, the cheeks 
anteriorly and the frons very finely and longitudinally striate ; 
mandibles shining, punctate ; thorax hardly marginate, longitudinally 
rugoso-reticulate, epinotum obtusely bidentate, peduncle of petiole 
punctate, the node angular above, barely longer than thick, 2nd node 
subglobose, the abdomen shining. 

" 9 . 2 - 5 mm. Piceous, mandibles, antennae, legs, and apex of 
abdomen testaceous ; head and peduncle of petiole sculptured as in 
the £ , mesonotum and scutellum longitudinally striate, the epinotum 



324 Annals of the South African Museum. 

acutely bidentate ; the petiole more robust, the 2nd node transversely 
ovate. 

" Capetown (Simon)." 

Yar. mossamedensis, Eorel. 

Warburg Kunene-Zambesi Exped. (H. Baum),p. 560, $, 1905. 

<£> . 2*2 mm. Reddish-brown, the petiole a little paler, the abdo- 
men dark brown, legs, antennae, and mandibles brownish-yellow. 
Head, thorax, and nodes very slightly shining, abdomen smooth and 
very shining. Pilosity scanty, composed of whitish and rather blunt- 
hairs, oblique on the abdomen, erect elsewhere. Legs and antennae 
pubescent only, the pubescence very short and sparse. 

Head longitudinally striate between the frontal carinae, reticulate 
at the sides, the reticulations becoming finer and smaller towards the 
posterior angles and the frontal carinae. Thorax, epinotum, and 
nodes finely reticulate-punctate. On the pro-mesonotum a coarser 
reticulation is superimposed, almost rugose ; the sculpture of the 
nodes is very feeble. Sides of pronotum closely reticulate-punctate, 
the sides of the mesonotum more strongly so, with the meshes wider 
than elsewhere. The peduncle of the petiole very finely reticulate or 
alutaceous. Head quadrate, hardly longer than wide, the sides feebly 
convex, the posterior angles narrowly rounded, the posterior margin 
straight. Eyes placed a little in front of the middle of the sides, 
moderately large. Frontal carinae very divergent, prolonged back as 
thin lines to the posterior fourth of the head, no trace of scrobea. 
Clypeus tricarinate, the median carina the strongest. Mandibles 
6-dentate, sparsely punctured, very finely striate. Scapes not reaching 
the hind margin of the head, 1st joint of flagellum nearly as long as 
the four following joints taken together, 2nd- 7th joints wider than 
long. Thoracic sutures absent, but the meso- and epinotum are ' 
separated by a shallow depression. Dorsum of thorax feebly margi- 
nate at the sides, half as long again as wide in front, very slightly 
constricted between the meso- and epinotum ; shoulders of pronotum 
subangular. Dorsum of epinotum horizontal on its basal half, the 
apical half oblique, sloping towards the declivity, and twice as long as 
the latter. Epinotal teeth small (but longer than the episternal), as 
long as their basal width, directed slightly upwards, moderately 
divergent. Declivity vertical, marginate at the sides, the episternal 
teeth obtuse. Peduncle of petiole nearly as long as the node; the 
latter has the anterior face vertical, higher than the posterior face, 
which is convex and forms with the dorsal face a single convexity. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 325 

Seen from above, the node is trapezoidal, wider behind than in front, 
about one-third wider than long. Second node a little wider than the 
1st, distinctly wider than long ; the anterior margin seen from above, 
is convex, narrower behind than in front. Abdomen ovate, slightly 
truncate at the base, the basal angles widely rounded. Femora only 
slightly swollen. 

Bulawayo, common in grassy soil. (S.A.M., R.M., G.A. colls.) 



Race Ladismithensis, Forel. 

Ann. Soc. Ent, Belg., vol. 57, p. 117, £ , $ , 1913. 

^ . 2 2-2 - 4 mm. Brown ; the head and abdomen dark brown, 
egs, antennae, and mandibles ochreous. Closely allied to mossame- 
densis, but smaller and more slender, and differing from it in the 
following characters : 

The sculpture is finer and closer ; on the thorax the larger reticula- 
tions are almost absent, the pronotum smooth and shining, or only 
reticulate-punctate at its margins. The frontal carinae are more 
distinct and form shallow demiscrobes, the floor of which is slightly 
shining and less strongly reticulate than the rest of the head. The 
pronotal shoulders are more rounded, and the profile of the dorsum 
of the thorax is not depressed between the nieso- and epinotum 
The epinotal teeth are much smaller, much shorter than their basal 
width, being hardly more than wide angles, also shorter and smaller 
than the episternal teeth. The thorax is not marginate above. The 
dorsal surface of the 1st node is as long as wide (wider than long in 
mossamedensis) , submarginate in front, the anterior margin not so 
convex as in mossamedensis. 

? . 3 - 3-3'5 mm. Very dark brown, almost black, the extreme 
apices of the abdominal segments testaceous ; legs, antennae, and 
mandibles ochreous. Head narrower in front than behind and, 
excluding the mandibles, one-fifth longer than wide. Mesonotum 
and scutellum finely, closely, and longitudinally striate, sides of 
thorax rugulose. Mesonotum rather flat, with the scutellum very 
little higher than the dorsum of the epinotum. Epinotal teeth acute, 
subvertical, a little longer than their basal width, longer and larger 
than the episternal teeth. Second node relatively wider than in the 
$ , about twice as wide as long. Otherwise like the ^ . 

Ladismith, Cape Prov. (Dr. H. Brauns.) (S.A.M., R.M., G.A. 
colls.) 



326 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Race tablense, Forel. 
Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat., vol. 50, p. 223, £ , $ , <J , 1914. 

£ . 2-2 - 2 mm. Colour as in var. mossamedensis. Similar to race 
ladismithensis, but the head is a little less elongate, the thorax more 
constricted between the meso- and epinotum. The epinotal teeth are 
almost obsolete, being represented by two small ridges. The frontal 
carinae are much shorter, without a trace of scrobes below them. 
Otherwise like the race ladismithensis. 

$ . 2"6 mm. Blackish-brown. The mesonotum and scutellum 
feebly and longitudinally striate ; the dorsum of the declivity steep, 
the epinotal teeth distinct, acute, triangular, not quite as long as their 
basal width. Deiilated. Otherwise like the ^ • 

3 . 2'7 mm. Black; legs, antennae, and mandibles dirty yellow. 
Head subquadrate, widest in the middle, a little wider behind than 
in front. Scapes extending back as far as the posterior ocelli. Eyes 
large, convex, occupying the anterior third of the head, not touching 
the base of the mandibles. Head dull, very finely and closely reticulate- 
rugulose. Mesonotum and scutellum very faintly and longitudinally 
striate or aciculate, shining. Epinotum reticulate-striate, dull ; nodes 
feebly reticulate and slightly shining. Abdomen smooth and shining. 

Table Mountain, nesting under stones. This is one of the few 
species which appear to be able to hold their own against the invading 
Iridomyrmex humilis, and it is found at the lower levels of the 
mountain where humilis has succeeded in di-iving out almost all 
other kind of ants. 

(S.A.M., R.M., G.A. colls.) 



T. simillimtjm, Smith. 
List of British Animals in B.M., Part 6, g , 1851. 

Roger (Tetrogmus caldarius), Berlin Ent. Zeitschr., p. 12, $ , 1857. 
Meinert (Myrmica caldaria), Naturv. Afh. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. V, 

p. 334, <J, 1860. 

^ . 2 - 8 mm. Head, thorax, and nodes brownish-ochreous, abdomen 
brown, the apical half and sometimes the base paler ; legs, antennae, 
and mandibles ochreous. Very sparsely pilose, the hairs fairly 
thick and blunt, erect on the head and thorax, oblique elsewhere. 
Legs and antennae with a fine pubescence, rather sparse on the legs. 
Abdomen and legs shining, the rest of the body dull. The funda- 



Jf 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 327 

mental sculpture of the head and thorax is a very fine reticulation. 
Head longitudinally striate between the frontal carinae, the sides 
below the carinae only reticulate in the upper half, more longitudinally 
rugose in the lower half, and in front of the eyes more or less reticu- 
late rugose. Thorax above fairly closely and finely rugose, more or 
less longitudinally ; at the sides chiefly reticulate. Dorsum of epi- 
notum reticulate only, the declivity smooth and shining. Nodes 
coriaceous, with a few feeble and uneven rugae. Abdomen smooth, 
without striae at the base. Head a little longer than wide, slightly 
narrowed in front of the eyes, the sides feebly convex, the posterior 
angles rounded, the posterior margin straight or at the most only 
feebly concave. Eyes of medium size, placed in the middle of the 
sides of the head. Clypeus with a thin median carina and a thinner 
stria on each side of it. Mandibles slightly shining, aciculate, very 
sparsely and faintly punctured. Frontal carinae produced backwards 
as fine lines almost as far as the occipital margin ; the scapes extend 
back equally far. No trace of scrobes. Pro-mesonotal suture 
obsolete, the meso-epinotal very shallow, indistinct. Dorsum of 
epinotum nearly twice as long as wide ; the epinotal teeth small, 
forming merely triangular prominences of the ends of the raised 
margins of the declivity ; episternal lobes rounded, larger than the 
epinotal teeth. Declivity subvertical. First node, seen from the 
side, as long as its peduncle, the anterior face vertical, the posterior 
and dorsal faces forming a single convexity. Seen from above, it is 
barely wider than long. Second node subglobose, a little wider than 
long and wider than the 1st. Femora moderately swollen. 

$ . 3"8 mm. Similar to the ^ i n greater part, the colour a little 
darker, the tegulae, metanotum, and a patch behind each ocellus dark 
brown. Pronotum widely reticulate-rugose, mesonotum and scutellum 
longitudinally striate, epinotum reticulate-punctate and feebly striate. 
Nodes rugulose, also very sparsely striate longitudinally. Moderately 
shining. Head more parallel- sided than in the ^ , longer than wide. 
Pronotum exposed above at the shoulders. Mesonotum and scutellum 
horizontal and flat, except the anterior third of the former, which is 
moderately convex. Epinotal teeth a little larger than in the £ • 
(Deiilated.) 

$ . 3'3 mm. Ochreous ; the abdomen and ocellar area slightly 
fuscous. Head, scutellum, and epinotum slightly dull, the rest of the 
body shining. Head feebly and longitudinally striate, more or less 
reticulate on the cheeks in front of the eyes. Frontal carinae extend 
back as far as the level of the anterior ocelli. Head longer than 
wide, widest across the middle, a little narrower behind than in front. 



328 Annals of the South African Museum. 

The eyes occupy nearly half of the sides, placed in front Of the middle 
of the head. Mayrian furrows well defined, mesonotum smooth and 
shining ; scutellum and epinotum faintly rugulose. The dorsum and 
declivity of the epinotum form a single plane, sloping steeply from 
base to apex. Both nodes smooth and shining. First node, seen 
from above, more or less lenticular, two-thirds wider than long, as 
long as its peduncle, the middle of the sides angular. Second node 
a little wider than long, and a little wider than the 1st. The 1st 
node is more, and the 2nd node less convex from back to front than 
in the 9 • Wings pale fuscous, the nervures yellowish. 

Durban. A widely distributed species which has been carried 
through commerce to many parts of both hemispheres. It is fre- 
quently found in hothouses in temperate countries. (S.A.M., R.M., 
G.A. colls.) 



Var. Poweri, Forel. 
Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat., vol. 50, p. 225, $ , 1914. 

$ . 2 - 2-2'6 mm. Yellowish-red, antennae, legs, and mandibles 
reddish-yellow, 1st abdominal segment more or less brownish, the 
remaining segments yellow. The demiscrobes are practically obso- 
lete, their position being indicated only by a smoother area, devoid of 
sculpture and not lower than the rest of the surface. The frontal 
carinae are not prolonged backwards, their place being taken by 3 or 
4 irregular and longitudinal striae on each side ; the median area 
between the striae almost smooth and distinctly shining. The head is 
only feebly sculptured behind the eyes, fairly distinctly reticulate in 
front of them, the floor of the meshes dull and finely rugulose. The 
pro-mesonotum, except the lateral and anterior margins which are 
finely rugulose, is smooth and shining ; the epinotum and sides of the 
thorax very finely reticulate-punctate and subopaque, the sculpture 
finest on the sides of the pro-thorax. Nodes and abdomen smooth 
and shining. The clypeus is prominently carinate in the middle. 
Mandibles shining, very sparsely and shallowly punctured, 6-dentate. 
The pubescence of the legs and scapes is noticeably long and abundant. 
The scape falls short of the occipital margin by a distance equal 
to the length of the eye. Thorax feebly marginate above. Epinotal 
teeth acute, very small, distinctly shorter than the episternal lobes. 
The nodes of the petiole very convex above transversely, much less so 
longitudinally. 

Kimberley (Brother Power). (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 329 

Var. Shilohensis, Forel. 
Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr., Beiheft, p. 218, £ , 1913. 

$ . 2*3-2'5 mm. Bright yellow, with the reticulations and the 
flagellum somewhat reddish-yellow. The larger forms, found in a 
different locality, are darker than the smaller ones, but otherwise 
similar. The pilosity is fairly abundant, and is composed of pointed, 
yellow hairs, erect on the body, oblique and shorter on the legs and 
antennae, which are also sparsely pubescent. Head, thorax, and nodes 
feebly shining. Head, between the frontal carinae, dorsum of thorax, 
and sides of pro-thorax, rather strongly and longitudinally rugose, also 
partly reticulate. Sides of head reticulate, the rugae emphasised 
longitudinally, the floor of the meshes finely reticulate. Distinct 
demiscrobes present. Sides of meso- and epinotum duller, closely 
rugulose. Nodes feebly rugulose. Declivity of epinotum and the 
abdomen smooth and shining. 

Head, excluding the mandibles, a little longer than wide, the sides 
moderately convex, the posterior margin straight or feebly concave in 
the middle. Eyes small, placed in the middle of the sides. Frontal 
carinae prolonged back as far as the occipital margin, divergent along 
their anterior third, nearly parallel behind. Scapes rather short, 
barely reaching beyond the posterior third of the head. Clypeus tri- 
carinate. Dorsum of thorax distinctly marginate in front and at the 
sides. Pro-mesonotal suture obsolete above, the meso-epinotal indi- 
cated by a shallow groove. The thorax is moderately constricted 
between the pro- and mesonotum, more strongly so between the meso- 
and epinotum. Dorsum of epinotum one and a half times longer than 
the subvertical declivity. Epinotal teeth fairly large, acute, a trifle 
longer than their basal width, and quite twice as long as the episternal 
lobes ; moderately divergent, directed very obliquely upwards. First 
node of petiole as long as its -peduncle, vertically truncate in front, 
convex lengthwise above and behind, a little longer than wide. 
Second node one-third wider than the 1st, as wide as long, widest 
behind. 

Bembesi, S. Rhodesia (the smaller forms, 2*3 mm.), in the nest of 
Platythyrea cribrinodis ; Shiloh, S. Rhodesia, in the nest of Ophthal- 
mopone Berthoudi. (S.A.M., R.M., Gr.A. colls.) 

Race Isipingense, Forel. 
Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat., vol. 50, p. 225, £ , 1914. 
$ . 3-3*3 mm. Pale ochreous yellow, the nodes slightly brownish. 



330 Annals of the South African Museum. 

the 1st abdominal segment, except the base, brownish-yellow. Mode- 
rately shining, including the legs. Pilosity scanty, composed of very 
thin, short, and pointed hairs, pale yellowish. Head sparsely and 
longitudinally striato-rugose, more reticulate at the sides. Thorax 
reticulate-rugose, the floor of the meshes finely and shallowly rugulose, 
the sides of the thorax more closely but less sharply reticulate. Nodes 
with a few feeble rugae. Abdomen moderately shining, very clearly 
and evenly punctate, the punctures small. 

Head, excluding the mandibles, one-sixth longer than wide, the sides 
parallel, the hind margin shallowly concave, the posterior angles 
narrowly rounded. Eyes very convex, prominent, and large, placed in 
the middle of the sides. Frontal carinae prolonged back as far as the 
posterior sixth of the head, moderately divergent. Faint traces of 
demiscrobes present. Clypeus with a few longitudinal striae, hardly 
carinate. Mandibles smooth and shining, very finely and sparsely 
punctured, the masticatory margin long, armed with three distinct and 
small teeth in front and four smaller ones behind, the teeth widely 
separated. Thorax elongate, quite twice as long as wide in front, the 
dorsum feebly marginate at the sides and in front, very slightly con- 
stricted between the meso- and epinotum. The epinotal teeth are very 
minute, much shorter and smaller than the episternal, which are acute 
and triangular. The peduncle of the 1st segment of the petiole is 
almost as long as the node, and bears a small and sharp tooth below 
near the base ; the node is a little longer than wide, and seen from the 
side, very convex from front to back. The 2nd node is one-third 
wider than the 1st, and one-third wider than long, transversely oval, 
narrower and lower in front than behind. Femora swollen in the 
middle. 

Isipingo, Natal (H. B. Marley). (S.A.M., E.M., G-.A. colls.) 

Race Delagoen^e, Forel. 

Mitth. Schweiz. Ent. Ges., vol. 9, p. 80, £ , $ , <J , 1894. 

" ^. 2 - 2-2 - 5mm. Like simillimum i. sp., but the frontal carinae 
are straight or only feebly divergent (not curving round again towards 
each other posteriorly). Eyes nearer to the anterior than to the 
posterior angles of the head. Thorax rather longer and narrower. 
Epinotum with two elongate tubercles, barely dentiform. First node 
of petiole less thick, abruptly truncate and highest in front, sloping 
convexly backwards from the anterior margin. Both nodes shining, 
with a very shallow sculpture ; abdomen smooth. The club is shorter 
than the rest of the flagellum (quite as long as the rest in simillimum 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 331 

i, sp.). Sculpture and Lairs as in the type species, even so the size of 
the head in relation to that of the body, but a little more slender ; legs 
somewhat stouter. Yellowish, thorax and head reddish-yellow, the 
abdomen paler. 

" $ . 3-3 - 4 mm. Head much longer than wide (hardly so in the 
type species). Thorax longer and lower, the epinotal teeth broad, 
obtuse, and triangular. First node thinner than in the type species, 
almost squamiform, thinner than in the £' . Dorsum of epinotum at 
least as long as the declivity. Sculpture, pilosity, and colour as in 
the ^ • Wings almost hyaline, with very pale nervures and stigma. 
Thorax narrower than the head. 

" $ . 2 - 9 mm. Dirty brownish-yellow. Epinotum with two feeble 
tubercles ; the dorsum much longer than the declivity. Head and 
epinotum reticulate-punctate, slightly sinning. Abdomen, mesonotum, 
and petiole shining and fairly smooth. Antennae 10-jointed, the 2nd 
joint of the flagellum long. Otherwise like the $ ." 

Delagoa (Dr. Liengme) ; Natal (Wroughton). 

Eace Bothae, Forel. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 54, p. 425, £ , 9 , $, 1910. 

" ^ • 2 "3-2. 5 mm. Larger than the type of the species and its race 
delagoense. Differs from both by its more robust stature. The 
dorsum of the epinotum is wide, only very little longer than wide ; the 
episternal and epinotal teeth stronger, more spinose. The 1st node is 
distinctly wider than long, plainly truncate in front, with a well- 
defined upper anterior margin. Both nodes dull, reticulate-punctate, 
sometimes striate. Head and thorax chiefly brownish ; thorax 
reddish-brown. Tarsi, antennae, and mandibles reddish-yellow, the 
club brown. 

" $ . 3 mm. Like the ^ • First node nearly twice as wide as 
long. 

" ^ . 3 mm. Nodes a little wider. Otherwise like the type of the 
species." 

Basutoland and Natal (Wroughton, Haviland). 

T. caespitum, Linn., race Schultzei, Forel. 

Syst. Nat. Edition. 10a, p. 581, £ , 1758. 

(Eace) Schultze Eeise Siid Afrika, vol.4, p. 19, £ , 1910. 

" ^ . 1*9-2 mm. Mandibles finely striate, fairly shining, with 6 or 
7 teeth. Head distinctly, although not greatly flattened, quadrangular, 



332 Annals of the South African Museum. 

not wider than long, feebly concave behind. Eyes in the middle of 
the sides of the head. Clypeus feebly carinate; the frontal carinae 
short. The scape almost reaches the posterior margin of the head ; 
3rd-5th joints of the flagellum wider than long. No trace of a scrobe. 
Thorax short; the profile of the dorsum hardly, or not at all inter- 
rupted (more distinctly interrupted in the race depressum) . Epi- 
notum with very small teeth. First node almost cuboid, as in 
caesjritum, \sly . jnmicum, Smith. Clypeus, frons, cheeks, and thorax 
finely and feebly longitudinally striate (sometimes indistinctly) 
shining. The rest of the body smooth. Pilosity and pubescence as in 
the other races. Brown ; legs and antennae brownish-yellow, abdomen 
dark brown. 

" Kgokong-Kang, Kalahari (Schultze) iu sand. 

" Near the race depression, Forel, but much smaller, not so smooth 
and without any emargination of the thorax, with a more cuboid 1st 
node. Also closely allied to the var. pwnicum, Smith, but still 
smoother and with the head depressed. Differs from pusillum, Emery, 
by the short frontal carinae." 

The type species has a wide distribution, occurring over the whole of 
Europe and the south shores of the Mediterranean. 

T. ericae, n. sp. ' 

^ . 17 mm. Pale ochreous yellow, the abdomen slightly brownish- 
yellow ; the clypeus more reddish-yellow. Pilosity abundant, com- 
posed of thin, whitish hairs, which are erect on the head, thorax and 
nodes, oblique on the abdomen. Legs and antennae very sparsely 
pubescent. Head, dorsum of thorax and the nodes nitidulous, finely 
reticulate-rugose, the sculpture emphasised longitudinally on the head 
between the frontal carinae, the sides of the head and thorax more 
densely sculptured, almost rugulose. Abdomen smooth and shining, 
and in some examples, with a golden reflection on the sides. 
Head subquadrate, excluding the mandibles as long as wide, the 
sides nearly parallel, the posterior margin straight, a little narrower 
in front than behind. Eyes large, placed a little in front of the 
middle, occupying about one-fifth of the sides of the head. Frontal 
carinae divergent, extending back almost as far as the occiput, and 
forming the upper boundary of the fairly deep and wide scrobes. The 
latter are smooth and shining, divided into two parts over the basal 
third, by a longitudinal ridge. Scapes as long as the scrobes; 1st 
joint of flagellum as long as the 2nd, 3rd and 4th taken together, 
3rd-7th joints quite twice as wide as long, the club one and a half 
times longer than the rest of the flagellum. Mandibles shining 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 333 

sparsely punctured, the masticatory margin piceous, with 3 distinct 
teeth in front, indistinctly denticulate behind. Clypeus feebly 
carinate in the middle. Frontal area triangular, fairly well defined. 
Thoracic sutures obsolete. Thorax narrower than the bead, widest in 
front, narrowing gradually behind towards the epinotal teeth, slightly 
constricted between the meso- and epinotum, one and a half times 
longer than Avide in front, the shoulders of the pronotum rounded. In 
profile, the thorax is moderately convex lengthwise, the dorsum of the 
epinotum oblique and merging gradually into the declivity. Epinotal 
spines acute, divergent, half as long as the interval between their 
bases, hardly longer than their basal width, one-third longer than the 
episternal teeth. Declivity marginate at the sides. Peduncle of the 
petiole half as long as its node ; the latter, seen from above, is sub- 
globose, nearly one-quarter wider than long. Seen in profile, it is 
obliquely truncate in front, and the posterior-dorsal face is convex. 
The 2nd node is transversely oval, twice as wide as long, one-quarter 
wider than the 1st, convex transversely and longitudinally, as wide in 
front as behind. Abdomen globose. Femora very slightly swollen. 

Hillside, Bulawayo, in sandy soil. (S.A.M., R.M., G.A. colls.), type 
in my collection. 

This species appears to me to be intermediate in structure between 
Tetramorium s. str. and its subgenus Triglyphothrix. The absence of 
branched hairs and the less transverse 1st node are the only points of 
difference between it and the subgenus. 

I have much pleasure in associating this species with the name of 
Mrs. Hepburn, whose unfailing hospitality has given me the oppor- 
tunity to collect many of the interesting species which are found at 
Hillside, near Bulawayo. 

Subgenus Triglyphothrix, Forel. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. C.E., vol. 34, p. cvi, 1890. 

Characters. 

^ . Antennae 12-jointed, the club 3-jointed. Mandibles and 
clypeus as in Tetramorium. Distinct antennal scrobes nearly always 
present, divided by a longitudinal carina into two halves, for the 
reception of the folded scape and flagellum. Thorax stout and short, 
the thoracic sutures obsolete or nearly so. Epinotum armed, episternal 
teeth also present, as in Tetramorium. First joint of petiole with a 
short peduncle ; both nodes, or at least the 2nd, much wider than 
long. Hairs usually trifid, sometimes polyfid. 



334 Annals of the South African Museum. 

9 . Similar to the $ but larger ; forewing with one closed cubital 
cell, the radial cell open. 

$ . Antennae 10-jointed; 2nd joint of flagelluni very long, 3rd 
joint short, shorter than the 1st. Mayrian furrows present. Nodes 
of petiole not so wide as in the $ , the 1st joint subpedunculate. 

This subgenus is distributed throughout the Ethiopian and Indo- 
malayan regions. One species, T. striatidem, Emery, has become 
almost cosmopolitan, and is often found in hothouses in temperate 
countries. The ants of this subgenus are rather timid insects, 
generally feigning death when touched. The nests are made in the 
ground. One species, T. Araoldi, Forel, is more frecpuently found in 
the nests of other ants, apparently in plesiobiotic or cleptobiotic 
association. 



Key to the £ $ of Triglyphothrix. 

(4) 1. Yellow or reddish-yellow species. 

(3) 2. Thorax dull, very closely and finely punctured; hairs simple. 

Arnold!, Forel. 
(2) 3. Thorax coarsely reticulate and shining between the reticulations. 

auropunctatus , Forel, var. fusciventris, Forel. 
(1) 4. Black or brownish species. 

(6) 5. Epinotum with long spines, as long as the interval between their 

bases ...... Constanciae, Arnold. 

(5) 6. Epinotum armed only with small teeth. 

(8) 7. Second node of petiole at least two and a quarter times wider than 

long ....... Marleyi, Forel. 

(7) 8. Second node of petiole not more than twice as wide as long. 
(10) 9. Thorax irregularly reticulate, brownish ; larger species, 33 mm. 

Inezulae, Forel. 

(9) 10. Thorax strongly and evenly reticulate, piceous ; smaller species, 

26 mm. ...... Ilepburni, Arnold. 



Microps, Mayr, and Trimeni, Emery, are not known to me in nature, 
and are not included in the above key. Judging by the descriptions 
Hepburni appears to differ from Trimeni by its larger size and by the 
1st node of the petiole, which is clearly wider than long ; microps is 
apparently allied to auropunctatus, but has much smaller eyes. 

T. AUROPTJNCTATTTS, Forel. 

Schultze, Eeise Sud-Afrika, vol. 4, p. 20, $ , $ , 1910. 
" ^ . 2T-2 - 6 mm. Mandibles strongly striated, punctured, with 3 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 335 

distinct teeth in front, and 4 indistinct teeth behind. Clypeus cari- 
nate, distinctly emarginate in the middle. Head quadrangular, as 
wide behind as long, narrowed in front, nearly straight behind (hardly 
feebly concave). Eyes decidedly small, consisting of 10-12 facets, but 
yet larger than in microns. The scape, incrassate from the middle, 
reaches the posterior fifth of the head ; tln j 2nd-5th joints of the 
flagelluin are more than three times wider than long. The frontal 
carinae form exteriorly a deep and wide scrobe for both scape and 
flagellum, the scrobe bending round behind. Between the groove for 
the scape and that for the fiagellum, there is a raised and sharp 
triangle, with its base forwards. The floor of the scrobe is shining 
and finely reticulate. The eye lies close to the outer margin of the 
groove for the flagellum, which is obsolete in front. Thorax very wide, 
short, feebly convex, almost marginate above, with blunt anterior 
angles. Pro-mesonotal suture absent. Meso-epinotal suture feeble, a 
suggestion of a metanotum. Epinotal teeth broad, triangular, fairly 
short and acute ; episternal teeth flat and obtuse. Eirst node of 
petiole with a very short peduncle, the node two and a half times 
wider than long, almost vertically truncate in front and behind, the 
upper surface almost flat or only feebly convex transversely, a little 
declivous behind, the anterior margin feebly emarginate. Second 
node nearly three times as wide as long, somewhat wider than, and 
nearly as high as the 1st, with a straight or even slightly concave 
anterior face, and a convex posterior face. Abdomen truncate in front- 
Femora distinctly swollen in the, middle. Head, thorax, and 1st joint 
of the petiole coarsely and densely, longitudinally rugose, coarsely and 
closely punctured between the rugae. Second joint of the petiole (the 
1st also partly) coarsely punctured. The rest smooth, merely very 
finely and sparsely punctured. The whole body, femora and tibiae 
closely covered with fairly short, yellow and polyfid hairs. Yellowish- 
red, abdomen more brownish-yellow. The floor of the coarse punctures 
appears golden in certain lights. 

" £ . 33 mm. Like the £ . Mesonotum flat above, longitudinally 
rugose, sharply and coarsely punctured. Nodes somewhat wider, 
otherwise like the £ . Darker yellowish-red ; a spot on the vertex, the 
post-scutellum, a part of the mesonotum, and the abdomen brown. 
Dealated. Pubescence and all else as in the £ . 

"Natal, 2500 metres (Haviland)." 

Var. bulawayensis, n. v. 

^ . This differs from the above by the absence of the triangular 
prominence between the two halves of the antennal scrobe, and by the 

22 



336 Annals of the South African Museum. 

entire absence of the meso-epinotal suture. The floor of the punctures 
without any golden reflection. 

Bulawayo, living in the nests of Platythyrea cribrinodis, apparently 
in plesiobiosis. (S.A.M., R.M., G-.A. colls.), type in my collection. 

Var. pallens, Forel. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 54, p. 424, £ , 1910. 

" $ . 2 mm. A little smaller than the type of the species. 
Entirely pale yellow, with the same goldVn punctures. Epinotal spines 
shorter, only a little longer than their basal width. Nodes of the 
petiole less broad, the 2nd only twice as wide as long, the 1st one and 
a half times wider than long. 

"Natal (Haviland)." 

Var. fusciventris, Forel. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. 116, £ , 1913. 

"£. 22-2 - 5 mm. A little smaller than the type of the species. 
Epinotal spines distinctly shorter, subdentiform but acute, very little 
longer than their basal width. The same golden punctures as in the 
type. The sculpture a shade finer and more rugose. Nodes a little 
wider. Of a darker yellow and more brownish colour than that of the 
type. Abdomen brownish. Otherwise like the type species." 

The thorax is narrowed between the meso- and epinotum, but there 
is no trace of the suture dorsally. The margins of the thorax and the 
edges of the epinotal teeth are more darkly coloured. The basal third 
of the abdominal segments paler than the remaining portions. Some 
of the hairs are sinrple, the rest are shorter and trificl. 

Bulawayo, like var. bulawayensis, also nesting in and near the 
galleries of Platythyrea cribrinodis. (S.A.M., R.M., G.A. colls.) 

Var. rhodesiana, Forel. 

Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr. Beiheft, p. 221, ?, 1913. 

" 9 • 3" 6-4 mm. Darker than the type of the species, dark brown. 
Frons, cheeks, mandibles, antennae, legs and transverse bands on the 
posterior portion of the abdomen, yellowish-red. Head less emarginate 
behind and more narrowed in front. The 1st node is more rounded 
at the sides, and above all, the 2nd node is differently shaped, being 
obtusely and conically pointed laterally, less flat above, forming more 
of a rounded, transverse edge. Otherwise like the type." 



A Monograph of the Formiciclae of South Africa. 337 

The colour is reddish-brown, that of the head lighter, especially on 
the anterior third. The base of the 1st abdominal segment is evenly 
and shallowly punctured. 

Bembesi, S. Rhodesia. (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 

T. trimeni, Emery. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 40, $ , 1895. 

" $ . 1*7 mm. Allied to T. Walshi and lanuginosa (Indian species), 
but differing in having the 2nd node of the petiole transverse, dis- 
tinctly wider than the 1st ; the 1st abdominal segment has foveiform 
punctures, and the epinotal spines are shorter. 

" ? . 3 - 2 mm. Very like the £ ; abdomen similarly sculptured, 
2nd node of the petiole less transverse. Kimberley, 1^,2$ 
(Simon)." 

Also a variety of the ^ ; " less strongly sculptured, 1st abdominal 
segment without foveiform punctures. Hammans Kraal, 1 specimen." 

In addition to the above, the author remarks that in Trimeni the 
2nd node is distinctly wider than the 1st and strongly transverse, the 
1st appears hardly wider than long. 

T. microps, Mayr. 
Ann. K.K.N.H. Mus. Wien, vol. 16, p. 25, £, $, 1901. 

" £' . 23-2 - 5 mm. Yellow, fairly dull, abdomen shining. The 
whitish erect hairs on the upper sm-face of the body are not long, but 
are fairly abundant. Mandibles longitudinally striate. The head is 
coarsely reticulate-punctate, the frons and vertex chiefly coarsely 
and longitudinally rugose, the clypeus with longitudinal striae and 
a little median carina, somewhat impressed in the middle in front, 
the anterior margin emargiuate ; the scrobe is shining and fairly 
finely and irregularly rugose, with a few strong transverse striae 
near the antennal socket. The eyes are very small, composed of from 
6-9 facets. Seen in profile, the closely reticulate thorax has the 
pronotum strongly curved backwards from below and in front ; the 
mesonotum is only slightly convex, the epinotum moderately so. 
The latter bears two large, triangular, and equilateral teeth. The 
dorsum of the epinotum merges gradually into the declivity. 
The 1st node of the reticulate petiole is twice as wide as long, the 
2nd node somewhat wider than the 1st, and fully twice as wide as long. 
The abdomen is smooth, with scanty piligerous punctures. 

" $ . 3"4-3 - 5 mm. More or less reddish-yellow, or also partly 



338 Annals of the South African Museum. 

brown ; the pubescence and sculpture as in the ^ . Mesonotum and 
scutellum longitudinally rugose. Otherwise like the type of the £ . 
The anterior wings fairly clear. Port Elizabeth. (Dr. H. Brauns)." 

T. Aknoldi, Forel. (Plate VII, fig. 93.) 

Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr. Beiheft, p. 220, $, 1913. 

^ . 22-3 mm. Ochreous or reddish-ochreous ; antennae, and 
sometimes also the abdomen, darker. Head, thorax, and petiole 
dull, abdomen smooth and shining. Mandibles and clypeus slightly 
shining. Head, thorax, and petiole very closely and finely reticulate- 
punctate or granulate; in addition, the head above is finely and 
longitudinally striate, the scrobes and the cheeks in front finely 
punctate only. Legs slightly shining. Pubescence very short and 
yellowish, fairly scanty all over ; the erect pilose hairs are also short 
and sparse. All the hairs simple. 

Head as long as wide, slightly narrowed in front, the posterior 
angles widely rounded, the posterior margin almost straight. Clypeus 
feebly carinate in the middle, and with two or three longitudinal and 
raised lines on each side of the carina ; the anterior margin straight. 
Frontal area small and indistinct. Mandibles finely striate, with 
7 teeth, the 4 posterior ones indistinct. The frontal carinae diverge 
behind the antennal sockets and are continued in a slight curve 
almost to the posterior margin of the head, where they curve down- 
wards and forwards below the eye. The scrobe so formed is distinct 
but shallow, and is divided into two by a longitudinal raised line. 
Eyes small, placed at about the middle of the sides. Scape of 
antenna extends back almost to the posterior fourth of the head ; 
2nd-7th joints of the flagellum quite two and half times wider than 
long. Thorax short, not longer than the head, considerably narrowed 
between the meso- and epinotum, feebly convex longitudinally, a little 
more strongly so transversely, the anterior face abrupt, the shoulders 
of the pronotum rounded. Thoracic sutures obsolete. Epinotum 
marginate laterally, the dorsum one and a quarter times longer than 
wide, the declivity oblique and shorter than the dorsum. Epinotal 
teeth almost triangular, very little longer than wide at the base, slightly 
divergent, merging in front and behind in the raised margins of the 
epinotum. Episternal teeth small and blunt, smaller than the epi- 
notal. First joint of petiole with the peduncle shorter than the 
node ; the latter one and a half times wider than long, convex behind 
transversely, straight, or feebly concave in front, the dorsal surface 
feebly convex transversely and sloping downwards and backwards. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 339 

Second node wider than the 1st, twice as long as wide, not longer 
than the 1st, a little narrower behind than in front. 

$ . 3 - 8 mm. (hitherto undescribed) . Dark yellowish-brown, the 
head somewhat reddish, the legs and antennae paler than the body, the 
sides of the mesonotum in front dark brown. Pilosity and pubescence 
as in the $ . Sculpture similar to that of the $ , but the punctura- 
tion all over is a little stronger, and the longitudinal striae on the 
head are sharper. The base of the 1st abdominal segment is closely 
and very finely punctured, rather dull. The eyes are large, occupying 
about one-quarter of the sides of the head ; there is a black spot 
behind each of the three ocelli. Mesonotum rounded in front, flat 
behind, the pro-mesonotal suture arcuate. The sides of the meso- 
notum and scutellum sparsely striate. Dorsum of epinotum wider 
than long, the declivity nearly vertical. The petiole is similar to that 
of the $ , but the nodes are shorter (thinner) . Wings slightly 
yellowish, the nervures dirty yellow. 

The smaller sized £ ^, 2 '2 mm., and the 9 were taken in an 
independent nest under a stone ; except in size, they do not appear 
to differ from the larger form. The latter was taken in nests made 
in the walls of the galleries of Platythyrea lamellosa-rhodesiana., and 
also of Opthalmopone Berthoudi 

Shiloh and Bulawayo, S. Rhodesia. (S.A.M., R.M., Gr.A. colls.) 

T. Constanciae, ii. sp. (Plate VII, figs. 94, 94a.) 

^ . 3"3-3"6 mm. Black ; mandibles, antennae, and tarsi reddish- 
yellow, femora and tibiae yellowish-brown in the middle, reddish- 
yellow at their base and apex. Densely clothed all over, except on 
the tarsi and flagellum, with fairly long, erect, and whitish hairs, 
which are distinctly trifid, not hiding the sculpture. Abdomen and 
legs shining, the rest of the body moderately shining between the 
reticulations. Head strongly and longitudinally rugose, also some- 
what reticulate, owing to the presence of feebler transverse anas- 
tomoses. Thorax and 1st node of petiole strongly reticulate, the 
meshes rather wide, especially on the epinotum ; 2nd node less strongly 
and less distinctly reticulate. Abdomen smooth. 

Head a little longer than wide, a little narrower in front than 
behind, the posterior margin straight, the posterior angles strongly 
rounded. Mandibles slightly shining, feebly striate and sparsely 
punctured, armed with distinct teeth in front, indistinctly dentate 
behind. Clypeus with a median carinula and 3 or 4 longitudinal 
raised lines on each side of it, the anterior margin straight. Frontal 
area obsolete, frontal sulcus replaced by a raised line. The frontal 



340 Annals of the South African Museum. 

carinae sinuate, divergent, extending back to the posterior fifth of 
the head. The scrobes are shining, with a few transverse striae ; the 
longitudinal ridge, which divides the scrobe into two parts for the 
reception of the scape and flagellum respectively, does not reach 
the posterior end of the scrobe, the outer half of the scrobe not well 
defined. Eyes large, prominent and very convex, their margins 
angular below, placed in the middle of the sides of the head. The 
scape extends to the posterior fifth of the head ; 1st joint of the 
flagellum twice as long as wide, 2nd-7th joints wider than long. 
Thorax only slightly constricted between the meso- and epinotum, 
thoracic sutures entirely absent. The thorax is convex transversely in 
front and above, and in profile, moderately convex in front. The 
epinotal spines are very acute, directed upwards and outwards, rather 
long, a little longer than the interval between their bases. The brow 
of the declivity, between the spines, is transversely striate ; the 
declivity marginate at the sides, the raised margins continued into the 
short and blunt episternal teeth. First joint of the petiole with 
the peduncle half as long as the node. The latter, seen from above, 
has the anterior margin almost semicircular, the posterior margin 
moderately convex ; it is three-fifths wider than long. The 2nd node 
is transversely oval, very convex from front to back, a little wider than 
the 1st node, and twice as wide as long. Abdomen one-quarter longer 
than wide, the sides not very convex. 

Matopo Hills, S. Rhodesia. (S.A.M., R.M., G.A. colls.), type in 
my collection. 

This species is allied to gabonensis, Andre, and mucidus, Forel 
From the former it differs by its smaller size, colour, the shape of the 
1st node and the divided scrobes ; from mucidus it differs by the 
straight anterior margin of the clypeus, by the angulated lower 
margin of the eye, by the deep scrobes, the shining head and thoi'ax, 
and by the hairs, which are all trifid, not divided into six or more 
branches as in mucidus. Quite distinct from Eminii and Rothschildi, 
Forel. 

T. Hepburni, n. sp. 

^ . 2"3-2 - 8 mm. Colour as in Constanciae. Pilosity whitish, 
trifid, less dense than in Constanciae, particularly on the head. Sculp- 
ture of the head and thorax as in that species, but the reticulations a 
little closer. The nodes of the petiole reticulate, the 2nd not less 
strongly than the 1st. Abdomen shining, very sparsely but distinctly 
punctured, the punctures on the basal fourth shallow and foveiform. 
Head a little longer than wide, hardly narrowed in front, the hind 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 341 

margin more convex than in Constanciae. The thorax is narrower 
posteriorly than in that species, the width across the brow of the 
declivity being a little less than half the width across the anterior 
angles of the pronotum (much more than half in Constanciae). 
Epinotal teeth small and triangular, not longer than their basal width, 
slightly divergent. The 1st node of the petiole, seen from above, is 
transversely oval, one and a half times wider than long, the anterior 
margin not more convex than the posterior, not semicircular as in 
Constanciae. The 2nd node similar to that of Constanciae, transversely 
elliptical, almost twice as wide as long, not quite one-fifth wider than 
the 1st. Seen in profile, the pro-mesonotal portion of the thorax is 
much less convex than in Constanciae. Otherwise like that species. 

$ . 3 - 6 mm. Pronotum very short in front, more exposed at the 
lateral angles. Mesonotum longitudinally rugose, slightly convex in 
front, flat posteriorly. Scutellum moderately convex. The sculpture, 
especially on the abdomen, is a little stronger than in the <J . Wings 
tinged with yellow, nervures and stigma pale brownish-yellow. Other- 
wise like the ^ . 

$ . 3 mm. Black legs, antennae and mandibles dirty yellow, 
femora brownish-yellow. Pilose hairs trifid, much less abundant but 
longer than in the $ . Mesonotum very sparsely pilose. The hairs 
on the head short, not branched. Head slightly shining, reticulate- 
rugose. Mesonotum smooth and shining. Scutellum and nodes 
slightly shining and feebly rugose. Epinotum unevenly reticulate- 
rusfose and dull. Abdomen smooth and shining. 

Head subquadrate, about as long as wide, the posterior angles 
widely rounded, the posterior margin convex, higher behind than in 
front. Eyes large, occupying about one-thh-d of the sides, placed a 
little in front of the middle ; ocelli small. Scapes a little longer than 
the 2nd joint of the flagellum. Mesonotum very convex in its anterior 
half, somewhat flattened above posteriorly. Mesonotum and scutellum 
much higher than the epinotum. The latter is unarmed, and its upper 
surface forms a continuous and steep slope from base to apex, the 
dorsum and declivity not differentiated. The 1st node, including its 
articular portion behind, as long as wide, much narrower than in 
the $ ; 2nd node transversely oval, one-quarter wider than the 1st, half 
as wide again as long. Wings as in the $ . 

Hillside, Bulawayo; Matopo Hills, S. Rhodesia. (S.A.M., E.M. ? 
Gr.A. colls.), types in my collection. 

This species, like the foregoing, has been found by me only on the 
granite and syenite formations. The Hillside locality, near Bulawayo' 
is a syenite area, which rises like a small island out of the surrounding 



342 Annals of the South African Museum. 

schists. This area harbours not a few species, which, as far as my ex- 
perience goes, are never to be found on the schist formation. Such are 
the two species just described, and also Gamponotus mystaceus, Emery, 
Acantholepis longinoda, n. sp., Meranojilus sjnninodis, n. sp., etc. 



T. Maeleyi, Forel. 
Bull. Soc. Yaud. Sc. Nat., vol. 50, p. 221, £ , 1914. 

$ . 2 - 5-3 mm. Brown, the abdomen darker, the legs brown, the 
antennae, mandibles, and tarsi ferruginous. Densely clothed with a 
white pilosity, not very long, consisting of hairs divided into 3, 4, or 
more branches. The pilosity is less abundant on the legs and scapes. 
Head, thorax, and 1st node closely reticulate, the rugae on the head 
emphasised longitudinally. The spaces between the reticulations 
feebly shining. Abdomen smooth and shining, very sparsely and 
finely punctured, except near the base, which is more strongly punc- 
tured. Second node of petiole only with large and shallow punctures. 

Head, excluding the mandibles, as long as wide, or with the man- 
dibles as long as the thorax, only a little narrower in front than 
behind. The antennal scrobe is almost obsolete. The scapes do not 
extend back quite as far as the occipital margin. Anterior margin of 
the clypeus straight or feebly convex. Mandibles sharply striated, 
finely and sparsely punctured, with three distinct teeth in front. 
Eyes large, convex, placed in the middle of the sides of the head. 
Thorax not very convex transversely, more so longitudinally, the 
anterior angles rounded, the anterior face less convex than in Gon- 
stanciae. The thorax is slightly constricted between the meso- and 
epinotal regions, twice as wide across the shoulders of the pronotum as 
it is between the epinotal spines. The latter are short, very little 
longer than they are wide at the base. Peduncle of the petiole half as 
long as its node. The latter is distinctly higher than the 2nd, the 
sides and the anterior dorsal margin convex, the posterior margin and 
face straight, nearly twice as wide as long ; the dorsal surface convex 
transversely. The 2nd node is almost three times wider than long, 
one-third wider than the 1st node, the posterior margin more convex 
than the anterior. All the femora moderately swollen in the middle. 

Durban and Krantz Kloof, Natal (H. W. Marley). (S.A.M., R.M., 
G.A. colls.) 

This species differs from all the others in our region by the very 
wide 2nd node. 



I 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 343 

T. ustezula.e, Forel. 
Bull. Soc. Vaiid. Sc. Nat., vol. 50, p. 221, $ , <?, 1914. 

^ . 2 - 8-3"2 mm. Very similar to T. Hepburni, but larger. In 
colour and pilosity like Marleyi. Head, thorax and nodes reticulate, 
the sculpture emphasised longitudinally. Abdomen shining, sparsely 
and evenly punctured, fairly closely punctured at the base. 

Head feebly narrowed in front, almost quadrate, slightly longer than 
wide, the sides feebly convex, the posterior margin straight." Man- 
dibles shining, striated and punctured, with 3 distinct teeth in front, 
and 3 smaller and less acute teeth behind. Distinct scrobes present, 
smooth and shining, divided by a longitudinal ridge into two halves. 
The scrobes and scapes extend back to the posterior fourth of the head. 
The thorax is similar to that of Marleyi, but a little longer in 
proportion to the width. The epinotal spines are a trifle longer than 
in Marleyi, longer than their basal width. The peduncle of the 
petiole is a little shorter than the node ; the latter, seen from above, 
is oval, the anterior face hardly more convex than the posterior, not 
quite twice as wide as long, not higher than the 2nd node. The latter 
as long as the 1st, not quite twice as wide as long, a little wider than 
the 1st, and seen from above, also oval. 

<$ . 4*2 mm. Colour and pilosity as in the ^ , except the man- 
dibles, antennae, tibiae and tarsi, which are pale brownish-yellow ; the 
hairs on the abdomen are mostly simple. Head, pronotum, sides of 
epinotum and the nodes feebly reticulate. Mesonotum shining, 
sparsely punctured, also with a few feeble longitudinal lines. Dorsum 
of epinotum longitudinally striate. Abdomen smooth and shining. 
Mandibles with 5 small teeth. Head quadrate, the posterior angles 
rounded, very slightly convex above. Eyes large, occupying the 
anterior third of the sides. The scapes extend back as far as the 
posterior ocelli ; 2nd joint of flagellum three times as long as the 1st, 
shorter than the scape. Thorax much wider and higher than the head, 
the pronotum not visible from above. The dorsum of the epinotum is 
more than twice as long as the declivity, and ends in two blunt ridges 
or tubercles. Nodes of petiole shorter than in the- ^ , the peduncle of 
the 1st node longer. Wings pale dirty yellow, nervures yellow. The 
petiole is much shorter and lower than in desertorum, Forel. The 
epinotum in the latter is rounded, not angular. 

Beach Bush, Durban ; nesting in sand dunes. (S.A.M., R.M., Gr.A. 
colls.) 



344 Annals of the South African Museum. 

T. desertorum, Forel. 
Schultze, Eeise Siid-Afrika, vol. 4, p. 20, 9 , <$ , 1910. 

" 9 • 3 - 3 mm. Mandibles fairly shining, densely punctured. Cly- 
peus carinate, moderately emarginate. Head quadrangular, as wide as 
long, feebly concave behind, distinctly narrowed in front. There is a 
scrobe for the whole of the scape, with a feebly rugose floor ; pos- 
teriorly the scrobe curves round and forms the beginning of a flat 
depression, behind the eye, for the base of the flagellum. The large 
eyes, placed a little behind the middle of the head, occupy one-third of 
the sides. The scape, like its scrobe, extends back to the posterior 
fourth of the head; 2nd-7th joints of the flagellum much wider than 
long. Thorax nearly as wide as the head. Mesonotum flat above. 
Epinotum with two strong, triangular and almost spinose teeth 
(slightly longer than their basal width), the dorsum a little longer 
than the declivity. First node with a fairly short peduncle ; both 
nodes rounded above and at the sides, about one and three-quarter 
times wider than long, the 2nd node one-third to one-half wider than 
the 1st. No episternal teeth, only a curved ridge. Coarsely and 
longitudinally rugose (including the epinotum above), coarsely reticu- 
late between the rugae ; the petiole and some places in part only 
coarsely reticulate or reticulate-punctate, barely shining. Abdomen 
and legs smooth, but with fairly abundant piligerous punctures. The 
whole body, including the femora, abundantly clothed with a short, 
woolly pilosity of 3-5 branched hairs. On the tibiae and scapes the 
hairs are oblique, almost decumbent, and mostly simple. Red-brown 
to brownish-red ; abdomen bi'own. Tarsi, tibiae, flagellum and man- 
dibles brownish-yellow-red. Wings not long, faintly tinged with 
yellow, almost hyaline, with pale nervures and costa. 

"(J. 3 - 2-3 - 4mm. Mandibles 6-dentate, shining. Clypeus arched, 
feebly emarginate. Head quadrangular but rounded, as wide as long. 
Eyes not large. The scape does not reach the occipital margin. 
Second joint of the flagellum two and a half times longer than the 1st, 
and not quite as long as the scape. Epinotum with two tubercles ; 
nodes more angular than in the 9 > otherwise similar. Head coarsely, 
petiole more finely reticulate ; epinotum and sides of thorax coarsely 
and longitudinally rugose, the rest smooth, sparsely punctured. Hairs 
on the body mostly bifid or trifid, or simple. Legs and antennae only 
with an almost decumbent pilosity. Fairly dark brown ; antennae, 
mandibles and legs yellowish, femora brownish. Wings as in the 9 . 

"Between Kgokong and Kang, Kalahari (Schultze)." 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 345 

Subgenus XIPHOMYRMEX, Forel. 
Mitth. Schweiz. Ent. Ges., vol. 7, p. 385, 1887. 
Characters. 

$ and $. Antennae 11-jointed; antennal scrobes usually well 
denned. 

Nodes generally squamiform. 
$ . Antennae 10-jointed. 

Key to the ^ £ of Xiphomyrmex. 

(2) 1. Mandibles tridentate ; 1st node not squamiform, fossulatum, Forel. 
(1) 2. Mandibles with 5 or more teeth ; 1st node more or less squamiform. 
(4) 3. Promesonotum smooth. Humbloti, Forel, var. victorensis, Forel. 

(3) 4. Promesonotum coarsely rugoso-reticulate. Weitzaeckeri, Emery. 

T. (xiphomyrmex) Weitzaeckeri, Emery. 
Ann. Soc. Ent., France, vol. 63, p. 39, £ , 1895. 

^ . 3"5-38 mm. Dark brown, the abdomen piceous, legs and 
scapes light brown, flagellum, tarsi, and mandibles more or less dark 
brownish-yellow. Shining, especially the abdomen. Pubescence short 
and very scanty, present only on the legs and antennae. Pilosity 
rather sparse, composed of pale yellowish and erect hairs, abruptly 
truncate at the apex. Head longitudinally and strongly striate or 
striato-rugose between the frontal carinae, coarsely reticulate-rugose 
at the sides. Thorax very coarsely reticulate-rugose, the rugae empha- 
sised longitudinally. The spaces between the striae and rugae finely 
reticulate, more distinctly so on the head than on the thorax. 
Declivity of the epinotum, the nodes and abdomen smooth and shining, 
the latter very polished. The 1st node has three impressed lines on 
the dorsal surface, the outer ones oblique. 

Head as long as wide, very little narrower in front than behind, the 
posterior margin nearly straight, the sides feebly convex, very convex 
above transversely. Eyes fairly large, placed in the middle of the 
sides. Frontal carinae divergent, prolonged backwards as strong 
ridges almost to the occipital margin, curving outwards and forwards 
at their posterior extremity. The floor of the demiscrobes finely 
reticulate only. Clypeus with a strong median carina, which is 
usually forked at its anterior end ; the anterior margin feebly excised 
in the middle. Scapes as long as the sci obes ; the flagellum stout, 
2nd-7th joints wider than long, the club fairly thick, longer than the 
rest of the flagellum. Mandibles very finely striate, armed with 6 or 
7 rather broad teeth. Dorsum of thorax obtusely marginate at the 



346 Annals of the South African Museum. 

sides, slightly narrowed between the pro- and mesonotum, very much 
more so between the meso- and epinotum. Pro-mesonotal suture 
obsolete, the meso-epinotal wide but not very deep. Thorax one and 
a half times longer than it is wide in front, twice as wide in front as 
it is between the epinotal spines, fairly convex above lengthwise, 
particularly the pronotum. Epinotal spines divergent, acute, directed 
obliquely upwards, as long as the dorsum of the epinotum, much 
longer than their basal width, and longer than the interval between 
their bases. Episternal teeth small and triangular, hardly one-third 
as long as the epinotal. Declivity subvertical, 1st segment of petiole 
with the peduncle longer than the node ; the latter squamiform, longer 
vertically than it is wide, thinner at the sides than at the summit, 
the anterior and posterior face's vertical, inclined slightly forwards. 
Second node lenticular, the anterior and posterior faces meeting above 
acutely, slightly wider than the 1st node, and nearly twice as wide as 
it is long. Abdomen subglobose, a little longer than wide. Femora 
moderately swollen. 

$ (hitherto undescribed). 4 mm. Piceous. Thorax wider 
than the head. Pronotum coarsely reticulate-rugose, the shoulders 
subangular. Anterior margin of mesonotum very convex. Meso- 
notum, scutellum, and epinotum strongly and longitudinally striate ; 
the striae on the epinotum do not quite reach the bottom of the 
declivity. Epinotal spines horizontal, less divergent than in the ^ . 
Wings hyaline, nervures and stigma pale yellow. 

In the largest specimens of the $ the sculpture is stronger and 
closer, and the spines are directed more steeply upwards, but the 
existence of forms intermediate in size and sculpture precludes their 
separation as a distinct variety. 

Redbank, S. Rhodesia ; Durban (3 - 4-3 - 5 mm.) ; Bulawayo (3 - 6 
mm.) ; Hope Fountain, S. Rhodesia (3"8 mm.). 

This species forms largely large nests under stones. It preys to a 
great extent on termites, and also attends aphides and scale-insects on 
plants. 

(S.A.M., R.M., G.A. colls.) 

T. (xiphomyrmex) Humbloti, Forel, var. Victoriensis, Forel. 

Grrandidier Hist. Madagasc. 20, p. 154, 1891. 
(Variety) Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. 120, $, 1913. 

$ . 3"2-38 mm. Piceous, head slightly reddish, legs, mandibles, 
and antennae ferruginous. Not unlike Weitzaeckeri, differing from it 
in the following characters : 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 347 

The head is dull and much more finely striate, the stria,e becoming 
effaced towards the occiput ; the spaces between the striae are very 
densely and finely rugulose or reticulate. The mandibles are more 
strongly striate. The pro-mesonotal suture is faintly indicated, the 
meso-epinotal suture well defined and deep. The pro-mesonotum is 
smooth and shining, except the margins, which are feebly punctured. 
The pronotum has a rounded boss on each side at the posterior corners. 
The dorsum of the epinotum is depressed, more or less excavated, 
sparsely and finely reticulate, sparsely rugose at the sides. The 
epinotal spines are less oblique than in Weitzaeclceri. The summit of 
the 1st node is more convex transversely and lengthwise, and lacks the 
impressed lines present in the other species. The 2nd node is also 
more convex and thicker above, the anterior and posterior faces being 
separated by a convex dorsal face (this is actually only a continuation 
in the horizontal direction of the anterior face). In the smaller forms 
(taken from a different nest to that of the larger), the sculpture 
extends partly over the mesonotum. 

$ (hitherto undescribed). 45 mm. Thorax paler than in the 9, 
more castaneous brown. Pronotum widely exposed above at the 
shoulders, which are rounded. Mesonotum smooth and shining in its 
anterior third, the posterior two-thirds longitudinally striate ; the 
scutellum very shallowly striate. Epinotum longitudinally striate at 
the sides and in the middle of the dorsum ; the latter very steep, 
almost in the same plane as the declivity. Epinotal spines horizontal, 
stouter and less divergent than in the ^ . Nodes thinner and wider. 
Wings tinged with brownish-yellow, nervures and stigma pale yellow. 
Otherwise like the ^ . 

d (hitherto undescribed). 4'4 mm. Head brownish-black, the 
area in front of the eyes dirty yellow. Thorax and nodes dark reddish- 
brown, the sides of the scutellum, the clathrate groove between the 
latter and the mesonotum, and the metanotum dark yellow. Abdomen 
piceous. Legs, antennae, and mandibles pale yellow, the femora 
slightly fuscous. Head and sides of the epinotum dull, the rest of the 
body shining. Head closely and finely reticulate, with a few striae 
radiating from the ocellar area. Mesonotum smooth, except in the 
middle behind the forks of the Mayrian furrows, where it is shallowly 
and longitudinally striate. Scutellum feebly striate, a space in the 
middle smooth. Epinotum very finely reticulate, feebly striate at the 
sides ; the dorsum is as long as the declivity and has a median 
A-shaped excavation with a dentiform ridge on each side of the same. 
The 1st node of the petiole more or less cuneiform, the posterior-dorsal 
face as long as wide ; the 2nd node is half as wide again as the 1st, 



348 Annals of the South African Museum. 

one-third wider than long, the dorsal surface much flatter than in the 
$ , the posterior half of the sides parallel. The eyes are large and 
occupy the anterior half of the sides of the head. The scape extends 
bach as far as the anterior ocellus, and is a little shorter than the 2nd 
joint of the flagellum. 

Victoria Falls, nesting in very moist and rotten wood, and under moss. 
(S.A.M., K.M., G.A. colls.) 

T. (xiphomyrmex) possulatum, Forel. (Plate VII, figs. 107, 109) 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 54, p. 428, $ , 1910. 

^ . 2*2-2"7 mm. Castaneous, thorax, nodes, and base of abdomen 
paler, more yellowish-brown. Legs, antennae, and mandibles yellowish- 
brown. Pubescence very sparse, present only on the antennae and 
tibiae. Pilose hairs absent, except on the clypeus. Entirely smooth 
and shining. Head and thorax sparsely and irregulaidy punctured 
with wide and shallow pits, more sparsely on the thorax than on the 
head, the latter almost impunctate anteriorly. Head, excluding the 
mandibles, a little wider than long, feebly narrowed in front and 
behind, the posterior margin straight. Eyes large, placed in the 
middle of the sides. Frontal carinae widely divergent behind, pro- 
longed back as sharp ridges to the posterior fourth of the head, 
forming distinct demiscrobes which are smooth and deep, and hold the 
basal three-fourths of the scapes. The basal half of the scrobe is 
delimited below by "a longitudinal ridge. Clypeus short, the anterior 
margin denticulate, carinate in the middle, the carina extending back 
over the well defined and triangular frontal area. Mandibles smooth, 
sparsely punctured, tridentate, the anterior pair of teeth close together 
and separated from the third tooth by a wide space. Scapes extending 
back as far as the occipital margin, 2ud-7th joints of the flagellum 
wider than long, the club thick. Thorax as wide in front as it is long, 
flat above, except the pronotal shoulders, which are depressed. The 
pronotum bears an angular prominence, somewhat obtuse, on each side 
behind the middle. Pro-mesonotal suture feebly indicated ; the meso- 
epinotal obsolete above. Dorsum of epinotum impunctate, quadrate, 
submarginate. Epinotal spines long, divergent, acute, as long as the 
interval between their bases, directed steeply upwards. Episternuin 
with a small rounded lobe on each side. Declivity marginate at the 
sides. First node of the petiole cuneiform, with a vertical anterior 
face, and a horizontal dorsal face, the margin between the two faces 
rounded, the peduncle very short, hardly differentiated from the node. 
Second node rectangular, wider than long, as long as and a little wider 



A Monograph oj the Forniicidae of South Africa. 349 

than the 1st node ; seen from the side, the anterior face is convex, the 
dorsal face shorter than the anterior. Abdomen round. Femora and 
tibiae rather swollen. 

Willbrook, Natal. (Wroughton.) 

This species is quite unlike our other two, and is easily recognised 
by the form of the mandibles, the clypeus, the peculiar puncturation , 
and the compact form. 

(Gk A. coll., ex B.M. coll.) 

Subgenus DECAMORIUM, Forel. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. 121, 1913. 

Characters. 

^ and ? . Antennae 10-jointed. Lateral ridges of the clypeus 
obsolete. Tibiae and femora very strongly swollen. Scrobes well 
defined and deep. 

$ . Antennae 10-jointed. 

T. (Decamorjum) Decem, Forel. (Plate VIII, tig. 111.) 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. 121, £ , 1913. 

£ . 3-3 - 5 mm. Head, thorax, and nodes castaneous brown, the 
head, especially the anterior half, lighter; nodes darker. Abdomen 
piceous. Legs, antennae, and mandibles dark yellowish -red, the 
femora somewhat brownish-red. Pilosity and pubescence almost 
entirely absent, excepting a very short and sparse pubescence on the 
legs and antennae. Very shining, sides of epinotum slightly dull. 
Head, dorsum of thorax, and the nodes sparsely, irregularly, but 
deeply punctured ; the sides and front of the head, excepting the 
clypeus and the sides of the mesothorax, longitudinally rugose. 
Sides of epinotum closely reticulate-punctate, the declivity transversely 
striate. The sides of the prothorax and the mesosterna smooth and 
shining. The apical half of the dorsum of the epinotum rugulose 
Nodes sparsely punctured, also the abdomen, but much more finely so. 

Head rectangular, parallel-sided, excluding the mandibles almost 
one-third longer than wide, the posterior margin slightly concave in 
the middle. Eyes large, placed in the middle of the sides. Frontal 
carinae wide apart in front, moderately divergent for a short distance 
behind the clypeus, thence parallel and prolonged back to the posterior 
seventh of the head, forming the upper boundary of a deep and smooth 
scrobe. Scapes curved near the base, broad, flattened, not reaching 



o 

50 Annals of the South African Museum. 

the extremity of the scrobe ; 2nd-8th joints of the flagellum wider 
than long, the 2nd-6th almost half as wide again as long, the apical 
joint one-third longer than wide. The flagellum is rather thick and 
short, not much longer than the scape. Median area of clypeus 
almost vertical in front, the anterior margin feebly emarginate in the 
middle. Mandibles curved, smooth and shining, very finely and 
sparsely punctured, armed with 5 widely spaced teeth ; between the 
posterior pair of teeth there are 2 or 3 denticles. Thorax narrower 
than the head; pro-mesonotal suture faintly indicated, nieso-epinotal 
deep. Pro-mesonotum feebly convex longitudinally and transversely, 
one-third longer than wide in front. Shoulders of pronotum slightly 
rounded, almost rectangular. Dorsum of epinotum moderately convex 
lengthwise, one and a half times longer than wide ; epinotal teeth 
short, triangular, shorter than the interval between their bases, very 
slightly divergent, directed obliquely upwards. Declivity of epinotum 
a little shorter than the dorsum, vertical, sharply marginate at the 
sides. Episternal teeth shorter than the epinotal, wider than long. 
Peduncle of the petiole shorter than the node ; the latter narrow and 
high, one-fourth longer than wide, the anterior and posterior faces 
subvertical, the dorsal face strongly convex. Second node semi- 
circular, widest behind, two thirds wider than the 1st, and a little 
wider than long, the sides oblique and convex. Abdomen oval, nearly 
one-half as long again as wide. Tibiae and femora strongly swollen 
and slightly flattened from front to bach. 

9 (hitherto undescribed). 4-4T mm. Very similar to the Q . 
Eyes hardly larger than in that sex, ocelli small. Pronotum narrowly 
exposed above in the middle, widely so at the sides, the shoulders as 
in the $ . The lateral margins of the pro- and mesonotum almost 
parallel as far as the tegulae. Mesonotum sparsely and strongly 
punctured, flattened. First node a little shorter than in the £ . Wings 
slightly fuscous, nervures pale brownish-yellow. Otherwise like 
the g. 

£ (hitherto undescribed). 37 mm. Black, the apical half of the 
abdomen dirty brownish-yellow, tarsi pale yellow, the rest of the legs 
pale brown, antennae and mandibles yellow. Head subopaque, closely 
rugulose. Epinotum and sides of the thorax, and the posterior half 
of the 1st node more or less rugulose and reticulate, nitidulous. The 
mesonotum and scutellum sparsely and strongly punctured, also 
faintly striate in parts. Abdomen smooth and shining. Head high 
behind and vertically truncate behind the ocelli, the brow of the 
truncation rounded ; the posterior margin is continued round the 
sides as a trenchant ridge, so that the posterior angles, looked at from 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 351 

above, appear almost dentiform. Head about as long as wide across 
the eyes. The latter large, occupying the anterior half of the head, 
but not touching the base of the mandibles. The scapes extend back 
almost as far as the anterior ocellus, a little shorter than the 2nd joint 
of the flagellum. Anterior half of meson otum very convex trans- 
versely and lengthwise ; Mayrian furrows fairly deep in front. 
Dorsum of epinotum oblique, at least twice as long as the declivity, 
merging gradually into the latter. Peduncle of the petiole with a 
blunt prominence below, at the extreme base ; the node depressed and 
narrow, its anterior and posterior faces forming an obtuse angle when 
seen in profile. Second node campaniform, narrowed in front, about 
as long as it is wide behind. Legs thin. Wings as in the $ • 

Nesting in sandy soil, and forming fairly populous communities ; a 
very slow and timid insect. 

Redbank, Nyamandhlovu, and Hillside, Bulawayo, S. Rhodesia ; 
Hartley, S. Rhodesia (H. B. Maufe). The latter are much darker, 
almost brownish -black, but otherwise similar. (S.A.M., R.M., Gr.A. 
colls.) 

Var. ultob, Forel. 
Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr. Beiheft, p. 217, $ , 1913. 

^ . 2 , 7-3 , l mm. Very similar to the type of the species but 
smaller. The 2nd node is narrower, as long as wide. The colour is 
darker, and the puncturation much more scanty and finer. The 1st 
node is not so high as in the type species, and the epinotal teeth are 
shorter, not longer than their basal width. 

Shiloh, S. Rhodesia. Nesting near and in the nests of Paltothyreus 
tarsatus. (R.M., Gr.A. colls.) 

Genus RHOPTROMYRMEX, Mayr. 
Ann. K.K.N.H. Mus. Wien., vol. 16, p. 18, 1901. 

haracters. 

^ . Antennae 12-jointed ; maxillary palpi 3-jointed, labial palpi 
2 jointed. Head wider behind than in front, the sides convex. 
Frontal carinae short ; scrobes entirely absent. Thorax short and 
stout ; epinotum armed or unarmed (unarmed in all our species) . 
First segment of petiole usually strongly compressed transversely, at 
least in the anterior half, deeper than wide, the peduncle generally 
indistinct. Second node globose or much wider than long, and 
much wider than the 1st. Femora not swollen. 

23 



352 Annals of the South African Museum. 

? . Antennae 12-jointed. Somewhat slender and having the facies 
of the $ sex. The four known £ 9 of this genus differ- so greatly in 
general features that I am unable to define the generic characters 
for this sex. Mayr's definition for this sex applies only to 
globulinodis. 

$ {globulinodis). Antennae 10-jointed, the 2nd joint of the 
flagellum long, as in Tetramorium. For the rest, see description 
below. 

/ 
Key to the ty $ of Rhoptromyrmex. 

(4) 1. Second node of petiole much wider than long. 

(3) 2. Posterior margin of the head distinctly concave ; meso-epinotal suture 
feeble ; smaller species, 3-3'3 mm. . . . transversinodis, Mayr. 
(2) 3. Posterior margin of the head straight or nearly so ; meso-epinotal 
suture well denned although shallow ; larger species, 3'4-3"9 mm. 

Steini, Forel. 
(1) 4. Second node of petiole not much wider than long, subglobose. 

globulinodis, Mayr. 

E. globulinodis, Mayr. 
Ann. K.K.N.H. Mus. Wien, vol. 16, pp. 18-22, £ , $ , S > 1901. 

£ . 3-3 - 3 mm. Pale reddish-brown, the mandibles, legs and 
antennae brighter, more yellowish-red. Pubescence decumbent, very 
scanty, a little longer and more abundant on the legs and antennae 
than elsewhere. Pilose hairs absent. Smooth and very shining. 
Head very sparsely and finely punctured, the anterior angles finely 
and longitudinally striate ; the striae end at about the level of the 
anterior margin of the eyes, and a few striae curve round the antennal 
sockets. Just behind the clypeus, and bordering the basal portion of 
the frontal carinae, there are also some short and fine striae. The rest 
of the head, the pro-mesonotum, nodes and abdomen smooth. On the 
head and pro-mesonotum a microscopic and very shallow rugulosity is 
noticeable in some lights. Sides of the thorax, and the epinotum very 
finely rugulose, duller than the rest. 

Head, excluding the mandibles, very little longer than wide, the 
sides convex, the posterior margin fairly deeply concave, not much 
narrower in front than behind, concave above, flat below. Eyes not 
large, placed in the middle of the sides. Frontal carinae hardly 
divergent, not extending back quite as far as the middle of the vertex. 
Clvpeus rather flat, the anterior margin moderately convex, not 
carinate. Frontal area shallow, indistinct. Mandibles smooth and 
shining, the external margin convex, the masticatory margin den- 



A Monograph of the Formicirtae of South Africa. 353 

ticulate, with a large tooth at the apex. Scape extending back a little 
beyond the posterior fifth of the bead, 3rd— 8 th joints of the flagellum 
wider than long, the 3-jointed club not very thick, longer than the rest 
of the flagellum. Anterior margin of pronotum convex, the shoulders 
very round. Pro-iuesonotal suture very feeble or obsolete. Thorax 
strongly constricted between the meso- and epinotum, the meso- 
epinotal suture narrow and distinct. The mesonotum has a shallow 
and transverse impression in the middle. The dorsum and declivity of 
the epinotum, seen in profile, form a continuous and low curve ; the 
declivity marginate at the sides, the raised margins being continued 
over the dorsum almost to its base ; the dorsum a little longer than 
the declivity. 

The 1st node is much longer from above to below (i. e. deeper) than 
it is wide above, compressed and almost lamelliform. The nodal 
portion of the segment, seen from above, is nearly hemispherical, 
narrower in front than behind, as long as wide behind. Second node 
more or less transversely oval, or subglobose, a little wider than long, 
wider than the 1st. Abdomen oval. 

9 ■ 3 - 5 mm. Brown, mandibles, antennae and legs paler. Pilosity 
abundant, composed of long and short hairs intermixed. Antennae, 
legs, sides and vertex of head finely pubescent. The hairs on the 
abdomen are exserted and very long, shorter and less abundant on the 
thorax. On each side of the head, behind and between the eyes and 
the median line, there is a very smooth and shining area, which is 
tumid in the middle. The rest of the head finelv striate, except the 
clypeus, which is smooth, and the posterior and lateral margins above, 
Avhich are strongly but sparsely punctured. Thorax above strongly 
and sparsely punctured, the posterior half of the mesonotum almost 
impunctate. Pronotum closely and fairly finely striate lengthwise, 
sides of epinotum sparsely striate and punctate, the punctures large. 
Nodes and abdomen ' smooth and shining, finely and very sparsely 
punctured. 

Head high in the middle, sloping steeply downwards on each side of 
a longitudinal median area which extends from the clypeus to the 
posterior ocelli ; behind the latter it is also fairly steep. The head is 
wider just in front of the eyes than it is behind them or across? the 
clypeal portion, the occipital margin deeply emarginate, more angularly 
so than in the £ , the lateral angles rounded. Eyes placed a little in 
front of the middle of the sides. Ocelli small and close together ; for 
a short distance in front of the anterior ocellus there is a smooth and 
shining depression. Frontal carinae subparallel, extending back as far 
as the posterior ocelli. The scapes extend back ecpually as far. The 



354 Annals of the South African Museum. 

thorax is very compressed, as though it had been held on each side and 
pinched. It is therefore narrow above and much deeper than wide, the 
sides almost vertical. The pronotum is barely visible from above. 
The mesonotum and scutellum ;ilmost flat, except in front and behind, 
where they are slightly curved downwards. Seen from above, their 
outline forms an ellipse, the major axis of which is two and a third 
times longer than the minor. Dorsum of epinotum obsolete, the upper 
surface of the epinotum forming a steep and continuous line from base 
to apex, This upper surface is margined at the sides by a longitudinal 
ridge, excavated between them, more shallowly so above than below. 
The petiole resembles that of the ^ > bu.t. is narrower and longer. 
Seen from above, the 1st segment is pyriform, with a long stalk in 
front ; the 2nd node campaniform, widest behind, and a little longer 
than wide. Abdomen narrowed towards the base, the basal margin 
concave. The 1st segment forms mox-e than half the abdomen, and 
has above a semi-oval and flattened or depressed area. Wings with 1 
cubital cell and 1 discoidal, the radial cell open. 

The above descriptions of the ^ and £ are drawn up from speci- 
mens lent to me by Dr. Brauns, who originally discovered the species. 

" $ . 3 - 5 mm. Shining, brown, the mandibles, antennae and legs 
yellow, coxae and femora more yellowish-brown. The pilosity much 
less abundant than in the $ . Mandibles and also the head fairly 
smooth, the cheeks with a few longitudinal striae, the sides of the 
head behind the eyes fairly finely and longitudinally rugulose. The 
pronotum and the lateral margins of the mesonotum in front of 
the tegulae finely rugose, mesonotum otherwise smooth ; the scutellum 
finely and longitudinally rugose, with a more or less distinct longi- 
tudinal groove ; the epinotum finely reticulate rugose. Wings as in 
the $ . The smooth petiole like that of the Q , but the 1st node is 
lower. Abdomen smooth. . . . Mandibles as in the $ and ? , 
but narrower. The head, including the mandibles, is more or less 
pentagonal, the apex of the closed mandibles, the eyes and the 
posterior corners forming the rounded angles. The clypeus is mode- 
rately arched and arcuately produced in front, wide behind, not 
prolonged far back between the frontal carinae, the lateral portions 
having an angular posterior edge opposite the antennal sockets. 
Frontal carinae short, parallel and narrow, the sockets of the antennae 
being freely exposed. Antennae 10-jointed, the scape extending back 
almost to the posterior ocelli ; the fiagellum fairly long, the 1st joint 
about twice as long as wide, the 2nd three times as long as the 1st, the 
succeeding joints all longer than wide (in three out of the four 
examples in my possession, the 2nd joint is more or less fused with the 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 355 

3rd). Eyes moderately large, placed in the anterior half of the head. 
Behind the eyes the head is gradually narrowed towards the posterior 
angles, the posterior margin above truncate (hardly concave), dis- 
tinctly and arcuately emarginate below and at the occipital foramen. 
Thorax unarmed, the mesonotum not overhanging the pronotum in 
front. The Mayrian furrows become less distinct before the middle of 
the mesonotum and before their point of junction. In front of, and 
parallel to the posterior margin of the mesonotum, there is a curved 
transverse impression, which is probably present in the living insect, 
even if not so deep. The scutellum is fairly strongly convex length- 
wise, higher than the mesonotum, less rounded behind than in Tetra- 
■morium. The dorsum of the epinotum is long and fairly narrow, with 
a median longitudinal groove, oblique, merging arcuately into the 
much more inclined declivity ; the latter marginate at the sides, the 
margins becoming stronger below. Wings as in the $ . Legs thin 
and fairly long. Petiole as in the 9 • Port Elizabeth (Dr. H. 
Brauns)." 

R. transversinodis, Mayr. (Plate VIII, figs. 112, 112a, 113, 113a,) 
Ann. K.K.N.H. Mus. Wien, vol. 16, p. 22, £ , 1901. 

£ t 3 mm. Brownish-ochreous ; the tarsi, mandibles, and flagellum 
more reddish-yellow. Smooth and very shining. Sparsely and ex- 
ceedingly finely punctured, the pubescent hairs arising from the 
punctures. Under a low magnification practically impunctate. 
Pubescence adpressed and very scanty, more abundant on the abdomen 
than on the head and thorax, longer and denser on the legs and 
antennae. The anterior angles of the head, between the eyes and 
antennal sockets, finely striate, much more finely so than in globuli- 
nodis. Very similar to that species, differing from it chiefly in the 
following characters : 

The sides of the head are much more convex, the portion in front 
of the eyes narrowing gradually towards the clypeus. The posterior 
margin more deeply and widely emarginate, the posterior angles 
more prominent. The eyes are placed a little behind the middle of 
the sides. Frontal carinae shorter, wider apart and more divergent. 
Thoracic sutures faintly indicated above at the sides, obsolete in the 
middle. The mesonotum lacks the transverse impression which is 
present in globulinodis, and, seen in profile, the dorsum is not depressed 
between the meso- and epinotum. The chief distinction lies in the 
shape of the petiole. The 1st segment, seen in profile, has a short 
and vertical posterior face ; the dorsal face is convex and passes 



356 Annals of the South African Museum. 

arcuately into the almost vertical anterior face. Seen, from above, 
the nodal portion is much narrower, a little longer or as long as wide, 
the whole segment appearing gradually clavate. The 2nd segment is 
fairly convex lengthwise, much less so transversely, transversely oval, 
slightly more than twice as wide as long, and quite two and three- 
quarter times wider than the 1st. 

$ (hitherto undescribed). 34-3'5 mm. Brownish-black; the 
apical half of the abdomen paler, legs brown, paler at the articu- 
lations ; tarsi and flagellum ochreous, mandibles reddish-brown. 
Shinins;, the abdomen and nodes a little less shiniiiLf than the head 
and thorax. Club of antenna and the last two tarsal joints 
pubescent, the rest of the body entirely glabrous. The sculpture is 
very distinctive and remarkable. It consists of elongate, elliptical, 
and shallow pits, which have a silvery reflection, and give a false 
impression of containing flattened scale-like hairs, like those of 
Tetramorium setuliferum. However, under a high magnification 
(100 diameters) it can be seen that such scale-hairs are absent, the 
silvery appearance being due to the shape of the pits and their 
polished surfaces. This puncturation is fairly dense and regular on 
the head and abdomen, larger and more scanty on the thorax. It also 
extends over the legs and antennae, the pits becoming increasingly 
more abundant, narrower, and longer towards the apices of those 
parts, and near the ends of the limbs bearing fine, flattened, pubescent 
hairs. 

Head much higher behind than in front, very convex lengthwise, 
the posterior margin widely concave, the posterior angles rounded 
and projecting prominently outwards and backwards. The vertex is 
narrow and convex transversely, not flat, as in globulinodis $ ; the 
sides very steep, much more so than in globulinodis, and shallowly 
concave above the posterior angles. Seen from above, the sides of the 
head, from the posterior angles forwards to the eyes, are straight or 
even a little concave, in front of the eyes moderately convex. The 
eyes are fairly large, placed a little in front of the middle of the sides 
of the head. Ocelli smaller than in globulinodis. Frontal carinae 
wide apart, short, not extending beyond the antennal sockets. 
Anterior margin of clypeus moderately convex ; frontal area shallow 
and equilateral. Mandibles very convex externally, the masticatory 
margin denticulate, with a larger apical tooth. The scape extends 
back about as far as the anterior ocellus. Mesonotum and scutellum 
flat transversely, nearly so longitudinally. The outline of the two 
parts together, seen fi*om above, is roughly oval, one and three-fifths 
longer than wide. The posterior half of the scutellum slopes down- 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 357 

wards and is concave transversely. The margins of the mesonotum, 
in front and at the sides, are rounded and project a little over the 
vertical sides and front of the pronotum. The sides of the meso- and 
epithorax are also vertical. The epinotum is very deeply excavated 
from near its base above to its apex below, in such a way as to leave 
a narrow wall on each side. Seen from above, only the edges of the 
walls can be seen, so that the epinotum appears almost bispinose- 
The declivity is margined by the downward continuation of the walls 
and is vertical (in globulinodis the dorsum and declivity are oblique, 
and only feebly marginate at the sides). 

* First segment of the petiole very strongly compressed laterally, 
almost lamelliform except at the lower half behind, where it is a little 
wider. It is produced downwards and is deeper behind than in front, 
quite one and a half times deeper than long. Its dorsal surface is 
rounded transversely, very narrow, almost linear. The 2nd segment 
four times wider than long, and at least four times wider than the 1st, 
the anterior margin concave, narrower behind than in front. Basal 
half of the 1st abdominal segment depressed in the middle, the lateral 
angles thereby rendered prominent and forming a more or less elongate 
tubercle at each corner. Abdomen ovate, not much longer than wide, 
rather flat above. 'Wings hyaline, nervures very pale. 

The structure of the nodes and epinotum may be made more apparent 
by reference to the figures on Plate VIII. 

Port Elizabeth and Bothaville (Dr. H. Brauns) ; Pretoria, $ £ 
and 9 $ (C. K. Brain) ; type of the $ in my collection. (S.A.M., 
E.M., G-.A. colls.) 

R. Steint, Forel. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol.' 57, p. 122, £ , 1913. 

5 . 3 "4-3 • 9 mm. Dark yellowish-brown, the posterior half of the 
head and the thorax darker, legs, antennae, and mandibles paler, the 
latter and the flagellum somewhat reddish. Very similar to trans- 
versinodis, but larger and darker, differing from it also in the following 
characters : 

Very finely and sparsely punctured, the head also very finely 
rugulose. The pubescence longer and a little more abundant. The 
sides of the head are much more convex, the posterior margin less 
emarginate, the posterior angles less prominent and wider. Pro- 
mesonotal suture obsolete, the meso-epinotal well defined. The 
dorsum of the epinotum is proportionately longer and more convex 
lengthwise, passing into the declivity by a much shorter and less 
oblique curve than in transversinodis. The 1st segment of the petiole, 



358 Annals of the South African Museum. 

seen from above, is much wider, more pyriform than clavate ; the 
nodal portion is a little wider than long. The 2nd node is trans- 
versely oval, two and a half times wider than long and about twice 
as wide as the widest part of the 1st, hardly thinner at the sides than 
in the middle. 

Ladismith, Cape Prov. (Dr. H. Brauns.) (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. 
colls.) 



Genus TETEAMYEMA, Forel. 
Eev. Suisse Zool., vol. 20, p. 766, 1912. 

Characters 

^ . Antennae 12-jointed, club 3- or 4-jointed. Frontal carinae 
divergent, short, not forming scrobes. Lateral portions of the clypeus 
not ridged posteriorly, the median area more or less trapezoidal, pro- 
duced fairly far back between the frontal carinae. Frontal area dis- 
tinct. Mandibles triangular, 5-dentate. Thorax unarmed ; the sutures 
visible but feeble. First node of petiole pedunculate, both nodes 
large and round. Femora thin at the base, moderately swollen from 
the basal fourth onwards. 

$ . Antennae 12-jointed. Ergatoid. Eyes larger than in the £ . 
Ocelli absent. A more or less distinct scutellum present. Nodes 
wider and less convex above. Abdomen dilated, larger than in the 
$ . Pilose (pilosity absent in the ^ )• 

<$ . Unknown. 

T. Bratjnsi, Forel. (Plate VII, fig. 86.) 

Loc. cit., p. 767, £ . 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. 122, $ , 1913. 

^ . 5-6 mm. Black, thorax, nodes, and mandibles dark red, the 
nodes darkest, the bases of the femora and tibiae dark rusty red. 
Tarsi and antennae with a sparse and decumbent pubescence, the rest 
of the body glabrous. Subopaque. Head, thorax, and nodes coarsely 
rugoso-reticulate, the rugae emphasised longitudinally on the head 
and pro-mesonotum ; on the nodes and epinotum the sculpture is 
finer and closer, although still fairly coarse. The spaces between the 
rugae is finely reticulate. Abdomen very finely, closely, and longi- 
tudinally striate, also partly reticulate. Legs and scapes sparsely 
punctate. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 359 

Head rectangular, a little longer than wide, slightly narrower in 
front than behind, the posterior angles rounded, the posterior margin 
moderately convex, the sides almost straight. Eyes fairly large, 
placed just in front of the middle of the sides. Median area of 
the clypeus longitudinally striate, somewhat produced in front, the 
anterior margin straight, with a longitudinal and shallow impression 
in the middle. Mandibles sharply striate and sparsely punctured, 
armed with 5 large and obtuse teeth, the external margin feebly 
convex. Frontal carinae not extending back beyond the level of the 
anterior margin of the eyes. Frontal area triangular, depressed, and 
shining. Scapes not quite reaching the posterior margin of the head ; 
4th-7th joints of the flagellum as wide as long, all the rest longer 
than wide. The wide pronotum has a distinct neck in front, the 
anterior margin above the latter very convex. In most specimens the 
pro-mesonal suture is very feeble, almost obsolete. The thorax is 
widest across the posterior third of the pronotum, behind that point it 
narrows gradually towards the meso-epinotal suture. Epinotum 
rounded. The dorsum of the thorax, seen in profile, forms two 
rounded bosses or convexities which are separated by a deep depression 
at the meso-epinotal suture. Epinotum unarmed, the dorsum widest 
in the middle, as long as the declivity, the latter not very steep, 
strongly and transversely rugose ; an episternal lobe on each side 
below. Peduncle of the petiole ending in a small tooth below. The 
1st node twice as long as its peduncle, subglobose, as wide as long, the 
anterior face nearly vertical. Second node wider than the 1st, nearly 
half as wide again as long, highest behind the middle, the sides 
rounded. Abdomen oval, truncate at the base. 

§ . 6-5-7 mm. Ergatoid or pseudogyne. A fairly abundant 
pilosity is present, composed of pale, thin, erect, and whitish hairs. 
Abdomen and legs with a decumbent and fairly sparse pubescence. 
Eyes a little larger than in the $ . Thoracic sutures more distinct ; a 
scutellar portion of the mesonotum faintly defined. Dorsum of epi- 
notum impressed transversely in the middle, the junction with the 
declivity more abrupt than in the $ ; these features are somewhat 
masked by the very coarse sculpture. Declivity wider than in the $ . 
Nodes and abdomen wider than in the £ , the former rather less convex 
above. The sculpture is even more coarse, and the rugae on the head 
iliverge outwards towards the lateral angles behind. Otherwise like 
the $. 

Willowmore, Cape Prov. (Dr. H. Brauns.) (S.A.M., R.M., G. A. 
colls.), type of $ in my collection. 



360 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Tribe MERANOPLINI, Emery. 

Including the following S. African genera : Galyptomyrmex, Emery ; 
Meranoplus, Smith ; and Dicroapsis, Emery. 

Genus GALYPTOMYRMEX, Emery. 

Ann. Mus. Civ., Genoa, vol. 25, p. 147, 1887. 
Eorel, Mitth. N.H. Mus., Hamburg, vol. 18, p. 50, $ , $, 1901. 

Characters. 

^ . Antennae 12-jointed, club 3-jointed, 2nd-8tb joints of flagellum 
much wider than long. Scape thin at the base, flattened and dilated 
over the apical two-thirds. Clypeus narrow, the median area vertically 
truncate in front, the brow of the truncation strongly bidendate. 
Frontal cariuae strong, with very deep and complete scrobes below. 
Eyes small. Pro-mesonotal suture obsolete, the meso-epinotal distinct 
Thorax stout and short, the niesonotum feebly bidendate behind, the 
epinotum oblique, much lower than the mesonotum, also feebly biden- 
tate. Petiole pedunculate anteriorly, both nodes transversely oval. 
Abdomen round, the 1st segment forming the whole of the dorsal 
surface. Pilosity partly composed of spatulate hairs. 

The above characters of the £ refer only to our single species, C. 
Arnoldi, Eorel. 

" $ . This sex, as exemplified in C. Schraderi, Eorel, an Australian 
species, does not differ much from the £ . The eyes are rather small, 
the pronotum somewhat truncate iu front, the epinotum bidentate. 
The thorax is not quite so wide as the head. The pilosity consists of 
spatulate and clavate hairs, as in the £ . 

" g . Wings as in Meranoplus, 1 cubital and 1 discoidal cell, the 
stigma large and round, the radial cell open. Head relatively large, 
convex behind. Clypeus with lateral carinae, without teeth. Frontal 
carinae of the usual form, not forming scrobes." Mayrian furrows 
pi'esent on the mesonotum. Nodes of petiole more or less round. 

C. Arnoldi, Forel. (Plate VIII, figs. 114, 114a.) 

(Dicroaspis), Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. 115, $, 1913. 

^ • 2 - 6 mm. Reddish-brown, the thorax and nodes darker, more 
dark brown. Legs, antennae, and mandibles reddish-yellow. The 
colour is somewhat masked by the pilosity, which is of an ochreous 
colour, and consists of short clavate and spatulate hairs. The former 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 361 

are erect, and are mainly confined to the margins of the frontal carinae 
and the legs (the shape of these and of the spatulate hairs is the 
same- as in Strumigenys, see Plate VIII, figs. 114nr, 117a and b). Head 
fairly closely and longitudinally rugose on the anterior half, becoming 
more reticulate-rugose on the posterior half, the spaces between the 
rugae finely reticulate, the scrobes very shallowly and very finely 
reticulate, almost smooth. Pro-mesonotum coarsely rugoso-reticulate, 
the spaces between more finely reticulate or rugulose. Epinotum, 
sides Of thorax, and nodes finely and closely reticulate-punctate. 
Abdomen alutaceous, faintly shining, the rest of the body dull. 

Head trapezoidal, considerably narrowed in front, the posterior 
angles widely rounded, the posterior margin straight or slightlv 
convex. Frontal carinae widely divergent, dilated horizontally 
outwards, extending back as far as the posterior fourth of the head, 
where they curve downwards and then continue forwards as a fine 
line, forming the upper and lower margins respectively of deep and 
wide scrobes, which receive the whole of the folded scape and 
flagellum. The clypeus is narrow and projects forwards, its upper 
surface is depressed, slanting downwards, feebly carinate in the 
middle. The corners of the anterior margin of the upper surface are 
produced into sharp teeth, the space between the teeth strongly con- 
cave. Below the teeth, the front of the clypeus is vertical or --even 
inclined slightly inwards, convex transversely. The teeth of the 
clypeus, seen from above, project well beyond the middle of the closed 
mandibles. The latter closely striate, sparsely punctured, armed with 
two sharp apical teeth, the rest of the masticatory margin merely 
denticulate. Frontal area triangular and shining. Eyes composed 
of about 10 or 12 facets, placed behind the middle of the sides and 
below the scrobe. . Scape widened and flattened over the apical two- 
thirds ; 2nd-8th joints of the flagellum very short, at least three times 
wider than long, the club acuminate, four-fifths longer than the rest 
of the flagellum. Pro-mesonotum wide, narrowed behind, as wide in 
front as it is long ; pronotal shoulders narrowly rounded, prominent ; 
posterior margin of mesonotum furnished with a small tooth on each 
side (these are not easily seen, being partly obscured by the spatulate 
hairs). Dorsum of epinotum nearly flat, quadrate, as wide as long, 
very oblique, armed with two small, pointed, and triangular teeth. 
The declivity a little shorter than the dorsum, fairly steep, marginate 
at the sides, with an episternal lobe on each side below. The 
peduncle of the petiole is as long as the node. The latter two-thirds 
wider than long, rounded above, the anterior and posterior faces 
vertical, the posterior face feebly convex transversely and concave 



362 Annals of the South African Museum. 

from above to below. Seen from above, the node is transversely oval. 
Second node also transversely oval, as wide as the 1st, two-thirds 
wider than long, the ventral surface armed with a small tooth on each 
side in front. Abdomen truncate in front, the sides very convex, a 
little longer than wide. 

Bulawayo, under stones, very rare. Occasionally found singly in 
nests of Ponerine ants, where its presence is probably accidental. I 
have never found more than half a dozen together in one place. It is 
a very slow moving ant, and on account of its colour not easily seen 
even at close quarters. The 2nd-8th joints of the flagellum are so 
exceedingly short that they can be resolved only under a magnification 
of at least 80 diameters, and it is therefore not surprising that this 
species was originally placed by Dr. Forel under Dicroaspis. 

(S.A.M., E.M., G-.A. colls.) " 

Genus DICKOASPIS, Emery. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 52, p. 185, 1908. 

Characters. 

$ . Antennae 11-jointed, club 3-jointed, the scape swollen near the 
middle. Clypeus as in Calyptomyrmex Arnoldi. Deep scrobes present. 
Head much narrower in front than behind, more or less triangular. 
Pro-mesonotal suture absent, meso-epinotal distinct. Epinotum armed 
with two small teeth. Abdomen much longer than wide, as in the 
genus Qaiaulacus. Spatulate hairs usually present. 

9 . Scutellum overhanging the epinotum. Nodes wider and 
abdomen longer than in the $ . Otherwise similar, except the usual 
sexual diffei'ences in the structure of the thorax, etc 

< D. claviseta., Santschi. 

Goteborgs Kungl. Vetenst. och Vitterh. Handl. XV, 2, p. 27, 5 , 1914. 

" $ . 2 mm. Brownish-red. Head and dorsum of thorax darker. 
Abdomen blackish-brown. Dull. Head and pro-mesonotum coarsely 
and longitudinally rugose. The rugae are slightly divergent towards 
the back of the head, and convergent behind on the thorax. The 
spaces between the rugae are more finely rugose and covered with 
large punctures, shining at the bottom, each one giving rise to an 
erect clavate hair. The sides of the thorax, the epinotum and both 
nodes finely reticulate and punctate. On the thorax and abdomen the 
clavate hairs are fairly long and outstanding, also erect but shorter on 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 363 

the head, very short and oblique on the legs. Pubescence indistinct 
on the body, abundant on the antennae, sparse on the legs. Head a 
little longer than wide, the hind margin feebly emarginate, the 
posterior angles rounded ; the sides straight, converging towards the 
mouth. Eyes placed in the middle of the sides, composed of 8 or 
9 facets (3 to 4 along the diameter). Clypeus reticulate, fairly 
shining, subvertical, produced forwards into a bidentate lobe strongly 
emarginate in the middle. Frontal carinae as in D. cryptocerus, Emery, 
widely but shallowly emarginate in the middle of the sides. Mandibles 
smooth, feebly punctured, fairly shining, with 2 apical teeth, 
followed by 4 or 5 denticles. Scape cylindrical, slightly dilated in the 
apical half. First joint of the flagellum as long as the four following 
joints taken together ; 2nd-6th joints three times wider than long. 
Last joint of the club longer than the two preceding united, the latter 
shorter than wide. Front of the pronotum transverse, the sides con- 
vergent behind, submarginate and only feebly arcuate. Dorsum of 
the epinotum strongly marginate, concave transversely, one-third 
longer than wide and one-third longer than the declivity. The angles 
of the epinotum armed with a small tooth. First node nearly twice 
as wide as long or as high, convex above, the two faces vertical, the 
anterior face almost as long as the peduncle, the upper margin of the 
latter very oblique in front. Second node transversely oval, half as 
wide again as the 1st, nearly twice as wide as long. Much wider and 
more convex above than below, furnished below with a blunt tooth. 
Abdomen ovoid, slightly dilated in front." 
Pietermaritzburg (Traegaordh). 



Genus MERANOPLUS, Smith. 
Trans. Ent. Soc. London, series 2, p. 224, 1854. 

Characters. 

^ . Antennae 9-jointed, the club 3-jointed, the scape swollen in 
the apical half. Distinct and deep scrobes present, receiving the 
whole of the folded antennae. Eyes prominent and convex. Head 
usually very steep in front. Frontal carinae wide apart, divergent, 
prolonged backwards as the upper boundaries of the scrobes. Thorax 
generally short ; the pro-mesonotum forms a siugle disc, and over- 
hangs the epinotum behind. The anterior and posterior angles of the 
pro-mesonotum usually bidentate or bispinose. Epinotum vertical or 
very steep, generally bispinose, sometimes unarmed, the dorsum and 
declivity not differentiated, the upper surface of the epinotum forming 



364 Annals of the South African Museum. 

a single plane. First node usually cuneiform. Second node cuboid or 
globose. Pilosity long, abundant and woolly. 

$ . Antennae 9-jointed. Pro-mesonotum not spined nor dentate. 
Wings with 1 cubital, 1 discoidal and 1 closed radial cell. 

$ . Antennae 13-jointed, the scape short, the 2nd joint of the 
flagellum not much longer than the scape. Mayrian furrows usually 
well defined. Nodes flattened, not cuneiform, sometimes with the 
anterior angles subdentate. 

The ants of this genus are slow and timid insects, often feigning 
death when handled. The nests of all our S. African species are 
placed in the ground, usually with several entrances, which are 
surrounded by irregular masses of excavated material. As far as my 
observations go, they appear to be mainly carnivoi'ous in their diet, but 
are also fond of sugary substances, and attend aphids and coccids on 
plants. 

y 

Key to the ^ ^ of Meranoplus. 

(4) 1. Epinotum unarmed. 

(3) 2. Posterior margin of mesonotum feebly festooned . inermis, Emery. 

(2) 3. Posterior margin of mesonotum deeply festooned . nanus, Andre. 

( 1 ) 4. Epinotum armed. 

(10) 5. Mesonotum with short teeth at the posterior angles, much shorter 

than the epinotal spines. 

(7) 6. First node of petiole bispinose above . . . spininodis, Arnold. 

(6) 7. First node of petiole unarmed above. 

(9) 8. Lateral margins of pro-mesonotum deeply excised between the pro- 
and mesonotum, strongly lobate on each side of the excision ; head 
longitudinally striate anteriorly .... excisus, Arnold. 

(8) 9. Lateral margins of the pro-mesono'tum feebly excised, hardly lobed 
on each side of the excision ; head reticulate-rugose in front and 
behind ...... . Periugaeyi, Emery. 

(5) 10. Mesonotum spined at the posterior angles, the spines as long as 

those of the epinotum. 

(12) 11. Abdomen dull ........ Simoni, Emery- 

(11) 12. Abdomen more or less shining. 

(14) 13. I'ro-mesonotal sutm*e visible, linear . . var. suturalis, Forel. 

(13) 14. Pro-mesonotal suture obsolete. 

(16) 15. Abdomen very shining ; pro-mesonotum paler than the head and 
abdomen, more or less yellowish-red . var. spring valensis, Arnold. 

(15) 16. Abdomen moderately shining ; thorax as dark as the rest of the 

body, or nearly so . . . . . var. nitidiventris, Mayr. 

I have not seen inermis, Emery, which has the epinotum unarmed, 
like the race nanior, Forel, of nanus, Andre. I have some specimens 
which have been named as this race by Dr. Santschi, but they do not 



A Monograph of the Formiciclae of South Africa. 365 

agree in size with Forel's description, being 2 - 5 mm. long instead of 
P9. The two species, inermis and nanus with its varieties, are 
evidently very closely allied,' and in the circumstances, it appears 
safest to repeat here the authors' original descriptions. 

M. inekmis, Emery. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Trance, vol. 63, p. 41, £ , 1895. 

" ^ . 2-2 - 2 mm. Fuscous, with an abundant but not long pilosity, 
scantier on the legs and thorax than elsewhere ; head and thorax 
coarsely reticulate, less shining thau the abdomen, which with the 
petiole is very shining and punctate; disc of pro-mesonotum trans- 
verse, the anterior angles acute, obtusely 6-lobate posteriorly ; epi- 
notum unarmed ; nodes of petiole cuneiform." 

"Very closely allied to M. nanus, Andre, from which it differs more 
especially by the absence of the epinotal spines. The pro-mesonotum 
is a little shorter, the festoons or lobes of the posterior margin less 
prominent. The sculpture and pubescence are identical. The nodes 
of the petiole are still more squamiform. Makapan (Simon)." 

M. nanus, Andre. 

Eev. d'Ent., 2, p. 55, $ , 1892. 

"£. 2 - 75-3'25 mm. The pro- and mesonotum together form a 
transverse rectangle, much wider than long ; the anterior angles of the 
pronotum acute, the sides straight, separated from the mesonotum by 
narrow and deep lateral excisions, and by a suture which is superficial 
but distinct. Mesonotum shorter than the pronotum and of the same 
width ; its posterior angles are dentiform but blunted, and its pos- 
terior margin bears 4 short, obtuse and triangular teeth, of which 
the two exterior are a little larger than the internal pair. Epinotum 
armed with 2 small, acute and spiniform teeth. Petiole short, its 
two segments having the form of fairly high scales ; the scale of the 
1st segment, seen from the side, cuneiform, the summit very thin ; the 
2nd segment is hardly thicker at the base than at the summit, which 
is less trenchant and rounder. More or less dark reddish-brown, the 
legs and. antennae testaceous, the abdomen nearly black behind. 
Head and thorax fairly shining, fairly strongly reticulate-rugose ; 
clypeus, frontal area and the vertical face of the epinotum nearly 
smooth; 1st abdominal segment I airly coarsely and shallowly retieu- 
late- punctate, the other segments nearly smooth. Pilosity whitish, 
lon<i' and abundant all over. Gaboon." 



366 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Race nanior, Forel. 
Ann. Mus. Nat. Hong., vol. 5, p. 12, £ , 1907. 

" $ . T9 mm. Apart from its smaller size, this form differs from 
the type of the species by its sculpture, which is much more feeble 
everywhere, by the more obtuse lobes or denticulations of the margin 
of the thorax, by the thinner and more squamiform nodes, and by the 
shorter thorax, which is one and three-quarter times wider than long. 
The head is narrower than the thorax (equally wide in the type 
species). Epinotal spines entirely absent, the epinotum being abso- 
lutely unarmed. The woolly and abundant pilosity is a little shorter. 
Mto-ya-kifaru, East Africa." 

Specimens taken near the Victoria Falls have been named for me 
by Dr. Santschi as being of this race. Excepting their greater size, 
they agree well with the above description, but not more so than they 
do with Emery's description of inermis and with his figure of the 
same. Emery does not mention the pro-mesonotal suture, which is 
well defined in these specimens, and ends at each side in a deep pit, 
which appears to have been formed by the fusion of the opposed outer 
angles of a former excision. 

(S.A.M., E.M., GLA. colls.) 

/ 

M. spininodis, n. sp. 

^ . 2 - 7-2 - 9 mm. Head, thorax, and nodes yellowish-brown, 
abdomen dark brown, legs, antennae, and mandibles ochreous -yellow. 
Pilosity pale yellowish, fairly long and abundant. On the legs it is 
short, oblique, and intermixed with a sparse pubescence. Head 
longitudinally rugose, the posterior fourth reticulate. Scrobes deep, 
smooth, and shining, faintly and vertically striate over their posterior 
half. Mandibles longitudinally striate, quadridentate. Thorax and 
2nd node rugoso-reticulate, the reticulations on the node closer and 
finer than on the thorax. Declivity of the epinotum and the 1st node 
smooth and shining. Head and thorax moderately shining between 
the reticulations. Abdomen nitidulous, very finely reticulate or 
alutaceous ; here and there the reticulations are closer and stronger, 
forming more or less rosette-like points. Head as wide behind as 
long, not much narrowed in front, the posterior margin convex, the 
posterior angles sharp. Eyes moderately large, placed behind the 
middle of the sides. The frontal carinae and the scrobes extend 
back as far as and end at the posterior angles. Median area of 
clypeus margined laterally by a raised line or carina, between them 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 367 

are 2 or 3 shorter lines ; the anterior margin is straight, slightly 
produced forwards. Club of antennae as long as the rest of the 
flagellum. Pro-mesonotum nearly one and two-thirds wider than 
long, not much wider in front than behind, only very slightly 
narrowed behind the pronotal region, shallowly incised in front of 
the mesonotal teeth. The latter are fairly acute, subparallel, a little 
longer than their basal width. The epinotal spines are very long, 
quite two and a half times longer than the mesonotal, and two and a 
half times longer than their width at the base, subparallel, acute? 
directed obliquely upwards. They are placed very close to the 
posterior margin of the mesonotum, so that the clathrate space 
between the latter and their bases (i, e. the dorsum of the epinotum) 
is very short. 

First node of petiole cuneiform, the anterior face vertical, the 
posterior face nearly so ; the trenchant dorsal edge of the node bears 
on each side a sharp and vertical spine, a little longer than wide at 
the base. The 1st node is slightly wider than the 2nd. The latter 
is subglobose ; seen from the side it is somewhat flattened above, 
wider above than below, the anterior face inclined forwards, obtusely 
angulated below. Abdomen deeply emarginate at the base at its 
junction with the petiole. 

This is a very distinct species, easily distinguished from all our 
other species by the bispinose 1st node of the petiole and the very 
long epinotal spines. 

Hillside, Bulawayo. The entrance to the nest is a very small hole 
surrounded by a tiny mound of earth. (S.A.M., K.M., Gr.A. colls.) ; 
type in my collection. 

M. excisus, Arnold. 

Proc. Shod. Sc. Asscn., vol. 13, part 3, p„ 29, £ , 1914. 

5 • 3-3-3 mm. Head, thorax, petiole, legs, and antennae yellowish- 
brown, the heal, scape, and club of antenna a little darker, abdomen 
brownish-black. The pilosity is very dense and composed of long 
pale hairs, more abundant than in Simoni-nitidiventris. The legs 
and antennae more sparsely clothed with short and oblique hairs. 
Head and clypeus longitudinally rugose, the spaces between the 
rugosities smooth and slightly shining. Thorax reticulately rugose 
the rugae emphasised longitudinally, the spaces between them 
slightly shining. Face of the 1st node of the petiole smooth and 
shining, the 2nd node reticulate-rugose above. First segment of the 
abdomen shining, very finely rugose and feebly punctured. Legs 
smooth and moderately shining. 

24 



868 Annals of the South African Museum. 

Head very little wider behind than in front, as long as wide. 
Eyes very convex and prominent, placed a little behind the middle of 
the sides. Clypeus subtriangular, wider behind than in front, the 
anterior margin slightly convex, the posterior margin not clearly 
defined. Mandibles longitudinally and sharply striate, armed with 
5 small teeth, the apical tooth subacute and larger than the rest. 
Antennal scrobes smooth and shining, extending back almost to the 
posterior angles of the head. Scapes dilated in the apical half, as 
long as flagellum less the apical joint. First joint of flagellum as 
long as wide, 3rd-5th joints wider than long. The anterior margin 
of the pro-mesonotal disc convex, produced at the anterior corners 
into a sharp angle on each side ; on each side, in the middle, the 
margin of the disc is semicircularly and rather abruptly excised, and 
in front and behind this excision the margin is slightly concave. 
The posterior angles of the disc are produced into 2 small acute 
teeth, which are a little longer than they are wide at the base. 
Between the lateral teeth the posterior margin also bears 2 smaller 
triangular teeth. The epinotuin is margined laterally and pix>duced 
on each side into a sharp spine, which is at least twice as long as it is 
wide at the base. First node of the petiole cuneiform, almost linear 
above, as wide at the base as it is high, the anterior face vertical ; 
2nd node globose, as wide as the 1st. Sides of the thorax and 
epiuotum transversely and sparsely rugose. 

Estcourt, Natal (R. C. Wroughton). (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.).; 
type in my collection. 

M. Peringueyi, Emery. (Plate VIII, figs. .115, 115a.) 

Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital., vol. 18, p. 365, £ , 1886. 

£' . 27-4'2 mm. Black; tarsi and antennae more or less brownish- 
black. Head and' thorax subopaque, nodes and abdomen dull, legs 
slightly shining. Pilosity abundant and woolly, composed of fairly 
long whitish hairs, erect on the body, oblique, less dense and shorter 
on the legs and scapes. Flagellum moderately pubescent. Head, 
thorax, and nodes coarsely reticulate-rugose, the spaces between the 
reticulations slightly shining and roughened ; the rugae more or 
less longitudinal on the head, on the nodes finer and closer. The 
abdomen is ver;y closely and fairly finely reticulate-punctate. Epinotum 
shallowly rugulose and shining above, striate laterally between the 
epinotal spines and the posterior margin of the mesonotum. Sides 
of thorax irregularly and shallowly rugose. 

Head, excluding the mandibles, as long as wide behind, narrowed 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 369 

gradually from back to front, the posterior margin convex, the pos- 
terior angles rounded. Eyes very convex, large, placed behind the 
middle of the sides. Scrobes extend back almost as far as the 
occipital margin, shining and nearly smooth, with a few vertical 
striae posteriorly. Frontal carinae very divergent. Median area of 
clypeus longitudinally rugose, wider behind than in front, the sides 
somewhat raised, the anterior margin convex. Mandibles closely and 
fairly strongly striate, armed with 5 stout teeth. Pro-mesonotum in 
front as wide as the head, one-fifth wider than long, the anterior 
angles acute and dentiform. Lateral margins of pronotum feebly 
concave; there is a slight excision between the pro- and mesonotum, 
the suture obsolete. Mesonotum as long as the pronotum, its lateral 
margins slightly concave, the posterior lateral angles armed with a 
tooth, which is hardly longer than wide at the base ; between the 
lateral teeth, the posterior margin is produced into two much smaller 
and triangular teeth, the space between them concave. Epinotum 
armed with two acute, divergent spines, much longer than their basal 
width, and longer than the mesonotal teeth. The upper face of the 
epinotum is shallowly concave transversely, and nearly vertical. Eirst 
node of petiole cuneiform, the anterior and posterior faces meeting in 
a trenchant edge above, the ventral surface convex and bearing a small 
tooth in front. Second node globose, a trifle longer than wide, not 
wider than the 1st. Abdomen globose, emarginate at the junction 
with the petiole, much wider than the thorax. 

Cape Prov. (Peringuey) ; Willowmore, Cape Prov. (Brauns). 
The specimens from Willowmore measure 4-4 - 2 mm. in length, 
greatly exceeding in size the types of Emery, which measure 27-3'5 
mm. (S.A.M., E.M., G.A. colls.) 

M. Simoni, Emery. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 41, $ , 1895. 

" £ . 3 mm. Fusco-ferruginous, abdomen piceous ; head, dorsum 
of thorax and petiole coarsely reticulate, the abdomen punctulate, dull, 
evenly clothed with a long pilosity ; pre-mesonotal suture obsolete, 
anterior angles of pronotum acutely produced, the posterior margin of 
mesonotum deeply emarginate, with a strong, large and acute spine on 
each side ; epinotum bispinose ; 1st node cuneiform, 2nd node sub- 
globose. Vrijburg (Simon)." 

"In the shape of the thorax the species approaches M. Magrettii, 
Andre, from which it differs more especially by the greater develop- 
ment of the mesonotal teeth, which form strong spines, longer than 



370 Annals of the South African Museum. 

they are wide at the base. Between them, the posterior margin is 
deeply and arcuately emarginate, with a little and deeper excision in 
the middle. The anterior angles of the pronotuni are acute and 
produced forwards ; the lateral margins of the pronotum converge 
gradually and almost in a straight line, from the anterior angles 
backwards to the position of the suture, where they are abruptly 
constricted. The sides of the mesonotum converge in the same way as 
far as the apex of the spines. The head and thorax are very sharply 
reticulate-rugose ; on the head the sculpture tends to form longi- 
tudinal ridges, especially in front, but this arrangement is less 
noticeable than in Magrettii. The surface of the head is, moreover, 
also finely punctulate. The abdomen is very densely punctulate and 
dull, and sprinkled with small piligerous punctures. The hairs are 
long, and all of about the same length." 

Race stjturalis, Forel. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 54, p. 424, £ , 1910. 

" ^ . 3-33 mm. Head and abdomen brown ; thorax, petiole and 
limbs reddish. Clypeus without the 2 very small teeth in front 
which are to be seen in the race nitidiventris, Mayr. The sides of the 
thorax are emarginate between the pro- and mesonotum, and the pro- 
mesonotal suture is visible as a transverse line. Mesonotal spines 
much wider, longer and more robust than in the race nitidiventris, 
longer than the thin spines of the epinotum. Otherwise identical 5 
abdomen shining as in nitidiventris. Natal (Haviland)." 

(S.A.M. coll.) The reticulations on the pro-mesonotum are much 
smaller than in nitidiventris. 

Race nitidiventris, Mayr. 

Ann. K.K.KH. Mus. Wieu, vol. 16, p. 26, £, 1901. 

$ . 3T-3*6 mm. Brownish-black, thorax and nodes dark reddish- 
brown, legs dark brown, bases and apices of the femora and tibiae, the 
tarsi, mandibles and the first five joints of the flagellum paler, more or 
less ferruginous. The anterior three-fourths of the head longitudinally 
rugose, becoming more reticulate posteriorly, the posterior fourth 
reticulate. Epinotum irregularly rugose and partly reticulate between 
the spines and the posterior margin of the mesonotum. Abdomen 
moderately shining, very shallowly, closely and finely reticulate, more 
strougly reticulate over the basal third. The thorax is duller than in 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 371 

the type of the species, but nevertheless fairly shining between the 
reticulations. The posterior margin of the mesonotum lacks the little 
median excision which is present in the type. Meso- and epinotal 
spines equal in length, but the latter are thinner and more acute than 
the former, which are slightly curved upwards at the apex. Otherwise 
like the type of the species, 

$ . 6*1 mm. (hitherto undesci'ibed). Colour as in the £ , but the 
scutellum, epinotum, and petiole more or less dark red or reddish- 
brown. Sculpture like that of the ^ , but the superimposed reticula- 
tions on the base of the. abdomen are stronger than in the $ , and the 
meshes more elongate. Eyes not much larger than in the ^ , the 
ocelli small and depressed. Pronotum very little exposed above in 
the middle, more exposed at the sides, the shoulders subangular. 
Mesonotum moderately convex in front, rather flat behind, one-third 
wider across the tegulae than long. Scutellum subtriangular, the 
sides feebly convex, narrowly rounded behind, projecting somewhat 
over the very short metanotum. Dorsum of epinotum obsolete 
between the teeth. The latter are triangular, acute, as long as wide 
at the base ; the declivity vertical, smooth and shining. Nodes as in 
the $ . Abdomen emarginate at the base, ovoid, longer than wide. 
Wings rather long (the front wing 6 mm. long), tinged with yellow, 
the nervures and stigma brownish-yellow. Otherwise like the $ . 

$ . 5 - 3 mm. (hitherto undescribed). Black, the articulations of 
the legs reddish, the tarsi, antennae and mandibles pale dirty yellow. 
Head, thorax and nodes slightly shining, abdomen very shining. 
Pilosity thinner, less abundant and iess woolly than in the 9 • Head 
and thorax very coarsely reticulate-rugose, the rugae becoming more 
longitudinal on the posterior third of the mesonotum ; epinotum 
longitudinally rugose above, the declivity transversely striate, the sides 
of the thorax and epinotum more or less rugoso-striate. Nodes finely 
striate longitudinally, abdomen smooth except at the extreme base 
round the articulation with the petiole, where it is fan-wise striate. 
Seen from the side, the head is almost angular above at the ocellar 
region, the anterior and posterior surfaces falling steeply downwards 
from that point. The head is wider than long, widest across the eyes, 
the outline behind the eyes almost semicircular. Eyes very large and 
hemispherical, occupying the anterior half of the sides of the head ; 
the ocelli large and prominent. Mandibles small, elongate, with an 
acute apical tooth and minutely denticulate behind. Scapes short, half 
as long as the distance between their sockets and the anterior ocellus ; 
1st joint of flagellum slightly longer than wide, the 3rd and following 
joints all somewhat swollen and thicker at their basal third. Meso- 



372 Annals of the South African Museum. 

notum very convex in front, hiding the pronotum almost entirely from 
above. The scutellum is very convex lengthwise, and is separated 
from the mesonotum by a deep and clathrate groove. Dorsum of 
epinotum very oblique, twice as wide as long, sharply marginate at the 
sides, a little longer than the vertical declivity. Both segments of the 
petiole somewhat flattened dorso-ventrally, wider than deep. The 1st 
segment, seen from above, more or less trapezoidal, almost as long as 
wide in front, convex and widest in front, the anterior lateral angles 
acute and produced. Second segment like the 1st but shorter, the 
anterior margin less convex transversely. First abdominal segment 
widened towards its apex. Wings as in the $ but shorter. Legs 
fairly long and slender. 

S. Rhodesia, fairly common on the granite and schist formations. 
Types of $ and <J in my collection. (S.A.M., E.M., Gr.A. colls.) 

Var. spbingvalensis, n.v. 

5 • 3*1 mm. Head and abdomen very dark brown, the base of the 
latter a little paler. Thorax and nodes yellowish-red. Legs and 
antennae brownish-yellow, the scape and club brown. This variety 
differs from the description of the type of the species only in the 
almost smooth and very shining abdomen. From the race nitidi- 
ventris it may be distinguished by the smaller size, paler thorax, and 
the much thinner epinotal spines. 

Springvale, S. Rhodesia. (S.A.M., R.M., Gr.A. colls.) ; type in my 
collection. 



Tribe DACETINI, Forel. 

Including the following genera : Strumigenys, Smith ; Microdaceton, 
Santschi ; and JEpitritus, Emery. All the species are easily recognised 
by the shape of the head, which is strongly cordate and often deeply 
emarginate behind. 

Genus STRUMIGENYS, Smith. 
Journ. Ent., I, p. 72, 1860. 

Characters. 

£ . Antennae 6-jointed, club 2- jointed and usually much longer 
than the rest of the flagellum. Head coi'date, narrowed considerably 
in front, and higher behind than in front, the posterior margin often 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 373 

deeply emarginate. Mandibles elongate, the internal and external 
margins often much longer than the masticatory, which is generally 
armed with acute teeth. A complete scrobe present. Eyes small and 
placed low down on the sides. Frontal carinae widely divergent' 
forming the upper boundary of the scrobes. Thorax widest in front, 
narrowed laterally and depressed above at the meso-epinotal suture, 
both thoracic sutures more or less defined. Epinotum often bidentate 
or bispinose. Declivity of epinotum often furnished with a foliaceous 
or membranaceous margin on each side. Petiole generally covered, 
at least at the sides, with a spongy mass of material, probably 
formed by a coalescence of spatulate hairs. First segment of petiole 
with the peduncular and nodal portions distinct ; 2nd node wider 
than the 1st, transverse. Abdomen generally very convex below, 
flattened above. Legs fairly long and slender, the middle and 
posterior tibiae without calcaria. Pilosity usually composed of clavate 
and spatulate hairs. 

9 ■ Like the £ , except the usual sexual differences in the structure 
of the thorax. Eyes larger than in the ^ ; ocelli present. Wings 
with an open radial cell and one median cell, the cubital and discoidal 
cells absent. 

$ . Antennae 13- jointed. 

Distribution. Both hemispheres. 

Key to the $ $ of Strumigenys. 

(14) 1. Mandibles distinctly toothed. 

(11) 2. Mandibles armed with 3 or 4 teeth near the apex; all, or at least 

three of them very long, acute and spiniform. 
(10) 3. Mandibles half as long as the head, or very nearly so.* 
(5) 4. Last joint almost twice as long as the rest of the flagellum. 

Traegaordhi, Santschi. 

(4) 5. Last joint not more, or less than one-third longer than the rest of 

the flagellum. 
(7) 6. Sides of the head very convex . . . . irrorata, Santschi- 

(fi) 7. Sides of head not very convex, obliquely rectilinear or slightly con- 
cave in the median third. 
(!») 8. Mesonotum distinctly depressed behind ; dorsum of epinotum hori- 
zontal ......... Arnoldi, Forel. 

(5) 9. Mesonotum not depressed behind, merely feebly convex over its 

whole length ; dorsum of epinotum oblique . Havilandi, Forel. 

(3) 10. Mandibles distinctly less than half the length of the head. 

Havilandi, race Marleyi, Arnold. 

* N.B. — In this key, and in the subsequent descriptions, the head is measured 
along the median line, from the anterior margin of the clypeus to the middle 
of the occipital margin. The measurement of the mandibles excludes the 
portion hidden beneath the clypeus. 



374 Annals of the South African Museum. 

(2) 11. Mandibles with numerous small and distinct teeth, not spiniform. 

(13) 12. Colour dark ochreous; anterior margin of cjypeus shallowly concave ; 

2nd and 3rd joints of flagellum as long as wide . emarginata, Mayr. 

(12) 13. Colour dark yellowish-brown ; anterior margin of clypeus straight ; 

2nd and 3rd joints of flagellum wider than long . transversa, Santschi. 

(1) 14. Mandibles practically edentate, the masticatory margin being very 

long and furnished with minute denticulations which are visible 

only under a very high magnification. 

(16) 15. Pronotum dull, reticulate-punctate. 

Escherichi, Forel, race bocrorum, Santschi. 
(15) 16. Pronotum shining, almost smooth. 
(18) 17. 1*7 mm. long ; dorsum of epinotum flat . . . Simoni, Emery. 

(17) 18. 2 , l-2 , 4 mm. long ; dorsum of epinotum convex. 

Escherichi, race limbata, Forel. 

S. traegaordhi, Santschi. 

Goteborgs Kungl. Vetensk. och Vitterh. Hand! XV, 2, p. 28, £ , 1914. 

" $ . 2 mm. Dark reddish-yellow, sometimes brownish ; the 
middle of the abdomen brown. Mandibles, antennae, and legs 
yellowish. Dull. Reticulate-punctate. The front of the 2nd node 
and the abdomen smooth and shining, except a few striae on the base 
of the latter. Pilosity spatulate, elongate, and abundant, symmetrical 
and oblique on the sides of the head and the inferior margin of the 
scape ; on the latter there are 6 or 7 hairs directed outwards. On the 
thorax there are only short, erect, and truncate hairs, together with 
4 or 6 much longer and clavate hairs ; these occur again more 
abundantly over the whole abdomen. Pubescence fine and more or 
less decumbent, sparse on the head and thorax, more abundant on the 
mandibles, antennae, legs, and abdomen. Head one-fifth longer than 
wide, emarginate behind, the posterior angles widely rounded. Eyes 
with 3 or 4 facets. The scape, very little dilated, reaches the posterior 
fourth of the head, as also the scrobe. Fourth joint of flagellum 
distinctly longer than the ] st ; 2nd and 3rd joints wider than long ; 
5th joint nearly twice as long as the rest of the flagellum. Mandibles 
linear, slightly curved, with 4 teeth, of which 3 are spiniform and 
subequal, 2 apical, and 1 placed at the distal third of the mandibles. 
The 4th tooth is smaller, placed between the innermost and the 
apical pair, separated by a wide interval. Pronotum twice as wide as 
long, marginate and arcuate in front, the anterior angles slightly 
prominent. The pro-mesonotal suture not very distinct. Mesonotum 
constricted and impressed in its middle, its anterior half forming with 
the pronotum a fairly strong convexity. Meso-epinotal suture well 
defined. Dorsum of epinotum marginate, narrower in front than 



A Monograph of tlie Formicidae of South Africa. 375 

behind, and on the same level as the posterior half of the mesonotum. 
Epinotal spines a little longer than their [basal width, as long as 
one-third of the interval between them. Declivity of epinotum con- 
cave, margined at the sides with a band of spongy tissue. First node 
higher and wider than long, rounded at the summit, which, seen from 
above, has a transversely rectangular shape, barely arcuate anteriorly- 
The anterior face is hardly convex, oblique, and a little shorter than 
the dorsal face. Second node twice as wide as long, convex in front, 
nearly straight behind. A spongy mass covers the lower surface and 
also the sides of the petiole. 

" Pietermaritzburg and Sweetwaters, Natal. (Traegaordh)." 

S. irrorata, Santschi. 

Loc. cit., p. 29, ^ • 

" $. 1'5 mm. Eeddish-yellow. Antennae and legs of a paler 
yellow. Finely reticulate-punctate. Dull. Nodes and abdomen 
smooth and shining, except a few striae at the base of the latter, and 
some longitudinal striae on the pronotum. Head clothed with 
spatulate hairs, short and white ; forming a row on the lower margin 
of the scape and directed outwards, also on the margin of the clypeus. 
Pronotum also with spatulate hairs, but less abundant. In addition, 
there are also some long hairs, with or without clavate ends. Man- 
dibles, legs, and antennae fairly pubescent. Head one-sixth longer 
than wide, emarginate behind, the sides very convex. Eyes with 
4 or 5 facets. The scape and its scrobe extend a little beyond the 
posterior fourth of the head, the scape fairly dilated. First and 
4th joints of the flagellum subequal, the 4th wider than the 1st, the 
2nd and 3i*d wider than long, the last joint one-fourth longer than 
the rest of the flagellum. Mandibles linear and moderately curved, 
distinctly shorter than half the length of the head, with 3 long 
teeth feebly incurved above, the 3rd placed at the distal fourth of the 
mandible, the teeth crossing when the mandibles are closed. Pro- 
notum (without the neck) twice as wide as long, marginate and 
arcuate in front, the shoulders rectangular, well defined but obtuse ; 
the sides straight, submarginate and convergent behind. Pro-meso- 
nolal suture distinct, concave behind. Mesonotum twice as long as 
wide in the middle, twice as wide in front as behind, submarginate. 
Epinotum marginate, the dorsum narrower in front, a little longer 
than it is wide behind. Epinotal spines as long as they are wide at 
the base, nearly as long as one-third of the interval between them. 
Declivity margined with a band of spongy tissue. First node 



376 Annals of the South African Museum. 

obtusely angular, wider than long, more convex transversely in front 
than behind. The anterior face straight and inclined, a little shorter 
than the peduncle. Second node two and a half times "wider than 
long, feebly emarginate in front, surrounded by a large mass of spongy 
tissue which extends below the 1st node^ 
"Lake Sibayi, Zululand. (Traegaordh)." 

. S. Arnoldi, Forel. (Plate VIII, figs. 117, llla-d.) 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 57, p. 114, £, 1913. 

$ . 1'8 mm. Reddish-ochreous ; legs, antennae, and mandibles a 
little paler. Head dull, very densely reticulate -punctate. Dorsum 
of thorax and the 1st node subopaque and reticulate-punctate, but 
much more shallowly than the head ; the pronotum longitudinally 
and irregularly striate in addition. Sides of thorax, 2nd node, and 
abdomen smooth and shining. The abdomen with 4 or 5 strong and 
oblique striae on each side of the base, extending beyond the basal 
third of the 1st segment. Legs and scapes closely reticulate-punctate 
and dull. Mandibles rugulose. Pilosity on the head composed of 
whitish-yellow spatulate hairs (see fig. 1176), fairly abundant and 
evenly disposed. A row of 7 hairs, directed outwards, lies on the 
outer margin of each scape. The pilosity of the thorax, nodes, and 
abdomen very sparse and irregular, composed of long clavate hairs 
(see fig. 117a). Femora and tibiae more sparsely pilose, the hairs 
smaller and more decumbent and less distinctly spatulate. Mandibles, 
tarsi, and flagellum with a sparse decumbent pubescence. 

Head, excluding the mandibles, one-fifth longer than wide (or 
including the posterior lateral lobes, two-fifths longer), a little more 
than twice as wide at its greatest width as it is across the anterior 
margin of the clypeus ; fairly convex at the sides over the posterior 
third, almost parallel-sided in front, the posterior margin concave, 
deeply and widely emarginate. Scrobes deep, distinctly margined 
above and below, and divided in the basal half by a strong and 
longitudinal ridge. Eyes small, composed of 4 or 5 facets, placed 
below the lower margin of the scrobe and not visible from above. 
Clypeus triangular, equilateral, the anterior margin straight. Frontal 
carinae convex outwardly above the antennal sockets, thence widely 
divergent. First and 4th joints of the flagellum subequal, 2nd and 
3rd wider than long, 5th joint one-third longer than the rest of the 
flagellum. Mandibles linear, half as long as the head, almost parallel, 
feebly convex externally, armed with 4 long and spiniform teeth. 
Two of these subequal and placed at the apex, the innermost at about 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 377 

the distal third ; between the latter and the apical pair lies a smaller 
tooth. Pronotum submarginate at the sides, feebly carinate in the 
middle, a little longer than wide, the anterior margin very convex 
transversely, sloping downwards and forwards. Pro-mesonotal suture 
obsolete above. Mesonotum longer than wide, the posterior half 
narrower than the anterior and depressed. The dorsum of theepi-. 
notum a little longer than wide, feebly convex lengthwise, merging 
by a short curve into the declivity. The latter is margined on each 
side by a spongy band, which reaches the lower edge of the epinotal 
spines. The latter are longer than their basal width, nearly as long 
as the interval between them. Peduncle of the petiole longer than 
the node ; the latter cuboid, as wide as long, a little wider behind 
than in front. Second node transversely oval, twice as wide as the 
1st, two-thirds wider than long. Both nodes margined behind and 
below (including the peduncle) with spongy tissue, which also extends 
over the sides of the base of the abdomen. Under the 2nd node this 
spongy tissue is deeper than the node itself and covers a spinose 
process. Abdomen flattened above, very convex below. 

Bulawayo. Taken on one occasion only, under a stone and in the 
nest of Bothroponera Krugeri, Forel. Apparently very rare. (E,.M., 
G.A. colls.) 

S. Havilandi, Forel. 

Mitth. Mus. Hamburg, vol. 22, p. 13, £ , 1905. 

" ^ • 2-4-2-6 mm. Mandibles half as long as the head, feebly 
curved outwardly near the base and thence almost straight or barely 
convex, so that a space is left between them which is a little wider 
than the width of the mandible itself. The latter is narrow, at first 
parallel-sided, then gradually attenuated in the apical half, quadri- 
dentate. Two long sharp teeth are placed on the inner margin behind 
the apex. The two apical teeth are long, thin, and widely divergent, 
the upper one longer than the lower. The mandibles are dull, with 
a long, yellowish and adpressed pubescence, and a row of longer and 
outstanding hairs on the inner margin before the apex. Head cordi- 
form, much longer than wide . . . with a feeble semilunar 
emargination posteriorly. Not emarginate laterally. Clypeus wider 
than long, emarginate in front, fairly flat. Frontal carinae dilated 
in front. Scapes curved, feebly spindle shaped. Last joint some- 
what longer than the rest of the flagellum. The anterior part of the 
head, in front of the antennal sockets, transversely rectangular 
much wider than long. Eyes fairly small. Pronotum convex in, 



378 Annals of the South African Museum. 

front, behind which the dorsal profile of the thorax is straight and 
without any emargination. Pro-mesonotal suture indistinct. Meso- 
epinotal suture very clearly defined. Dorsum of the epinotum 
distinctly marginate, about one and one-third times longer than 
wide, a little wider behiud. Epinotal teeth short, about as long as 
two-thirds of the interval between them. Declivity of the epinotum 
with a feeble translucent band on each side. Both nodes wider than 
long, the 2nd twice as wide as the 1st, the latter shorter than its 
peduncle. There is a ribbon of spongy tissue below the 1st segment 
of the petiole, and a mass of the same tissue around the ventral 
projection of the 2nd node. There is very little of it above and 
behind the nodes. Legs fairly long and thin. Sides of thorax, 2nd 
node, and abdomen smooth ; the latter almost without basal striae. 
Head dull, densely reticulate-punctate. All the rest very finely 
reticulate, at the most only slightly shining, in part dull. On the 
dorsum of the thorax the meshes are partly converted into longi- 
tudinal rugae. On the body there is a scanty pilosity composed of 
very short clavate hairs. There is also a row of such hairs on the 
anterior margins of the clypeus and scapes, and along the sides of 
the frontal carinae. Similar clavate hairs, shining and decumbent, 
are plentiful on the head, scanty on the rest of the body. In 
addition, there is a fine adpressed pubescence on the body and the 
limbs, the latter without outstanding pilosity. Rusty yellowish-red. 
The vertex and a cloudy transverse band on the abdomen yellowish- 
brown." 

" Natal, 5300 ft. (Haviland)." 

Eace Marleyi, Arnold. 
Proc. Rhod. Sc. Assn., vol. 13, part 3, p. 31, $ , 1914. 

^ . 2 6 mm. Differs from the type of the species as follows : 
The mandibles are shorter, much less than half as long as the head. 
The head, measured from the anterior margin of the clypeus to the 
apices of the posterior angles, is two and a half times as long as 
the mandibles. The last joint of the flagellum is not longer than 
the rest of the flagellum. The dorsum of the epinotum is slightly 
shining, wider than long. The sides of the thorax are not smooth as 
in the type species, but distinctly reticulate-punctate and dull. The 
base of the abdomen distinctly striate at the sides, the striations 
covering a fan-shaped area. Otherwise like the type. 

Durban. Two specimens in a nest of Pheidole punctulata (H. B. 
Maidey) ; type in my collection. 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 379 

S. EMAEGINATA, Mayr. 

Ann. K.K.KH. Mus. Wien, vol. 16, p. 26, £ , 1901. 

$ . 2-2 - 2 mm. Ochreous ; the abdomen and mandibles slightly 
brownish-yellow. Abdomen and 2nd node moderately shining, the 
rest of the body dull. Head, thorax, excepting the pronotum, dorsum 
of epinotum, and 1st node finely and closely reticulate-punctate ; the 
declivity of the epinotum, the 2nd node, and the abdomen smooth, 
the basal third of the latter strongly and obliquely striate on each 
side (about 6 striae on each side). Head, pro-, and mesonotum 
clothed with curved spatulate hairs, very scantily on the pro- and 
mesonotum, fairly abundantly on the head. Anterior margin of the 
scape with a row of such hairs, directed outwards. The anterior 
margin of the clypeus with a dense row of scale-like hairs. The rest 
of the body very sparsely and irregularly pilose, the hairs fairly long 
and acuminate, not clavate. Legs with adpressed and simple hairs. 
Head not quite half as long again as wide, at its widest point two 
and two-fifths wider than the width of the anterior margin of the 
clypeus, the posterior margin widely and fairly deeply emarginate, not 
very convex at the sides. The scapes and the scrobes do not extend 
back, beyond the eye by a distance greater than the long diameter of 
the latter. The scrobes much shallower than in Arnoldi or Havilandi, 
the upper and lower margins not very clearly defined. First joint of 
the flagellum a little longer and thinner than the 4th, 2nd and 3rd 
joints about as long as wide, 5th joint nearly one-third longer than 
the rest of the flagellum. Eyes fairly large, composed of 20 or more 
facets. Posterior margin of clypeus angular, the anterior margin 
shallowly concave. The mandibles are more than half hidden under 
the clypeus, the exposed apical portion feebly convex externally, the 
internal margin armed with numerous small teeth. The dorsal profile 
of the thorax is almost flat, the pronotum slanting very slightly down- 
wards and forwards, the mesonotum feebly depressed in the middle. 
The pronotum is longer than wide, rounded at the sides and in front, 
faintly striate. Pro-mesouotal suture very feeble, the meso-epinotal 
a little more distinct. Dorsum of epinotum widest between the 
spines, as long as wide. Epiuotal spines long and acute, almost 
parallel, quite as long as the interval between their bases. First 
node, seen from above, more or less hemispherical, rounded and 
narrower in front ; 2nd node twice as wide as long, a little more than 
twice as wide as the 1st, transversely oval or lenticular, the anterior 
margin more convex than the posterior. Abdomen distinctly depressed 
in the middle near the base. Both nodes covered behind and below 



380 Annals of the South African Museum. 

with masses of spongy tissue, very large below the peduncle of the 
1st node. A very narrow band of the same tissue margins each side 
of the vertical declivity of the epinotum. Ventral surface of abdomen 
very convex. 

Port Elizabeth (Brauns). (G-.A. coll.) 

S. transversa, Santschi. 
G-oteborgs Kungl. Vetensk. och Vitterh. Handl., XV, 2, p. 31, £ , 1914. 

" ^ . 2'2 mm. Dark yellowish-brown. Mandibles, antennae and 
legs of a lighter brown. Head covered with curved spatulate hairs. 
A regular fringe of similar hairs borders the clypeus and the lower 
margins of the scapes, but on the latter the five inner hairs are 
directed inwards, and the two outer ones outwards. A few rare hairs 
of the same kind occur on the pronotum. Epinotum and abdomen 
with simple hairs, fairly scanty. Legs, antennae and abdomen pubes- 
cent. Reticulate-punctate and dull. Declivity of the epinotum, 1st 
segment of the petiole and the abdomen smooth and shining, except a 
few striae on the basal fourth of the latter. 

" Head one-quarter longer than wide, emarginate behind. Clypeus 
pentagonal, the anterior margin straight (concave in emarginata, 
Mayr), partly covering the mandibles. The latter denticulate on the 
front half, the exposed part a little shorter than the length of the 
clypeus. First and 4th joints of the flagellum subequal, 2nd and 3rd 
a little wider than long, the 5th as long as the rest of the flagellum. 
Pronotum much wider than long, the anterior margin forming a 
narrower triangle. Pro-mesonotal suture very distinct. Mesonotum 
slightly convex, continued behind on the same level as the dorsum of 
the epinotum, which is marginate and parallel-sided. Epinotal spines 
wide at the base, longer than half the interval between them, slightly 
divergent. Declivity of epinotum concave, margined with spongy 
bands. First node low, the anterior face only slightly oblique, the 
summit rounded and wider than long. Second node twice as wide as 
the 1st, and twice as wide as long, convex. A fairly large spongy 
mass surrounds the nodes. Allied to emarginata, Mayr, from which it 
differs chiefly in the colour and the clypeus. which is not emarginate. 

" Pietermaritzburg (Traegaordh)." 

S. Simoni, Emery. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol. 63, p. 42, £ , 1895. 
" ty . 17 mm. Testaceous, reticulate-punctate, dull, the dorsum of 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 381 

the pronotum shining, 2nd node of petiole and the abdomen smooth 
and very shining. Head elongate, einarginate behind, narrowed in 
front, clypeus convex, arcuate in front, mandibles porrect, the masti- 
catory margin very long and nearly straight from the clypeus to the 
apex, minutely denticulate ; 4th joint of the flagellum hardly shorter 
than the preceding three taken together. Thorax evenly convex over 
' the pro-mesonotum, the dorsum of the epinotum depressed, the spines 
short, the declivity margined with spongy bands. Peduncle of the 1st 
joint of the petiole long, the node subglobose, reticulate ; 2nd node 
transversely ovate and shining. 

" Makapan (Simon)." 

" This species is remarkable on account of the very elongate form of 
the mandibles (the teeth of which are numerous and excessively 
minute). . . . The head, mesonotum, epinotum and the 1st node 
are very closely reticulate-punctate and dull, the rest is shining. 
There are no striae at the base of the abdomen. The spongy appen- 
dage of the petiole is only feebly developed. The head bears some 
small curved and squamiform hairs ; clavate hairs occur only on the 
petiole and abdomen." 

S. Eschbrichi, Forel, race limbata, Forel. (Plate VIII, fig. 118.) 

Zool. Jahrb., vol. 29, p. 261, $ , 1910. 
(Eace) Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr. (Beiheft), p. 222, £, 1913. 

$ . 2"l-24 mm. Dark brownish-red, legs, antennae and mandibles 
dark yellow. Head, meso- and epinotum and 1st node reticulate- 
punctate and dull ; pronotum moderately shining, sparsely and feebly 
striate, narrowly carinate in the middle. Declivity of the epinotum, 
2nd node and abdomen smooth and shining, the latter longitudinally 
striate over the basal third. Pilosity fairly sparse on the head, very 
sparse on the nodes and abdomen, the epinotum glabrous. The 
pilosity consists of clavate hairs, curved and flattened on the head, 
longer and erect elsewhere. The broad spatulate hairs present in the 
other species are absent. The two outermost hairs on the anterior 
margin of the scape are directed outwards, the rest inwards. On the 
thorax there are only two clavate hairs, one on each side of the middle 
of the mesonotum. .Head, measured from the anterior margin of the 
clypeus to the middle of the occipital' margin, very little longer than 
wide, the sides not very convex, the posterior margin fairly deeply but 
not widely einarginate. The scrobes are well defined and fairly deep, 
and with the scapes extend back almost to the end of the posterior 
angles. Frontal carinae prominent. Eyes small, composed of about 



382 Annals of the South African Museum. 

12 facets. Clypeus more or less triangular, the anterior margin 
convex. Mandibles edentate, less than half as long as the head ; their 
external margins converge towards the apex, so that the rnandibles 
form an isosceles triangle with a small space between them at the base. 
First and 4th joints of the flagellum subequal, 2nd and 3rd about as 
long as wide, 5th joint as long as the rest of the flagellum. Pronotum 
wider than long, fairly convex in front and at the sides, the shoulders 
subangular ; pro-mesonotal sutm*e faintly defined. The posterior half 
of the mesonotum rather abruptly depressed ; meso-epinotal suture 
thin but fairly distinct. Dorsum of epinotum a little longer than 
wide, convex transversely and longitudinally over the basal half, 
oblique and flat over the apical half. Epinotum and posterior half of 
mesonotum finely submarginate. Epinotal teeth short, hardly longer 
than their basal width, moderately divergent, directed obliquely 
upwards. A narrow and transparent band margins each side of the 
declivity, starting from the lower side of the teeth. The peduncle of 
the petiole is much longer than the node ; the latter, seen from above, 
a little longer than wide (not including the portion behind, which is 
more or less hidden by spongy tissue), rounded in front and at the 
sides, fairly flat above. Secoud node twice as wide as the 1st, trans- 
versely oval, furnished below with a long perpendicular spine which is 
hidden by spongy tissue. The latter is not plentiful. 

$. 31 mm. (hitherto undescri bed). Eyes larger than in the $, 
occupying about one-fifth of the sides of the head. Ocelli small. 
Shoulders of pronotum subangular, exposed above. Mesonotum higher 
than the pronotum, the anterior margin narrowed in front and 
angular, but with the apex of the angle somewhat rounded, as long as 
it is wide across the tegulae. Scutellum semicircular, nearly half as 
long as the mesonotum, much higher than the dorsum of the epinotum, 
which is steep and wider than long. Epinotal teeth triangular, 
shorter than in the $ . Sides of mesothorax smooth and shining. 
Dorsum of epinotum shorter than the declivity. Peduncle of the 
petiole twice as long as the node ; the latter, seen from above, trans- 
versely rectangular, twice as wide as long. Second node transversely 
oval, two-thirds wider than long, one-third wider than the 1st. The 
spongy tissue occurs as a narrow band on the lower surface of the 
peduncle and also surrounds the 2nd node behind and below. Basal 
third of the abdomen strongly and longitudinally striate. Otherwise 
like the $ . Deiilated. 

Bulawayo, a small nest of about 18 ^ $ under a stone ; Durban, 
$ ^ and $ (H. B. Marley). Type of $ in my collection. (S.A.M., 
R.M., G.A. colls.) 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 383 

Race boeroeum, Santschi. 

(As race of cognata), Bull. Soc. Ent. France, p. 258, £ , 1913. 

Goteborgs Kungl. Vetensk. pen Vitterh. Handl., XV, 2, p. 32, £ , 1914. 

" $ . 2 2 mm. Reddish-yellow, mandibles, antennae and legs paler. 
Basal segment of abdomen tinged with brown in the middle. Pilosity 
as in the type. Sculpture stronger. The pronotum is subopaque and 
more strongly longitudinally striate than in cognata. It is also 
reticulate-punctate and dull, like the rest of the dorsum of the thorax 
and the 1st segment of the petiole. The sides of the thorax, 2nd 
segment of the petiole and the abdomen smooth and shining, the 
abdomen with about 20 striae at the base. Head as in cognata, the 
mandibles hardly shorter. Second and 3rd joints of the flagellum 
distinctly longer than wide. Pronotum with a feeble median carina. 
Ivtesonotum with the anterior angles more prominent, marginate ; the 
dorsum of the epinotum also feebly marginate. Spongy tissue as in 
the type." 

This race is unknown to me in nature. The illustration accompany- 
ing the author's text. shows the mandibles half as long as the head, the 
posterior margin shallowly emarginate, the 5th joint as long as the 
rest of the flagellum. 

" 9 . 2 - 5 mm. Vertex, tegulae and scutellum blackish-brown. The 
rest of the dorsum of the thorax reddish-brown. Second node brown 
like the abdomen, the rest as in the £ • Dull, reticulate-punctate. 
Second node and the abdomen smooth and shining, the base of the 
latter striate as in the $ . . . . Deiilated. 

" Stamford Hill, Natal and Dukudu, Zululand (Traegaordh)." 



Genus MICRODACETON, Santschi. 
Goteborgs Kungl. Vetensk. pch Vitterh. Handl., XV, 2, p. 33, 1914. 

Characters. 

^ • Small insects. Antennae 6-jointed. The lst-4th joints of the 
flagellum subequal and elongate, the 5th forming the club. Head 
cordiform. Mandibles linear, dentate at the apex. JSTo scrobes present. 
The scapes are hidden at the base by the lobes of the frontal carinae. 
Head, thorax and 1st joint of the petiole dentate or spinose. No 
spongy tissue present. 

Distribution. — South Africa. Monotypic. 

25 



384 Annals of the South African Museum. 

M. bxornatum, Santschi. 
Loc. cit. $ • 

" £ . 2'8 mm. Reddish-yellow. Middle of the abdomen tinged 
with brown. Mandibles, antennae, and legs } r ellow. Pubescence very- 
fine and sparse on the body, a little more abundant on the legs and 
antennae. Pilosity absent. Head and thorax coarsely and evenly 
reticulate, with little pits or punctures between the meshes. Both 
nodes and the abdomen veiw finely striolate-rugose and slightly 
shining. Head cordiform, very deeply emarginate behind, a little 
longer than wide, bearing three pairs of teeth as follows : 1. A fairlv 
short spine near the posterior angle. 2. A similar spine placed 
above, at the posterior fourth of the head. 3. A longer spine, external 
to the insertion of the antennae and directed outwards. The eyes, 
placed a little in front of the middle of the sides, are very convex, 
their diameter equalling the length of the 1st joint of the flagellum. 
The scape extends back as far as the posterior fourth of the head. 
Anterior margin of clypeus emarginate in the middle. Mandibles 
linear, two-thirds as long as the head, dilated at the base and ending 
at the apex in three spiniform teeth. , Thorax much narrower than the 
head. Sides of pro-mesonotum rounded, without shoulders in front. 
The pronotum and front of the mesonotum is abruptly and step-like 
depressed towards the meso-epinotal suture, with a tooth at the angles. 
Epinotum marginate, concave transversely, armed with strong spines 
directed outwai-ds and upwards and as long as the dorsum of the 
epinotum. First segment of the petiole with a long peduncle in front, 
the node low and armed with three spines, two lateral ones in front 
and a median one behind. Second segment three times wider than 
long, and three times wider than the 1st, the sides lamelliform, 
emarginate and narrower in front than behind ; the posterior margin 
biconcave. The ventral surface of both nodes unarmed, flattened, and 
without any spongy tissue. Abdomen oval, as wide as the head. 

"Dukudu, Zululand (Traegaordh)." 

Genus EPITEITUS, Emery. 
Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital. I., p. 136, 1869. 

Characters. 

" $ . Head subcordiform, wide behind, narrowed in front, the 
posterior margin emarginate. Clypeus triangular. Mandibles more 
or less elongate and straight, sometimes curved at the apex, without a 
masticatory margin, the inner margin more or less strongly den tic u- 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 385 

late. Labrum acuminate, produced like a beak between the mandibles. 
Maxillary and labial palpi 1-jointed. Antennae 4- jointed, the scape 
fairly short, the last joint of the flagellum oval and very large. Eyes 
small and placed low down at the sides. Thorax wide in front and 
narrowed behind, hardly constricted between the meso- and epinotum, 
the latter bidentate. First segment of petiole pedunculate in front, 
the node sometimes furnished with spongy tissue ; 2nd node very wide, 
transverse, furnished above and at the sides with spongy tissue. 
Abdomen oval, longitudinally striate at the base. Middle and hind 
tibiae without calcaria. 

" $ . Ocelli present, eyes larger than in the ^ . Pronotum exposed 
above, wide, with distinct and obtuse shoulders. Epinotum bidentate. 
A little larger than the ^ . 

" $ . Head longer than wide, narrowed in front of the eyes, 
rounded behind them. Mandibles narrow, feebly arcuate, diminishing 
gradually in width from the base to the apex, and ending in a sharp 
point, edentate. Eyes large and convex, placed in front of the middle 
of the sides. Ocelli of medium size. Antennae 13-jointed, scape very 
short and fairly thick, about as long as the 2nd joint of the flagellum, 
the 1st joint very short, hardly longer than wide, the following joints 
cylindrical and subequal except the last, which is about as long as the 
preceding two together. Thorax short, as high as wide. Mayrian 
furrows feeble. The dorsum and declivity of the epinotum not dis- 
tinctly delimited, the foi'mer unarmed or with only a trace of teeth. 
First joint of petiole subcorneal when seen from the side ; widest 
behind ; 2nd joint low, wide, and transverse. Wings with one cubital 
and a radial cell, discoidal cell absent." 

The above generic characters have been extracted from Andre's 
' Spec. Hymen. Europe,' pp. 402-4, 1883, and, being more complete, are 
reproduced here in preference to Emery's original diagnosis, which is 
based on the $ sex only. 



E. MANDIBTILARIS, Szabo. 

Arch. Zool. Budapest, I., p. 27, £ , 1909. 

Santschi, Groteborgs Kungl. Vetensk. och Vitterh. Handl. XV, 2, 
p. 34, 9 , 1914. 

" 9 • Fuscous testaceous, dull, closely punctured, finely pubescent, 
antennae and legs paler, abdomen shining and finely striate at the 
base, erect hairs sparse and barely clavate. Head broadly subcordi- 

25 § 



386 Annals of the South African Museum. 

form, arcuately emarginate behind between the vertex and occiput. 
Clypeus long, slightly emarginate in front, covering about two-thirds 
of the mandibles. Mandibles subparallel, arcuate apically, armed 
with 7 very acute and unequal teeth. Scape of antenna short, of 
unequal width, its lower margin bearing clavate hairs, 2nd and 3rd 
joints of flagellum (1st and 2nd of flagellum ? G.A.) very small, the 
last joint hardly twice as long as the two preceding together. Disc 
of thorax convex, meso-epinotal suture absent, epinotal spines acute, 
wide at the base, moderately divergent. First segment of the petiole 
pedunculate in front, widening into a node behind, 2nd segment much 
wider but shorter than the 1st, seen from above trapeziform. Both 
nodes furnished at the sides and below with spongy tissue. Length, 
1'5— 1*6 mm. 

" Mto-ya-kifaru, German East Africa." 

" $ . 1*9 mm. Colour and sculpture as in the $ . The striae 
at the base of the abdomen effaced in the middlp. The articulations 
(tegulae ?) of the wings and the vertex slightly brownish. Scutellum 
dull. 

" Stamford Hill, Natal. One $ ." 



Tribe CATAULACINI, Emery. 

Comprising only the following genus : 

Genus CATAULACITS, Smith. 
Trans. Ent. Soc. London, II, p. 225, 1854. 

Characters. 

$ . Antennae 11-jointed, club 3-jointed, the scape curved, dilated 
in the apical half. Well-defined scrobes present, capable of receiving 
the whole of the folded antennae, and placed below and external to the 
eyes (differing therein from all our other Myrmicine genera). The 
very divergent frontal carinae do not border the scrobes except at the 
base of the latter. Margins of the upper surface of the head more or 
less denticulate, the posterior angles more or less dentiform. Clypeus 
triangular, the posterior limits feebly defined. Mandibles rather 
small and stout, armed with 4 or 5 small teeth or edentate. Eyes 
large and rather flat. Margins of pro-mesonotum denticulate ; 
thoracic sutures obsolete. Epinotum armed with broad and dorso- 



A Monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. 387 

ventrally flattened teeth. Nodes of petiole stout, the 1st node usually 
cuboid or somewhat conoid, the dorsal lace sometimes tectiform, the 
ventral surface produced into a laminate process ; 2nd node globose, 
the ventral surface bearing a blunt tubercle in front. Abdomen 
oblong, the sides not very convex, the 1st segment forming the whole 
of the dorsum. Femora and tibiae thick. 

9- Antennae 11-jointed. Abdomen visually more elongate and 
less convex laterally than in the $ . Wings with 1 cubital cell and a 
closed radial cell. Otherwise like the ^ . 

(J. Antennae 11-jointed. Eyes larger than in the 9 > ocelli small. 
Epinotum generally bidentate. Nodes longer than in the 9 • Scrobes 
present as in the $ and 9 • 

I have not drawn up a key to the few species which I have seen, as 
the majority of our species are unknown to me in nature. Moreover, 
a perusal of the literature concerning this genus plainly indicates th;it 
many of the so-called species and races are very closely allied, so much 
so that I believe a study based on more abundant material will later 
on serve to reduce the present number of species to a much smaller 
figure. A marked general uniformity in colour, sculpture, and main 
structural features exists in all our species. They are all black, with 
the scapes, tarsi, and tibiae more or less reddish. In all, the sculpture 
of the head consists of a coarse reticulation ; sometimes the rugae are 
sharp, in other cases flattened or abraded, and are also frequently 
emphasised in the longitudinal direction. The thorax, at least 
anteriorly, is more coarsely reticulate than the head. The nodes are 
very strongly rugose, and the abdomen has a fundamental sculpture 
of very regular and small reticulations. This fundamental sculpture 
also occurs on the head and thorax in the spaces between the larger 
reticulations, but is usually less distinct than on the abdomen. The 
length of the epinotal spines compared with the length of the interval 
between their bases is of some diagnostic value, but their degree of 
divergence is less reliable, being subject to an appreciable degree of 
variation even in examples taken from the same nest. The denticulations 
of the margins of the thorax, and their number, are also somewhat 
variable. The length of the abdomen and the degree of convexity of 
its sides are perfectly useless characters, since a wide range of 
variation exists in the various specimens from one nest, and it is 
thcrofore most regrettable that species have been erected partly on 
such characters. 

All the species of this genus are tree-ants, usually forming medium- 
sized nests in hollow twigs and stems, or more rarely, under the bark. 



388 Annals of the South African Museum. 

They are timid and slow-moving insects, often feigning death or 
dropping rapidly to the ground when disturbed. As Bingham has 
remarked in connection with this genus (Fauna Brit. India, For- 
micidac), these ants have the habit of wandering over the trunks of 
trees and the leaves in what appears to be a very aimless and languid 
manner. I have occasionally seen them breaking open the earthen 
tunnels constructed by termites over the trunks of trees and attack 
the inmates. I have not yet observed any of the species attend- 
ing on aphids or scale insects, although it is quite probable that they 
do so. 

(N.B. — It is usually necessary to use a magnification of not less 
than 35 diameters to appreciate the character of the fundamental 
sculpture.) 



C. batjmi, Forel. 
Mitth. Schweiz. Ent. Ges., vol. 10, p. 304, £ , ? , J, 1901. 

" $ . 4 - 5-4 - 8 mm. Very similar to hararicus, Forel, but the head 
is by no means so much narrowed in front, and the frontal carinae are 
wider. The body is dull ; the sculpture much coarser, reticulate, or 
reticulate-rugose on the head, with almost pit-like and dull meshes, 
coarsely and longitudinally rugose on the thorax and petiole. 
Abdomen fairly finely and evenly rugose longitudinally (more strongly 
so than in hararicus), and also densely reticulate-punctate and dull. 
The femora are black. Otherwise like hararicus and also very similar 
to Johannae, but without the tooth on the head behind. 

" $ . 6 mm. The pits on the head are entirely separated, 
discrete ; duller, narrow, and net-like strands run between them. 
The dull mesonotum is sparsely pitted. B,ugosity of the elongate 
abdomen weaker than i